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OBJECTIVE - LithoVue™ is a novel, single-use, digital flexible ureteroscope that was released to the US market in January 2016. There are scant data regarding its performance in humans. Procedural outcomes comparing LithoVue with reusable ureteroscopes are presented in patients undergoing ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract pathology.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Clinical outcomes between two groups of patients undergoing flexible ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract pathology were analyzed. The first group underwent surgery utilizing LithoVue, and the second group used reusable fiber-optic flexible ureteroscopes. Differences in procedural outcomes, operative times, and time spent in hospital were analyzed using two-tailed t-tests and chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests.
RESULTS - One hundred fifteen cases utilizing LithoVue and 65 cases utilizing reusable ureteroscopes were included in this study. Demographics, surgical indications, stone size, location, total stone burden, composition, procedural outcomes, and complications were comparable between groups. For all cases, LithoVue procedures lasted 54.1 ± 25.7 minutes compared with 64.5 ± 37.0 minutes for reusable scope procedures (p < 0.05) and for stone removal cases, 57.3 ± 25.1 vs 70.3 ± 36.9 minutes, respectively (p < 0.05). Scope failure occurred in 4.4% of LithoVue cases and 7.7% of reusable cases (p = 0.27).
CONCLUSIONS - LithoVue represents a feasible alternative to reusable ureteroscopes with a low rate of scope failure comparable with reusable ureteroscopes. Its use shortens procedure duration, a finding that warrants further investigation.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - With the increasing use of fluorescence in medical applications, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of temperature on tissue autofluorescence is essential. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of temperature on the fluorescence of porcine cornea and rat skin and determine the relative contributions of irreversible changes in optical properties and in fluorescence yield.
STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS - Fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and temperature measurements were acquired from excised porcine cornea and rat skin over a temperature range of 0-80 °C. A dual excitation system was used with a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser for the fluorescence and a white light source for the diffuse reflectance measurements. A thermal camera measured tissue temperature. Optical property changes were inferred from diffuse reflectance measurements. The reversibility of the change in fluorescence was examined by acquiring measurements while the tissue sample cooled from the highest induced temperature to room temperature.
RESULTS - The fluorescence intensity decreased with increasing tissue temperature. This fluorescence change was reversible when the tissue was heated to a temperature of 45 °C, but irreversible when heated to a temperature of 80 °C.
CONCLUSION - Auto-fluorescence intensity dependence on temperature appears to be a combination of temperature-induced optical property changes and reduced fluorescence quantum yield due to changes in collagen structure. Temperature-induced changes in measured fluorescence must be taken into consideration in applications where fluorescence is used to diagnose disease or guide therapy.
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
An integrated silicon photonics coupler for fiber to waveguide conversion was designed employing a transformation optics approach. Quasi-conformal mapping was used to obtain achievable material properties, which were realized by a distorted hexagonal lattice of air holes in silicon. The coupler, measuring only 10 μm in length and fabricated with a single-step lithography process, exhibits a peak simulated transmission efficiency of nearly 100% for in-plane mode conversion and a factor of 5 improvement over butt coupling for fiber to waveguide mode conversion in experimental testing.
Raman spectroscopy has been widely used for cancer diagnosis, but conventional forms provide limited depth information. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) can solve the depth issue, but it has only been used to detect hard tissues such as bone. We explore the feasibility of using SORS to discriminate two layers of soft tissue. Measurements were taken with individual source and detector fibers at a number of spatial offsets from samples consisting of various thicknesses of normal human breast tissues overlying breast tumors. Results show that SORS can detect tumors beneath normal tissue, marking, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of SORS for discriminating two layers of soft tissue.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an evolving technology used to treat unresectable liver tumors. Currently, there is no accurate method to determine RFA margins in real-time during the procedure. We hypothesized that a fiber-optic based spectroscopic monitoring system could detect thermal damage from RFA in real-time. Fluorescence (F) and diffuse reflectance (Rd) spectra were continuously acquired from within the expected ablation zone during canine hepatic RFA using a fiber-optic microinterrogation probe (MIP). The F and Rd spectral feedback were continuously monitored and ablations were stopped based on changes in spectra alone. After each ablation, the MIP tract was marked with India ink and the ablation zone was excised. The relationship of the MIP to the zone of ablation was examined grossly and microscopically. F and Rd spectral changes occurred in three characteristic phases as the ablation zone progresses past the MIP. Phase 1 indicates minimal deviation from normal lives. Phase 2 occurs as the MIP lies within the hemorrhagic zone of the ablated tissue. Phase 3 correlates with complete tissue coagulation. The absolute magnitude of spectral change correlates with the gross and histologic degree of thermal damage. Optical spectroscopy is a technology that allows real-time detection of thermal tissue damage. In this study, both F and Rd spectroscopy accurately defined the advancing hemorrhagic edge of the zone of ablation and the central coagulation zone. These results suggest that F and Rd spectroscopy can be used to create a real-time feedback system to accurately define RFA margins.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - The first objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosing pre-cancers in stratified squamous epithelial tissues in vivo using two different probe geometries with (1) overlapping versus (2) non-overlapping illumination and collection areas on the tissue surface. Probe (1) and probe (2) are preferentially sensitive to the fluorescence originating from the tissue surface and sub-surface tissue depths, respectively. The second objective was to design a novel, angled illumination fiber-optic probe to maximally exploit the depth-dependent fluorescence properties of epithelial tissues.
STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS - In the first study, spectra were measured from epithelial pre-cancers and normal tissues in the hamster cheek pouch and analyzed with a non-parametric classification algorithm. In the second study, Monte Carlo modeling was used to simulate fluorescence measurements from an epithelial tissue model with the angled illumination probe.
RESULTS - An unbiased classification algorithm based on spectra measured with probes (1) and (2), classified pre-cancerous and normal tissues with 78 and 94% accuracy, respectively. The angled illumination probe design provides the capability to detect fluorescence from a wide range of tissue depths in an epithelial tissue model.
CONCLUSIONS - The first study demonstrates that fluorescence originating from sub-surface tissue depths (probe (2)) is more diagnostic than fluorescence originating from the tissue surface (probe (1)) in the hamster cheek pouch model. However in general, it is difficult to know a priori the optimal probe geometry for pre-cancer detection in a particular epithelial tissue model. The angled illumination probe provides the capability to measure tissue fluorescence selectively from different depths within epithelial tissues, thus obviating the need to select a single optimal probe design for the fluorescence-based diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers.
Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
INTRODUCTION AND METHODS - Dynamic fluorescence quenching is a technique that may overcome some of the limitations associated with measurement of tissue partial oxygen tension (PO2). We compared this technique with a polarographic Eppendorf needle electrode method using a saline tonometer in which the PO2 could be controlled. We also tested the fluorescence quenching system in a rodent model of skeletal muscle ischemiahypoxia.
RESULTS - Both systems measured PO2 accurately in the tonometer, and there was excellent correlation between them (r(2) = 0.99). The polarographic system exhibited proportional bias that was not evident with the fluorescence method. In vivo, the fluorescence quenching technique provided a readily recordable signal that varied as expected.
DISCUSSION - Measurement of tissue PO2 using fluorescence quenching is at least as accurate as measurement using the Eppendorf needle electrode in vitro, and may prove useful in vivo for assessment of tissue oxygenation.
BACKGROUND - Thoracic surgeons typically perform fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) before thoracotomy, usually on the day of the operation after intubation with a single-lumen endotracheal tube (ETT) and before insertion of a double-lumen ETT. This routine requires two laryngoscopies and two intubations. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an airway device developed in England and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1991 for clinical use in the United States. It requires neither mask ventilation nor laryngoscopy and allows FOB visualization of the epiglottis, larynx, and entire trachea. We assessed the LMA as an alternative to a single-lumen ETT for FOB before thoracotomy.
METHODS - Through prospective assessment, 50 patients underwent FOB after insertion of an LMA before thoracotomy. Pulse rate, blood pressure, ease of insertion of the LMA, quality of FOB, and complications of LMA insertion were assessed.
RESULTS - During LMA insertion, blood pressure and pulse rate increased less than 5% from baseline in all patients. The LMA was inserted successfully in all patients within 10 seconds. No complications occurred as a result of LMA insertion.
CONCLUSIONS - Insertion of the LMA causes minimal hemodynamic response. From the time of induction of general anesthesia, insertion of the LMA is quick, simple, and safe and eliminates the need for endotracheal intubation with a single-lumen ETT before double-lumen tube insertion. The LMA, in contrast to the ETT, allows a complete survey of the larynx and trachea. The LMA is autoclavable, reusable, and cost effective. Therefore, in patients who require FOB immediately before thoracotomy, LMA use should be the standard for airway evaluation.