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Circulating Folate, Vitamin B6, and Methionine in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3).
Fanidi A, Muller DC, Yuan JM, Stevens VL, Weinstein SJ, Albanes D, Prentice R, Thomsen CA, Pettinger M, Cai Q, Blot WJ, Wu J, Arslan AA, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, McCullough ML, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Haiman CA, Zhang X, Han J, Stampfer MJ, Smith-Warner SA, Giovannucci E, Giles GG, Hodge AM, Severi G, Johansson M, Grankvist K, Langhammer A, Krokstad S, Næss M, Wang R, Gao YT, Butler LM, Koh WP, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Li H, Zheng W, Lan Q, Visvanathan K, Bolton JH, Ueland PM, Midttun Ø, Ulvik A, Caporaso NE, Purdue M, Ziegler RG, Freedman ND, Buring JE, Lee IM, Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Manjer J, Ericson U, Relton C, Brennan P, Johansson M
(2018) J Natl Cancer Inst 110:
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Asia, Australia, Case-Control Studies, Cotinine, Europe, Female, Folic Acid, Humans, Incidence, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Methionine, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Protective Factors, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Smoking, United States, Vitamin B 6
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Background - Circulating concentrations of B vitamins and factors related to one-carbon metabolism have been found to be strongly inversely associated with lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The extent to which these associations are present in other study populations is unknown.
Methods - Within 20 prospective cohorts from the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, a nested case-control study was designed including 5364 incident lung cancer case patients and 5364 control subjects who were individually matched to case patients by age, sex, cohort, and smoking status. Centralized biochemical analyses were performed to measure circulating concentrations of vitamin B6, folate, and methionine, as well as cotinine as an indicator of recent tobacco exposure. The association between these biomarkers and lung cancer risk was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models.
Results - Participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 and folate had a modestly decreased risk of lung cancer risk overall, the odds ratios when comparing the top and bottom fourths (OR 4vs1 ) being 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00) and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.99), respectively. We found stronger associations among men (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.93) and ever smokers (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). We further noted that the association of folate was restricted to Europe/Australia and Asia, whereas no clear association was observed for the United States. Circulating concentrations of methionine were not associated with lung cancer risk overall or in important subgroups.
Conclusions - Although confounding by tobacco exposure or reverse causation cannot be ruled out, these study results are compatible with a small decrease in lung cancer risk in ever smokers who avoid low concentrations of circulating folate and vitamin B6.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Folate supplementation in people with sickle cell disease.
Dixit R, Nettem S, Madan SS, Soe HH, Abas AB, Vance LD, Stover PJ
(2016) Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD011130
MeSH Terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell, Child, Erythrocyte Indices, Folic Acid, Growth, Hematinics, Humans
Show Abstract · Added February 24, 2016
BACKGROUND - Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with sickle cell disease, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency. For this reason, children and adults with sickle cell disease, particularly those with sickle cell anaemia, commonly take 1 mg of folic acid orally every day on the premise that this will replace depleted folate stores and reduce the symptoms of anaemia. It is thus important to evaluate the role of folate supplementation in treating sickle cell disease.
OBJECTIVES - To analyse the efficacy and possible adverse effects of folate supplementation (folate occurring naturally in foods, provided as fortified foods or additional supplements such as tablets) in people with sickle cell disease.
SEARCH METHODS - We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also conducted additional searches in both electronic databases and clinical trial registries.Date of last search: 07 December 2015.
SELECTION CRITERIA - Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of folate supplementation for sickle cell disease.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS - Four review authors assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the included trials and extracted and analysed the data included in the review. We used the standard Cochrane-defined methodological procedures.
