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Replication protein A (RPA) is an essential single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that initiates the DNA damage response pathway through protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediated by its 70N domain. The identification and use of chemical probes that can specifically disrupt these interactions is important for validating RPA as a cancer target. A high-throughput screen (HTS) to identify new chemical entities was conducted, and 90 hit compounds were identified. From these initial hits, an anthranilic acid based series was optimized by using a structure-guided iterative medicinal chemistry approach to yield a cell-penetrant compound that binds to RPA70N with an affinity of 812 nm. This compound, 2-(3- (N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)sulfamoyl)-4-methylbenzamido)benzoic acid (20 c), is capable of inhibiting PPIs mediated by this domain.
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
MYC is an oncoprotein transcription factor that is overexpressed in the majority of malignancies. The oncogenic potential of MYC stems from its ability to bind regulatory sequences in thousands of target genes, which depends on interaction of MYC with its obligate partner, MAX. Here, we show that broad association of MYC with chromatin also depends on interaction with the WD40-repeat protein WDR5. MYC binds WDR5 via an evolutionarily conserved "MYC box IIIb" motif that engages a shallow, hydrophobic cleft on the surface of WDR5. Structure-guided mutations in MYC that disrupt interaction with WDR5 attenuate binding of MYC at ∼80% of its chromosomal locations and disable its ability to promote induced pluripotent stem cell formation and drive tumorigenesis. Our data reveal WDR5 as a key determinant for MYC recruitment to chromatin and uncover a tractable target for the discovery of anticancer therapies against MYC-driven tumors.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Base propenals are products of the reaction of DNA with oxidants such as peroxynitrite and bleomycin. The most reactive base propenal, adenine propenal, is mutagenic in Escherichia coli and reacts with DNA to form covalent adducts; however, the reaction of adenine propenal with protein has not yet been investigated. A survey of the reaction of adenine propenal with amino acids revealed that lysine and cysteine form adducts, whereas histidine and arginine do not. N(ε)-Oxopropenyllysine, a lysine-lysine cross-link, and S-oxopropenyl cysteine are the major products. Comprehensive profiling of the reaction of adenine propenal with human serum albumin and the DNA repair protein, XPA, revealed that the only stable adduct is N(ε)-oxopropenyllysine. The most reactive sites for modification in human albumin are K190 and K351. Three sites of modification of XPA are in the DNA-binding domain, and two sites are subject to regulatory acetylation. Modification by adenine propenal dramatically reduces XPA's ability to bind to a DNA substrate.
DNA polymerase (pol) ι is the most error-prone among the Y-family polymerases that participate in translesion synthesis (TLS). Pol ι can bypass various DNA lesions, e.g., N(2)-ethyl(Et)G, O(6)-methyl(Me)G, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), and an abasic site, though frequently with low fidelity. We assessed the biochemical effects of six reported genetic variations of human pol ι on its TLS properties, using the recombinant pol ι (residues 1-445) proteins and DNA templates containing a G, N(2)-EtG, O(6)-MeG, 8-oxoG, or abasic site. The Δ1-25 variant, which is the N-terminal truncation of 25 residues resulting from an initiation codon variant (c.3G > A) and also is the formerly misassigned wild-type, exhibited considerably higher polymerase activity than wild-type with Mg(2+) (but not with Mn(2+)), coinciding with its steady-state kinetic data showing a ∼10-fold increase in kcat/Km for nucleotide incorporation opposite templates (only with Mg(2+)). The R96G variant, which lacks a R96 residue known to interact with the incoming nucleotide, lost much of its polymerase activity, consistent with the kinetic data displaying 5- to 72-fold decreases in kcat/Km for nucleotide incorporation opposite templates either with Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), except for that opposite N(2)-EtG with Mn(2+) (showing a 9-fold increase for dCTP incorporation). The Δ1-25 variant bound DNA 20- to 29-fold more tightly than wild-type (with Mg(2+)), but the R96G variant bound DNA 2-fold less tightly than wild-type. The DNA-binding affinity of wild-type, but not of the Δ1-25 variant, was ∼7-fold stronger with 0.15 mM Mn(2+) than with Mg(2+). The results indicate that the R96G variation severely impairs most of the Mg(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent TLS abilities of pol ι, whereas the Δ1-25 variation selectively and substantially enhances the Mg(2+)-dependent TLS capability of pol ι, emphasizing the potential translational importance of these pol ι genetic variations, e.g., individual differences in TLS, mutation, and cancer susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogens.
Aberrant activation of the small GTPase Ras by oncogenic mutation or constitutively active upstream receptor tyrosine kinases results in the deregulation of cellular signals governing growth and survival in ∼30% of all human cancers. However, the discovery of potent inhibitors of Ras has been difficult to achieve. Here, we report the identification of small molecules that bind to a unique pocket on the Ras:Son of Sevenless (SOS):Ras complex, increase the rate of SOS-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in vitro, and modulate Ras signaling pathways in cells. X-ray crystallography of Ras:SOS:Ras in complex with these molecules reveals that the compounds bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the CDC25 domain of SOS adjacent to the Switch II region of Ras. The structure-activity relationships exhibited by these compounds can be rationalized on the basis of multiple X-ray cocrystal structures. Mutational analyses confirmed the functional relevance of this binding site and showed it to be essential for compound activity. These molecules increase Ras-GTP levels and disrupt MAPK and PI3K signaling in cells at low micromolar concentrations. These small molecules represent tools to study the acute activation of Ras and highlight a pocket on SOS that may be exploited to modulate Ras signaling.
