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Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis.
Protein-energy wasting (PEW), which is manifested by low serum levels of albumin or prealbumin, sarcopenia and weight loss, is one of the strongest predictors of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although PEW might be engendered by non-nutritional conditions, such as inflammation or other comorbidities, the question of causality does not refute the effectiveness of dietary interventions and nutritional support in improving outcomes in patients with CKD. The literature indicates that PEW can be mitigated or corrected with an appropriate diet and enteral nutritional support that targets dietary protein intake. In-center meals or oral supplements provided during dialysis therapy are feasible and inexpensive interventions that might improve survival and quality of life in patients with CKD. Dietary requirements and enteral nutritional support must also be considered in patients with CKD and diabetes mellitus, in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, renal transplant recipients, and in children with CKD. Adjunctive pharmacological therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anabolic hormones, and antioxidative or anti-inflammatory agents, might augment dietary interventions. Intraperitoneal or intradialytic parenteral nutrition should be considered for patients with PEW whenever enteral interventions are not possible or are ineffective. Controlled trials are needed to better assess the effectiveness of in-center meals and oral supplements.
In 1988, Greenberg and colleagues published a large randomized controlled trial to address whether bowel rest could lead to improved disease activity in patients with active Crohn's disease. The results of this study provide substantial evidence that bowel rest is not necessary to achieve remission in patients with active Crohn's disease receiving nutrition support. Before this study, great controversy existed about the use of nutrition support and bowel rest in the treatment of active Crohn's disease because of a limited number of conflicting studies providing evidence for and against its application. The results of the publication by Greenberg et al are fundamental because they helped to settle this important argument. Furthermore, this pivotal paper changed the clinical guidelines for the use of nutrition support in the management of active Crohn's disease. Since the publication of this pivotal article, many developments in the field of nutrition and in the treatment of Crohn's disease have helped validate and further its results. Subsequent studies and debate center on the use of enteral nutrition as primary treatment in patients with active Crohn's disease. Data regarding the efficacy, composition, and overall role of adult enteral nutrition in the management of Crohn's disease are presented. This article revisits the Greenberg paper and discusses some of these innovations in nutrition.
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) can cause syncope that is difficult to treat. We have found that 473 mL (16 oz) of water can increase systolic blood pressure (SBP) by > 30 mm Hg in many OH patients (the gastropressor response). OH patients are routinely advised to increase their sodium intake to augment their blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the ingestion of salt with water would increase the magnitude of the acute pressor response compared with water alone in patients with OH. Patients with OH (n = 9; female = 5; 65+/-3 years) underwent a randomized crossover trial of drinking water (H2O) and salt water (NaCl-H2O). Noninvasive heart rate and BP were measured with the patient seated for > or = 60 minutes after ingestion. The area under the curve for SBP was greater with H2O than NaCl-H2O for the 30 minutes (714+/-388 mm Hg x min versus 364+/-369 mm Hg x min; P = 0.002) and 60 minutes (1454+/-827 mm Hg x min versus 812+/-734 mm Hg x min; P = 0.048) after ingestion. The increase in SBP with H2O was greater than with NaCl-H2O at 30 minutes (37+/-6 versus 18+/-5 mm Hg; P = 0.006) but not at 60 minutes (17+/-6 versus 10+/-6 mm Hg; P = 0.4). Norepinephrine increased after H2O (P = 0.018) but not after NaCl-H2O (P = 0.195). Both oral water and salt water increase BP in patients with OH. Instead of augmenting the gastropressor response, the additional salt paradoxically attenuates the pressor response to water. These data suggest a potentially important role for gastrointestinal osmolality in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system leading to cardiovascular reflexes responsible for the gastropressor response.
The GCN2 eIF2alpha kinase is essential for activation of the general amino acid control pathway in yeast when one or more amino acids become limiting for growth. GCN2's function in mammals is unknown, but must differ, since mammals, unlike yeast, can synthesize only half of the standard 20 amino acids. To investigate the function of mammalian GCN2, we have generated a Gcn2(-/-) knockout strain of mice. Gcn2(-/-) mice are viable, fertile, and exhibit no phenotypic abnormalities under standard growth conditions. However, prenatal and neonatal mortalities are significantly increased in Gcn2(-/-) mice whose mothers were reared on leucine-, tryptophan-, or glycine-deficient diets during gestation. Leucine deprivation produced the most pronounced effect, with a 63% reduction in the expected number of viable neonatal mice. Cultured embryonic stem cells derived from Gcn2(-/-) mice failed to show the normal induction of eIF2alpha phosphorylation in cells deprived of leucine. To assess the biochemical effects of the loss of GCN2 in the whole animal, liver perfusion experiments were conducted. Histidine limitation in the presence of histidinol induced a twofold increase in the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and a concomitant reduction in eIF2B activity in perfused livers from wild-type mice, but no changes in livers from Gcn2(-/-) mice.