MAIN RESULTS - One trial, undertaken in 1983, was eligible for inclusion in the review. This was a double-blind placebo-controlled quasi-randomised triaI of supplementation of folic acid in people with sickle cell disease. A total of 117 children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease aged six months to four years of age participated over a one-year period (analysis was restricted to 115 children).Serum folate measures, obtained after trial entry at six and 12 months, were available in 80 of 115 (70%) participants. There were significant differences between the folic acid and placebo groups with regards to serum folate values above 18 µg/l and values below 5 µg/l. In the folic acid group, values above 18 µg/l were observed in 33 of 41 (81 %) compared to six of 39 (15%) participants in the placebo (calcium lactate) group. Additionally, there were no participants in the folic acid group with serum folate levels below 5 µg/l, whereas in the placebo group, 15 of 39 (39%) participants had levels below this threshold. Haematological indices were measured in 100 of 115 (87%) participants at baseline and at one year. After adjusting for sex and age group, the investigators reported no significant differences between the trial groups with regards to total haemoglobin concentrations, either at baseline or at one year. It is important to note that none of the raw data for the outcomes listed above were available for analysis.The proportions of participants who experienced certain clinical events were analysed in all 115 participants, for which raw data were available. There were no statistically significant differences noted; however, the trial was not powered to investigate differences between the folic acid and placebo groups with regards to: minor infections, risk ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.15); major infections, risk ratio 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.66); dactylitis, risk ratio 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 1.27); acute splenic sequestration, risk ratio 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 2.57); or episodes of pain, risk ratio 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.92). However, the investigators reported a higher proportion of repeat dactylitis episodes in the placebo group, with two or more attacks occurring in 10 of 56 participants compared to two of 59 in the folic acid group (P < 0.05).Growth, determined by height-for-age and weight-for-age, as well as height and growth velocity, was measured in 103 of the 115 participants (90%), for which raw data were not available. The investigators reported no significant differences in growth between the two groups.The trial had a high risk of bias with regards to random sequence generation and incomplete outcome data. There was an unclear risk of bias in relation to allocation concealment, outcome assessment, and selective reporting. Finally, There was a low risk of bias with regards to blinding of participants and personnel. Overall the quality of the evidence in the review was low.There were no trials identified for other eligible comparisons, namely: folate supplementation (fortified foods and physical supplementation with tablets) versus placebo; folate supplementation (naturally occurring in diet) versus placebo; folate supplementation (fortified foods and physical supplementation with tablets) versus folate supplementation (naturally occurring in diet).
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS - One doubIe-blind, placebo-controlled triaI on folic acid supplementation in children with sickle cell disease was included in the review. Overall, the trial presented mixed evidence on the review's outcomes. No trials in adults were identified. With the limited evidence provided, we conclude that, while it is possible that folic acid supplementation may increase serum folate levels, the effect of supplementation on anaemia and any symptoms of anaemia remains unclear.Further trials may add evidence regarding the efficacy of folate supplementation. Future trials should assess clinical outcomes such as folate concentration, haemoglobin concentration, adverse effects and benefits of the intervention, especially with regards to sickle cell disease-related morbidity. Trials should include people with sickle cell disease of all ages and both sexes, in any setting. To investigate the effects of folate supplementation, trials should recruit more participants and be of longer duration, with long-term follow up, than the trial currently included in this review.
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Urinary metabolites of prostanoids and risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study (AFPPS).