Stapled helix peptides can serve as useful tools for inhibiting protein-protein interactions but can be difficult to optimize for affinity. Here we describe the discovery and optimization of a stapled helix peptide that binds to the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA70N). In addition to applying traditional optimization strategies, we employed a novel approach for efficiently designing peptides containing unnatural amino acids. We discovered hot spots in the target protein using a fragment-based screen, identified the amino acid that binds to the hot spot, and selected an unnatural amino acid to incorporate, based on the structure-activity relationships of small molecules that bind to this site. The resulting stapled helix peptide potently and selectively binds to RPA70N, does not disrupt ssDNA binding, and penetrates cells. This peptide may serve as a probe to explore the therapeutic potential of RPA70N inhibition in cancer.
The Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) serves as the primary initiating factor in the global genome nucleotide excision repair pathway (GG-NER). Recent reports suggest XPC also stimulates repair of oxidative lesions by base excision repair. However, whether XPC distinguishes among various types of DNA lesions remains unclear. Although the DNA binding properties of XPC have been studied by several groups, there is a lack of consensus over whether XPC discriminates between DNA damaged by lesions associated with NER activity versus those that are not. In this study we report a high-throughput fluorescence anisotropy assay used to measure the DNA binding affinity of XPC for a panel of DNA substrates containing a range of chemical lesions in a common sequence. Our results demonstrate that while XPC displays a preference for binding damaged DNA, the identity of the lesion has little effect on the binding affinity of XPC. Moreover, XPC was equally capable of binding to DNA substrates containing lesions not repaired by GG-NER. Our results suggest XPC may act as a general sensor of damaged DNA that is capable of recognizing DNA containing lesions not repaired by NER.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Replication protein A (RPA) is the primary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of the RPA70 subunit (RPA70N) interacts via a basic cleft with a wide range of DNA processing proteins, including several that regulate DNA damage response and repair. Small molecule inhibitors that disrupt these protein-protein interactions are therefore of interest as chemical probes of these critical DNA processing pathways and as inhibitors to counter the upregulation of DNA damage response and repair associated with treatment of cancer patients with radiation or DNA-damaging agents. Determination of three-dimensional structures of protein-ligand complexes is an important step for elaboration of small molecule inhibitors. However, although crystal structures of free RPA70N and an RPA70N-peptide fusion construct have been reported, RPA70N-inhibitor complexes have been recalcitrant to crystallization. Analysis of the P61 lattice of RPA70N crystals led us to hypothesize that the ligand-binding surface was occluded. Surface reengineering to alter key crystal lattice contacts led to the design of RPA70N E7R, E100R, and E7R/E100R mutants. These mutants crystallized in a P212121 lattice that clearly had significant solvent channels open to the critical basic cleft. Analysis of X-ray crystal structures, target peptide binding affinities, and (15)N-(1)H heteronuclear single-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed that the mutations do not result in perturbations of the RPA70N ligand-binding surface. The success of the design was demonstrated by determining the structure of RPA70N E7R soaked with a ligand discovered in a previously reported molecular fragment screen. A fluorescence anisotropy competition binding assay revealed this compound can inhibit the interaction of RPA70N with the peptide binding motif from the DNA damage response protein ATRIP. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of ongoing efforts to design RPA70N inhibitors.
This protocol describes procedures for performing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy analysis by three different methods: acceptor photobleaching, sensitized emission and spectral imaging. We also discuss anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-based FRET techniques. By using the specific example of the FRET probe Akind (Akt indicator), which is a version of Akt modified such that FRET occurs when the probe is activated by phosphorylation, indicating Akt activation. The protocol provides a detailed step-by-step description of sample preparation, image acquisition and analysis, including control samples, image corrections and the generation of quantitative FRET/CFP ratio images for both sensitized emission and spectral imaging. The sample preparation takes 2 d, equipment setup takes 2-3 h and image acquisition and analysis take 6-8 h.
Ion channels operate in intact tissues as part of large macromolecular complexes that can include cytoskeletal proteins, scaffolding proteins, signaling molecules, and a litany of other molecules. The proteins that make up these complexes can influence the trafficking, localization, and biophysical properties of the channel. TRIP8b (tetratricopetide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein) is a recently discovered accessory subunit of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that contributes to the substantial dendritic localization of HCN channels in many types of neurons. TRIP8b interacts with the carboxyl-terminal region of HCN channels and regulates their cell-surface expression level and cyclic nucleotide dependence. Here we examine the molecular determinants of TRIP8b binding to HCN2 channels. Using a single-molecule fluorescence bleaching method, we found that TRIP8b and HCN2 form an obligate 4:4 complex in intact channels. Fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence anisotropy allowed us to confirm that two different domains in the carboxyl-terminal portion of TRIP8b--the tetratricopepide repeat region and the TRIP8b conserved region--interact with two different regions of the HCN carboxyl-terminal region: the carboxyl-terminal three amino acids (SNL) and the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, respectively. And finally, using X-ray crystallography, we determined the atomic structure of the tetratricopepide region of TRIP8b in complex with a peptide of the carboxy-terminus of HCN2. Together, these experiments begin to uncover the mechanism for TRIP8b binding and regulation of HCN channels.