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The frequency of prediabetes is increasing as the prevalence of obesity rises worldwide. In prediabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation and metabolic derangements associated with concomitant obesity cause endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic dysfunction, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Importantly, the microvasculature affects insulin sensitivity by affecting the delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle; thus, endothelial dysfunction and extracellular matrix remodeling promote the progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus. Weight loss is the mainstay of treatment in prediabetes, but therapies that improved endothelial function and vasodilation may not only prevent cardiovascular disease but also slow progression to diabetes mellitus.
© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Extensive or persistent calcium phosphate deposition within soft tissues after severe traumatic injury or major orthopedic surgery can result in pain and loss of joint function. The pathophysiology of soft tissue calcification, including dystrophic calcification and heterotopic ossification (HO), is poorly understood; consequently, current treatments are suboptimal. Here, we show that plasmin protease activity prevents dystrophic calcification within injured skeletal muscle independent of its canonical fibrinolytic function. After muscle injury, dystrophic calcifications either can be resorbed during the process of tissue healing, persist, or become organized into mature bone (HO). Without sufficient plasmin activity, dystrophic calcifications persist after muscle injury and are sufficient to induce HO. Downregulating the primary inhibitor of plasmin (α2-antiplasmin) or treating with pyrophosphate analogues prevents dystrophic calcification and subsequent HO in vivo. Because plasmin also supports bone homeostasis and fracture repair, increasing plasmin activity represents the first pharmacologic strategy to prevent soft tissue calcification without adversely affecting systemic bone physiology or concurrent muscle and bone regeneration. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
© 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
CONTEXT - Sildenafil increases insulin sensitivity in mice. In humans, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition improves disposition index, but the mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated and may depend on duration. In addition, increasing cyclic GMP without increasing nitric oxide could have beneficial effects on fibrinolytic balance.
OBJECTIVE - The objective was to test the hypothesis that chronic phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition with sildenafil improves insulin sensitivity and secretion without diminishing fibrinolytic function.
DESIGN - This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
SETTING - This trial was conducted at Vanderbilt Clinical Research Center.
PARTICIPANTS - Participants included overweight individuals with prediabetes.
INTERVENTIONS - Subjects were randomized to treatment with sildenafil 25 mg three times a day or matching placebo for 3 months. Subjects underwent a hyperglycemic clamp prior to and at the end of treatment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - The primary outcomes of the study were insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
RESULT - Twenty-one subjects completed each treatment arm. After 3 months, the insulin sensitivity index was significantly greater in the sildenafil group compared to the placebo group by 1.84 mg/kg/min per μU/mL*100 (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 3.67 mg/kg/min per μU/mL*100; P = .049), after adjusting for baseline insulin sensitivity index and body mass index. In contrast, there was no effect of 3-month treatment with sildenafil on acute- or late-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (P > .30). Sildenafil decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P = .01), without altering tissue-plasminogen activator. In contrast to placebo, sildenafil also decreased the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio from 12.67 ± 14.67 to 6.84 ± 4.86 μg/mg Cr. This effect persisted 3 months after sildenafil discontinuation.
CONCLUSIONS - Three-month phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition enhances insulin sensitivity and improves markers of endothelial function.