Fedirko V, Bradshaw PT, Figueiredo JC, Sandler RS, Barry EL, Ahnen DJ, Milne GL, Bresalier RS, Baron JA
(2015) Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 8: 1061-8
MeSH Terms: Adenoma, Administration, Oral, Aged, Aspirin, Chromatography, Gas, Chromatography, Liquid, Colonoscopy, Colorectal Neoplasms, Double-Blind Method, Female, Folic Acid, Humans, Male, Mass Spectrometry, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, Poisson Distribution, Prostaglandins
Show Abstract · Added March 10, 2016
Aspirin has been shown to protect against colorectal neoplasms; however, the optimal chemopreventive dose and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to study the relationship between prostanoid metabolites and aspirin's effect on adenoma occurrence. We used data from the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, in which 1,121 participants with a recent adenoma were randomized to placebo or two doses of aspirin (81 or 325 mg/d) to be taken until the next surveillance colonoscopy, anticipated about 3 years later. Urinary metabolites of prostanoids (PGE-M, PGI-M, and dTxB2) were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or GC/NICI-MS in 876 participants near the end of treatment follow-up. Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to calculate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. PGE-M, PGI-M, and dTxB2 levels were 28%, 37%, and 60% proportionately lower, respectively, in individuals who took 325 mg of aspirin compared with individuals who took placebo (all P < 0.001). Similarly, among individuals who took 81 mg of aspirin, PGE-M, PGI-M, and dTxB2 were, respectively, 18%, 30%, and 57% proportionally lower compared with placebo (all P < 0.005). None of the metabolites or their ratios were statistically significantly associated with the risk of adenoma occurrence. The effect of aspirin in reducing adenoma risk was independent of prostanoid levels. Aspirin use is associated with lower levels of urinary prostanoid metabolites. However, our findings do not support the hypothesis that these metabolites are associated with adenoma occurrence, suggesting that COX-dependent mechanisms may not completely explain the chemopreventive effect of aspirin on colorectal neoplasms.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
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Genetic variant in folate homeostasis is associated with lower warfarin dose in African Americans.
Daneshjou R, Gamazon ER, Burkley B, Cavallari LH, Johnson JA, Klein TE, Limdi N, Hillenmeyer S, Percha B, Karczewski KJ, Langaee T, Patel SR, Bustamante CD, Altman RB, Perera MA
(2014) Blood 124: 2298-305
MeSH Terms: African Americans, Algorithms, Alleles, Anticoagulants, Cohort Studies, Exome, Folic Acid, Geography, Haplotypes, Homeostasis, Humans, Pharmacogenetics, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Quantitative Trait Loci, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Warfarin
Show Abstract · Added April 13, 2017
The anticoagulant warfarin has >30 million prescriptions per year in the United States. Doses can vary 20-fold between patients, and incorrect dosing can result in serious adverse events. Variation in warfarin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic genes, such as CYP2C9 and VKORC1, do not fully explain the dose variability in African Americans. To identify additional genetic contributors to warfarin dose, we exome sequenced 103 African Americans on stable doses of warfarin at extremes (≤ 35 and ≥ 49 mg/week). We found an association between lower warfarin dose and a population-specific regulatory variant, rs7856096 (P = 1.82 × 10(-8), minor allele frequency = 20.4%), in the folate homeostasis gene folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS). We replicated this association in an independent cohort of 372 African American subjects whose stable warfarin doses represented the full dosing spectrum (P = .046). In a combined cohort, adding rs7856096 to the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm resulted in a 5.8 mg/week (P = 3.93 × 10(-5)) decrease in warfarin dose for each allele carried. The variant overlaps functional elements and was associated (P = .01) with FPGS gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from combined HapMap African populations (N = 326). Our results provide the first evidence linking genetic variation in folate homeostasis to warfarin response.
© 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.
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One-carbon metabolism dietary factors and distal gastric cancer risk in chinese women.
Kweon SS, Shu XO, Xiang Y, Yang G, Ji BT, Li H, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shrubsole MJ
(2014) Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23: 1374-82
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Diet, Diet Surveys, Female, Folic Acid, Humans, Methionine, Middle Aged, Stomach Neoplasms, Vitamin B Complex
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
BACKGROUND - Previous studies on the association between one-carbon dietary factors and gastric cancer risk have been inconsistent.
METHODS - We investigated this association using data from a prospective study, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997-2010), including 323 distal gastric cancer cases identified from 73,009 Chinese women. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression after adjusting for confounders.
RESULTS - Overall, no statistically significant association of gastric cancer was observed with dietary intake of folate, methionine, or B vitamins. However, when stratified by menopausal status, higher intake of riboflavin was associated with decreased gastric cancer risk in premenopausal women with HR of 0.35 (95% CI, 0.17-0.73), 0.48 (0.24-0.97), 0.28 (0.12-0.65), and 0.23 (0.07-0.91), respectively, for the quintiles 2 to 5 intake groups compared with the lowest quintile intake (P for trend = 0.02). Among premenopausal women, highest intake of folate was associated with increased gastric cancer risk (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.59). There were no statistically significant associations observed among postmenopausal women.