Cerebral oxidative damage is a feature of aging and is increased in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. We pursued the gene-environment interaction of lack of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and modulation of dietary alpha-tocopherol on cerebral oxidative damage in aged male and female mice by quantifying the major isomers of cerebral isoprostanes, derived from arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation, and neuroprostanes, derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oxidation. Mice fed alpha-tocopherol-deficient, normal, or -supplemented diet had undetectable, 4486 +/- 215, or 6406 +/- 254 ng of alpha-tocopherol per gram of brain tissue (p < 0.0001), respectively. Two factors, male gender and lack of apoE, combined to increase cerebral AA oxidation by 28%, whereas three factors, male gender, lack of apoE, and deficiency in alpha-tocopherol, combined to increase cerebral DHA oxidation by 81%. alpha-Tocopherol supplementation decreased cerebral isoprostanes but not neuroprostanes and enhanced DHA, but not AA, endoperoxide reduction in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the interaction of gender, inherited susceptibilities, and dietary alpha-tocopherol contributed differently to oxidative damage to cerebral AA and DHA in aged mice.
Many patients with chronic diseases develop malnutrition. Force feeding with either enteral tube of parenteral infusions often succeeds in ameliorating this problem in hospitalized patients. However, after discharge many patients are incapable of sustaining adequate dietary intake. As a consequence, malnutrition may persist or recur. The authors' previous experience using nocturnal enteral tube feedings in patients with glycogen storage disease suggested that malnourished patients also might benefit from enteral tube feedings at home. Fourteen undernourished patients selected for domestic enteral tube feedings clearly demonstrated a tolerance, which included adequate gastric emptying, to the infusions during their hospitalization. They ranged in age from 2 months to 68 yr. Infusion pumps delivered the feedings continuously. At home, 12 patients experienced substantial weight gains. Two maintained their weight while they received intensive chemotherapy for malignancies. Except for the two patients with short bowel syndrome, all patients were weaned successfully to oral feedings after 1 to 3 months. The only apparent complication was possible aspiration pneumonia in a patient with neurological dysfunction. This further experience with domestic enteral tube alimentation indicates that selected patients can be managed effectively, safely and economically with nasogastric nutritional support on an outpatient basis.
Very low birth weight infants have little storage of hepatic retinol and are, therefore, highly dependent upon an exogenous supply. The recent association between low serum retinol level and bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the persistently low serum levels of retinol during total parenteral nutrition prompted a prospective study to evaluate serial changes in serum retinol levels during 1 month of total parenteral nutrition (retinol dose 455 micrograms/d) and again during 1 month of total enteral feeding (retinol dose 200 to 300 micrograms/d) in the same infants. Infants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of infants weighing less than 1,000 g (n = 24) and group 2 consisted of infants weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g (n = 17). Although initial mean levels of retinol were similar in both groups (14.8 +/- 0.9 and 13.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dL), there was wide variation between infants. In group 1 infants, there was a significant (P less than .01) decline in retinol level by the second week of life (to 9.2 +/- 1 micrograms/dL), which persisted during total parenteral nutrition, but increased to 13.4 +/- 2 after 1 week of enteral feeding. This level was maintained throughout enteral feeding. In group 2 infants, there was no significant change in serum retinol level throughout the study. During total parenteral nutrition, several infants had retinol levels below 10 micrograms/dL, a level associated with signs of retinol deficiency in older children. Because losses of retinol are known to occur in smaller volume total parenteral nutrition solutions, it was speculated that losses of retinol in our patients were due to retinol losses in the total parenteral nutrition delivery system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid composition of chylomicron triglycerides isolated from subjects fed liquid-formula diets containing 40% of total energy as medium- (C8:0 and C10:0) or long-chain (C16-C18) triglycerides (MCT, LCT) for 6 d. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) comprised 8% of total chylomicron triglyceride fatty acids after the first MCT meal. After 6 d of continued MCT feeding, chylomicron triglyceride MCFA content increased to 13%. When subjects were fed the LCT (soybean oil) diet, C16:0, C18:1, and C18:2 comprised nearly 90% of the chylomicron triglyceride fatty acids. The mass of triglyceride transported in chylomicrons isolated from subjects fed the MCT diet was approximately 20% of that found when subjects consumed the LCT diet. We conclude that although total triglyceride production during MCT ingestion is low, the chylomicron triglycerides that are synthesized contain significant amounts of MCFA.