Bone formation during fracture repair inevitably initiates within or around extravascular deposits of a fibrin-rich matrix. In addition to a central role in hemostasis, fibrin is thought to enhance bone repair by supporting inflammatory and mesenchymal progenitor egress into the zone of injury. However, given that a failure of efficient fibrin clearance can impede normal wound repair, the precise contribution of fibrin to bone fracture repair, whether supportive or detrimental, is unknown. Here, we employed mice with genetically and pharmacologically imposed deficits in the fibrin precursor fibrinogen and fibrin-degrading plasminogen to explore the hypothesis that fibrin is vital to the initiation of fracture repair, but impaired fibrin clearance results in derangements in bone fracture repair. In contrast to our hypothesis, fibrin was entirely dispensable for long-bone fracture repair, as healing fractures in fibrinogen-deficient mice were indistinguishable from those in control animals. However, failure to clear fibrin from the fracture site in plasminogen-deficient mice severely impaired fracture vascularization, precluded bone union, and resulted in robust heterotopic ossification. Pharmacological fibrinogen depletion in plasminogen-deficient animals restored a normal pattern of fracture repair and substantially limited heterotopic ossification. Fibrin is therefore not essential for fracture repair, but inefficient fibrinolysis decreases endochondral angiogenesis and ossification, thereby inhibiting fracture repair.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of single and repeated episodes of clamped hypoglycemia on fibrinolytic balance, proinflammatory biomarkers, proatherothrombotic mechanisms, and endothelial function. Twenty healthy individuals (12 male and 8 female) were studied during separate 2-day randomized protocols. Day 1 consisted of either two 2-h hyperinsulinemic (812 ± 50 pmol/L)-euglycemic (5 ± 0.1 mmol/L) or hyperinsulinemic (812 ± 50 pmol/L)-hypoglycemic (2.9 ± 0.1 mmol/L) clamps. Day 2 consisted of a single 2-h hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp. Two-dimensional Doppler ultrasound was used to determine brachial arterial endothelial function. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, TAT (thrombin/antithrombin complex), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 responses were increased (P < 0.05) during single or repeated hypoglycemia compared with euglycemia. Endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation were both impaired by repeated hypoglycemia. Neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses were also blunted by repeated hypoglycemia (P < 0.05). In summary, acute moderate hypoglycemia impairs fibrinolytic balance; increases proinflammatory responses, platelet activation, and coagulation biomarkers; and reduces NO-mediated endothelial function in healthy individuals. Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia further impair vascular function by additionally reducing exogenously NO-mediated endothelial function and increasing coagulation biomarkers. We conclude that despite reduced neuroendocrine and ANS responses, antecedent hypoglycemia results in greater endothelial dysfunction and an increased proatherothrombotic state compared with a single acute episode of hypoglycemia.
© 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
OBJECTIVE - Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility associated with aging, menopause, smoking, obesity, or diabetes. Persistent inflammation has been identified as an instigating factor in progressive bone loss. In addition to the role of fibrin in coagulation, inordinate fibrin deposition within a tissue matrix results in increased local inflammation. Given that fibrin accumulation is a hallmark of osteoporosis-related comorbidities, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that persistent fibrin deposition causes inflammatory osteoporosis.
METHODS - Multiple imaging modalities, bone integrity metrics, and histologic analyses were employed to evaluate skeletal derangements in relation to fibrin deposition, circulating fibrinogen levels, and systemic markers of inflammation in mice that were plasminogen deficient and in plasminogen-deficient mice that were concomitantly either fibrinogen deficient or carrying a mutant form of fibrinogen lacking the αM β2 binding motif.
RESULTS - Mice generated with a genetic deficit in the key fibrinolytic protease, plasmin, uniformly developed severe osteoporosis. Furthermore, the development of osteoporosis was fibrin(ogen) dependent, and the derangements in the bone remodeling unit were mechanistically tied to fibrin(ogen)-mediated activation of osteoclasts via activation of the leukocyte integrin receptor αM β2 on monocytes and secondary stimulation of osteoblasts by RANKL. Notably, the genetic elimination of fibrin(ogen) or the expression of a mutant form of fibrinogen retaining clotting function but lacking the αM β2 binding motif prevented the degenerative skeletal phenotypes, resulting in normal local and systemic cytokine levels.
CONCLUSION - Taken together, these data reveal for the first time that fibrin promotes inflammation-driven systemic osteoporosis, which suggests a novel association between hemostasis, inflammation, and bone biology.
Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Bradykinin increases during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and stimulates the release of nitric oxide, inflammatory cytokines, and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), acting through its B2 receptor. This study tested the hypothesis that endogenous bradykinin contributes to the fibrinolytic and inflammatory response to CPB and that bradykinin B2 receptor antagonism reduces fibrinolysis, inflammation, and subsequent transfusion requirements. Patients (N = 115) were prospectively randomized to placebo, ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), or HOE 140, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. Bradykinin B2 receptor antagonism decreased intraoperative fibrinolytic capacity as much as EACA, but only EACA decreased D-dimer formation and tended to decrease postoperative bleeding. Although EACA and HOE 140 decreased fibrinolysis and EACA attenuated blood loss, these treatments did not reduce the proportion of patients transfused. These data suggest that endogenous bradykinin contributes to t-PA generation in patients undergoing CPB, but that additional effects on plasmin generation contribute to decreased D-dimer concentrations during EACA treatment.