CONCLUSIONS - These results suggest that dietary factors involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with gastric cancer risk among premenopausal women.
IMPACT - Riboflavin may be a protective factor and folate may be a risk factor for premenopausal gastric cancer.
©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
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Plasma folate concentrations and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the Shanghai Men's Health Study.
Takata Y, Shrubsole MJ, Li H, Cai Q, Gao J, Wagner C, Wu J, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO
(2014) Int J Cancer 135: 2191-8
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, China, Colorectal Neoplasms, Folic Acid, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Men's Health, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Staging, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added April 4, 2014
Previous epidemiological studies of circulating folate concentration and colorectal cancer have reported inconsistent results. We evaluated associations of prediagnostic plasma folate concentration with colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2010). Included herein are 288 cases who were diagnosed with incident colorectal cancer and 575 controls who were individually matched to cases on baseline characteristics. Folate concentrations in plasma were measured by microbiological assay. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations of plasma folate concentrations with colorectal cancer risk. Plasma folate was nonsignificantly but positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for the middle tertile of plasma folate concentrations and 1.33 (0.90-1.98) for the highest compared to the lowest tertile. The positive association reached statistical significance for the highest tertile of folate concentrations for men with late-stage colorectal cancer (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.03-6.86) and for the middle tertile for cases diagnosed within the first 4 years after blood collection (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.02-2.92) and for men in the high BMI group (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.14-3.11). In our study population, where folic acid fortification of the food supply and vitamin supplement use are uncommon, plasma folate concentration was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk among men who may have had preneoplastic lesions. These findings need to be confirmed in studies with specific assessment of preneoplastic lesions and repeated measurements of folate level over time.
© 2014 UICC.
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Association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and infant bronchiolitis.
Veeranki SP, Gebretsadik T, Dorris SL, Mitchel EF, Hartert TV, Cooper WO, Tylavsky FA, Dupont W, Hartman TJ, Carroll KN
(2014) Am J Epidemiol 179: 938-46
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Bronchiolitis, Viral, Cohort Studies, Dietary Supplements, Female, Folic Acid, Humans, Infant, Logistic Models, Male, Neural Tube Defects, Odds Ratio, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Trimester, First, Prenatal Care, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Retrospective Studies, Severity of Illness Index, Vitamin B Complex, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
Viral bronchiolitis affects 20%-30% of infants; because there is no known effective treatment, it is important to identify risk factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period prevents neural tube defects, animal data suggest that higher supplementation may be a risk factor for child respiratory diseases. Using a population-based retrospective cohort of 167,333 women and infants, born in 1995-2007 and enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we investigated the association between the filling of folic acid-containing prescriptions and infant bronchiolitis. We categorized women into the following 4 groups in relation to the first trimester: "none" (no prescription filled), "first trimester only," "after first trimester," and "both" (prescriptions filled both during and after the first trimester). Overall, 21% of infants had a bronchiolitis diagnosis, and 5% were hospitalized. Most women filled their first prescriptions after the fifth to sixth weeks of pregnancy, and most prescriptions contained 1,000 µg of folic acid. Compared with infants born to women in the "none" group, infants born to women in the "first trimester only" group had higher relative odds of bronchiolitis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22) and greater severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22). This study's findings contribute to an understanding of the implications of prenatal nutritional supplement recommendations for infant bronchiolitis.