BACKGROUND - For patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention, guidelines have called for device activation within 90 minutes of initial presentation. Fewer than 20% of transferred patients are treated in such a timely fashion. We examine the association between transfer drive times and door-to-device (D2D) times in a network of North Carolina hospitals. We compare the feasibility of timely percutaneous coronary intervention using ground versus air transfer.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We perform a retrospective analysis of the relationship between transfer drive times and D2D times in a 119-hospital ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction statewide network. Between July 2008 and December 2009, 1537 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent interhospital transfer for reperfusion via primary percutaneous coronary intervention. For ground transfers, median D2D time was 93 minutes for drive times ≤30 minutes, 117 minutes for drive times of 31 to 45 minutes, and 121 minutes for drive times >45 minutes. For air transfers, median D2D time was 125 minutes for drive times of 31 to 45 minutes and 138 minutes for drive times >45 minutes. Helicopter transport was associated with longer door-in door-out times and, ultimately, was associated with median D2D times that exceeded guideline recommendations, no matter the transfer drive time category.
CONCLUSIONS - In a well-developed ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction system, D2D times within 90 to 120 minutes appear most feasible for hospitals within 30-minute transfer drive time. Helicopter transport did not offer D2D time advantages for transferred STEMI patients. This finding appears to be attributable to comparably longer door-in door-out times for air transfers.
The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade (ARB) on fibrinolysis and inflammation after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are uncertain. This study tested the hypothesis that ACE inhibition enhances fibrinolysis and inflammation to a greater extent than ARB in patients undergoing CPB. One week to 5 days before surgery, patients were randomized to ramipril 5 mg/day, candesartan 16 mg/day, or placebo. ACE inhibition increased intraoperative bradykinin and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA ) concentrations as compared to AR B. Both ACE inhibition and AR B decreased the need for plasma transfusion relative to placebo, but only ACE inhibition decreased the duration of hospital stay. Neither ACE inhibition nor AR B significantly affected concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI -1), interleukin (IL )-6, IL -8, or IL -10. ACE inhibition enhanced intraoperative fibrinolysis without increasing the likelihood of red-cell transfusion. By contrast, neither ACE inhibition nor ARB affected the inflammatory response. ACE inhibitors and ARBs may be safely continued until the day of surgery.
OBJECTIVE - Many children with a congenital heart defect undergo surgical correction requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. One-sixth of these patients take an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for heart failure treatment. The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on the fibrinolytic and inflammatory response in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass is unknown. In adults, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition attenuates the increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 after cardiopulmonary bypass, whereas the effect on the interleukin-6 response is uncertain. This study tests the hypothesis that preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition attenuates postoperative plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and interleukin-6 expression after cardiopulmonary bypass in children.
DESIGN - Single-center prospective, randomized, nonblinded study.
SETTING - University-affiliated pediatric hospital.
PATIENTS - Children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.
INTERVENTIONS - Children were randomized to continue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor until the morning of surgery (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group, n = 11) or to discontinue therapy 72 hrs before surgery (no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group, n = 9).
MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS - Blood samples were collected at baseline before cardiopulmonary bypass, at 30 mins of cardiopulmonary bypass, on arrival to the intensive care unit, and on postoperative day 1. Baseline bradykinin concentrations were significantly higher and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity significantly lower in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group compared with the no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (p = .04 and .001, respectively). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased 15-fold after cardiopulmonary bypass and peaked on postoperative day 1 (from 4.6 ± 1.2 to 67.7 ± 9.5 ng/mL; p < .001). Postoperative day 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen correlated significantly with cardiopulmonary bypass time (r2 = 0.40, p = .03) and was significantly lower in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group compared with the no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (p = .03). The proinflammatory markers interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 as well as the anti-inflammatory marker interleukin-10 increased significantly after cardiopulmonary bypass (all p < .001). Interleukin-6 concentrations were significantly higher in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group after cardiopulmonary bypass (p = .02) even after controlling for potential confounding factors such as age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and transfusion volume.
CONCLUSION - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition attenuates the increase in postoperative plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 but enhances the interleukin-6 response in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.