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Homocysteine metabolism in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Kundal M, Saha A, Dubey NK, Kapoor K, Basak T, Bhardwaj G, Tanwar VS, Sengupta S, Batra V, Upadhayay AD, Bhatt A
(2014) Clin Transl Sci 7: 132-6
MeSH Terms: Case-Control Studies, Child, Cholesterol, Cysteine, Demography, Female, Folic Acid, Homocysteine, Humans, Male, Nephrotic Syndrome, Proteinuria, Remission Induction, Serum Albumin, Vitamin B 12
Show Abstract · Added November 3, 2017
BACKGROUND - Homocysteine metabolism is altered in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor of early atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis and may occur at time of first occurrence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
METHODS - Thirty children with first episode of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (FENS) aged 1-16 years along with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Homocysteine and cysteine were measured with HPLC; vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured with electro-chemilumiscence immunoassay. Primary outcome measure was plasma homocysteine level in children with FENS and in controls. Secondary outcome measures were (1) plasma and urine homocysteine and cysteine levels in children with FENS at 12 weeks and 1 year (remission) and (2) plasma and urine levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid in children with FENS, at 12 weeks and 1 year (remission).
RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine and cysteine levels were comparable to controls in children with FENS, at 12 weeks and 1-year remission. Plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were significantly decreased compared to controls in FENS due to increased urinary excretion, which normalize during remission at 12 weeks and 1 year. Urinary homocysteine and cysteine levels were significantly raised in FENS compared to controls and continued to be raised even at 12-week and 1-year remission.
CONCLUSION - Homocysteine metabolism is deranged in children with FENS. Renal effects of long-term raised urinary homocysteine levels need to be studied.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Exercise prevents hyperhomocysteinemia in a dietary folate-restricted mouse model.
Neuman JC, Albright KA, Schalinske KL
(2013) Nutr Res 33: 487-93
MeSH Terms: Absorption, Animals, Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase, Diet, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Folic Acid, Homocysteine, Hyperhomocysteinemia, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2), Mice, Physical Conditioning, Animal
Show Abstract · Added August 2, 2016
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a condition that results from altered methyl group metabolism and is associated with numerous pathological conditions. A number of nutritional and hormonal factors have been shown to influence circulating homocysteine concentrations; however, the impact of exercise on homocysteine and methyl group balance is not well understood. Our hypothesis was that exercise represents an effective means to prevent hyperhomocysteinemia in a folate-independent manner. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of exercise on homocysteine metabolism in a dietary folate-restricted mouse model characterized by moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. Female outbred mice (12 weeks old) were assigned to either a sedentary or free-access wheel exercise group. Following a 4-week acclimation period, half of the mice in each group were provided a folate-restricted diet for 7-weeks prior to euthanasia and tissue collection. As expected, folate-restricted sedentary mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine concentrations; however, exercise completely prevented the increase in circulating homocysteine concentrations. Moreover, exercise reduced plasma homocysteine concentrations 36% within the group fed only the control diet. The prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia by exercise appears, at least in part, to be the result of increased folate-independent homocysteine remethylation owing to a 2-fold increase in renal betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia by exercise in a dietary folate-restriction model. Future research will be directed at determining if exercise can have a positive impact on other nutritional, hormonal, and genetic models of hyperhomocysteinemia relevant to humans.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and lung cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009).
Takata Y, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li H, Gao J, Cai H, Gao YT, Zheng W, Shu XO
(2013) Nutr Cancer 65: 51-61
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoids, China, Cohort Studies, Eating, Folic Acid, Follow-Up Studies, Fruit, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Vegetables, Vitamin A, Vitamins
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
Most epidemiological studies evaluating the association of fruit and vegetable intakes on lung cancer risk were conducted in North American and European countries. We investigated the association of intakes of fruits, vegetables, dietary vitamins A and C, and folate with lung cancer risk among 61,491 adult Chinese men who were recruited into the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire during in-home visits. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer risk associated with dietary intakes. During a median follow-up of 5.5 yr, 359 incident lung cancer cases accrued after the first year of follow-up and 68.8% of them were current smokers. Intakes of green leafy vegetables, β-carotene-rich vegetables, watermelon, vitamin A, and carotenoids were inversely associated with lung cancer risk; the corresponding HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles were 0.72 (0.53-0.98), 0.69 (0.51-0.94), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), 0.63 (0.44-0.88), and 0.64 (0.46-0.88). Intake of all fruits and vegetables combined was marginally associated with lower risk. Our study suggests that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk.
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19 MeSH Terms