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The gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encoding CYP102B1, a recently discovered CYP102 subfamily which exists solely as a single P450 heme domain, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, characterized, and compared to its fusion protein family members. Purified reconstitution metabolism experiments with spinach ferredoxin, ferredoxin reductase, and NADPH revealed differences in the regio- and stereoselective metabolism of arachidonic acid compared to that of CYP102A1, exclusively producing 11,12-epoxyeicosa-5,8,14-trienoic acid in addition to the shared metabolites 18-hydroxy arachidonic acid and 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid. Consequently, in order to elucidate the physiological function of CYP102B1, transposon mutagenesis was used to generate an S. coelicolor A3(2) strain lacking CYP102B1 activity and the phenotype was assessed.
The Rieske iron-sulfur proteins have reduction potentials ranging from -150 to +400 mV. This enormous range of potentials was first proposed to be due to differing solvent exposure or even protein structure. However, the increasing number of available crystal structures for Rieske iron-sulfur proteins has shown this not to be the case. Colbert and colleagues proposed in 2000 that differences in the electrostatic environment, and not structural differences, of a Rieske proteins are responsible for the wide range of reduction potentials observed. Using computational simulation methods and the newly determined structure of Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase Rieske ferredoxin (NDO-F9816-4), we have developed a model to predict the reduction potential of Rieske proteins given only their crystal structure. The reduction potential of NDO-F9816-4, determined using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode, was -150+/-2 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode. The predicted reduction potentials correlate well with experimentally determined potentials. Given this model, the effect of protein mutations can be evaluated. Our results suggest that the reduction potential of new proteins can be estimated with good confidence from 3D structures of proteins. The structure of NDO-F9816-4 is the most basic Rieske ferredoxin structure determined to date. Thus, the contributions of additional structural motifs and their effects on reduction potential can be compared with respect to this base structure.
The human 11beta-hydroxylase (hCYP11B1) is responsible for the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol into the major mammalian glucocorticoid, cortisol. The reduction equivalents needed for this reaction are provided via a short electron transfer chain consisting of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin and a FAD-containing reductase. On the biochemical and biophysical level, little is known about hCYP11B1 because it is very unstable for analyses performed in vitro. This instability is also the reason why it has not been possible to stably express it so far in Escherichia coli and subsequently purify it. In the present study, we report on the successful and reproducible purification of recombinant hCYP11B1 coexpressed with molecular chaperones GroES/GroEL in E. coli. The protein was highly purified to apparent homogeneity, as observed by SDS/PAGE. Upon mass spectrometry, the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of the protein was estimated to be 55 761, which is consistent with the value 55 760.76 calculated for the form lacking the translational initiator Met. The functionality of hCYP11B1 was analyzed using different methods (substrate conversion assays, stopped-flow, Biacore). The results clearly demonstrate that the enzyme is capable of hydroxylating its substrates at position 11-beta. Moreover, the determined NADPH coupling percentage for the hCYP11B1 catalyzed reactions using either 11-deoxycortisol or 11-deoxycorticosterone as substrates was approximately 75% in both cases. Biacore and stopped-flow measurements indicate that hCYP11B1 possesses more than one binding site for its redox partner adrenodoxin, possibly resulting in the formation of more than one productive complexes. In addition, we performed CD measurements to obtain information about the structure of hCYP11B1.
BACKGROUND - The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-FB1). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-OB1), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene.
RESULTS - In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-OB1 in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-FB1 has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted.
CONCLUSION - This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron-sulfur cluster. Because this ferredoxin is used by multiple oxygenases present in the B1 organism, this ferredoxin-oxygenase system provides the structural platform to dissect the balance between promiscuity and selectivity in protein-protein electron transport systems.
Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 initiates the catabolism of biphenyl by adding dioxygen to the aromatic nucleus to form (+)-cis-(2R, 3S)-dihydroxy-1-phenylcyclohexa-4,6-diene. The present study focuses on the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase system, which catalyzes the dioxygenation reaction. This enzyme has been shown to have a broad substrate range, catalyzing the dioxygenation of not only biphenyl, but also three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown B1 cells contained three protein components that were required for the oxidation of biphenyl. The genes encoding the three components (bphA4, bphA3 and bphA1f,A2f) were expressed in Escherichia coli. Biotransformations of biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and benzo[a]pyrene as substrates using the recombinant E. coli strain resulted in the formation of the expected cis-dihydrodiol products previously shown to be produced by biphenyl-induced strain B1. The three protein components were purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized in detail. The reductase component (bphA4), designated reductase(BPH-B1), was a 43 kD monomer containing one mol FAD/mol reductase(BPH-B1). The ferredoxin component (bphA3), designated ferredoxin(BPH-B1), was a 12 kD monomer containing approximately 2 g-atoms each of iron and acid-labile sulfur. The oxygenase component (bphA1f,A2f), designated oxygenase(BPH-B1), was a 217 kD heterotrimer consisting of alpha and beta subunits (approximately 51 and 21 kD, respectively). The iron and acid-labile sulfur contents of oxygenase(BPH-B1) per alphabeta were 2.4 and 1.8 g-atom per mol, respectively. Reduced ferredoxin(BPH-B1) and oxygenase(BPH-B1) each gave EPR signals typical of Rieske [2Fe-2S] proteins. Crystals of reductase(BPH-B1), ferredoxin(BPH-B1) and oxygenase(BPH-B1 )diffracted to 2.5 A, 2.0 A and 1.75 A, respectively. The structures of the three proteins are currently being determined.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a P450 of the sterol demethylase family (CYP51) chromosomally located adjacent to a ferredoxin (Fdx). CYP51 and Fdx were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Spectroscopic analyses were consistent with cysteinate- and aqua-ligated heme iron in CYP51. An epsilon419 of 134 mM(-1) cm(-1) was determined for oxidized CYP51. Analysis of interactions of 1-, 2-, and 4-phenylimidazoles with CYP51 showed that the 1- and 4-forms were heme iron-coordinating inhibitors, while 2-phenylimidazole induced a substrate-like optical shift. The 2-phenyimidazole-bound CYP51 demonstrated unusual decreases in high-spin heme iron content at elevated temperatures and an almost complete absence of high-spin heme iron by low-temperature EPR. These data suggest thermally induced alterations in CYP51 active site structure and/or binding modes for the small ligand. Reduction of CYP51 in the presence of carbon monoxide leads to formation of an Fe(II)-CO complex with a Soret absorption maximum at 448.5 nm, which collapses (at 0.246 min(-1) at pH 7.0) forming a species with a Soret maximum at 421.5 nm (the inactive P420 form). The rate of P420 formation is accelerated at lower pH, consistent with protonation of the cysteinate (Cys 394) to a thiol underlying the P450-P420 transition. The P450 form is stabilized by estriol, which induces a type I spectral shift on binding CYP51 (Kd = 21.7 microM). Nonstandard spectral changes occur on CYP51 reduction (using either dithionite or natural redox partners), including a blue-shifted Soret band and development of a strong feature at approximately 558.5 nm, suggestive of cysteine thiol ligation. Thus, ligand-free ferrous CYP51 is prone to thiolate ligand protonation even in the absence of carbon monoxide. Analysis of reoxidized CYP51 demonstrates that the enzyme re-forms P450, indicating that Cys 394 thiol is readily deprotonated to thiolate in the ferric form. Spectroscopic analysis of Fdx by EPR (resonance at g = 2.03) and magnetic CD (intensity for oxidized and reduced forms and signal intensity dependence on field strength and temperature) demonstrated that Fdx binds a [3Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. Potentiometric studies show that the midpoint potential for ligand-free CYP51 is -375 mV, increasing to -225 mV in the estriol-bound form. The Fdx potential is -31 mV. Fdx forms a productive electron transfer complex with CYP51 and reduces it at a rate of 3.0 min(-1) in the ligand-free form and 4.3 min(-1) in the estriol-bound form, despite a thermodynamic barrier. Steady-state analysis of a M. tuberculosis class I redox system comprising flavoprotein reductase A (FprA), Fdx, and estriol-bound CYP51 indicates heme iron reduction as a rate-limiting step.
An immobilized system was developed to detect interactions of human cytochromes P450 (P450) with the accessory proteins NADPH-P450 reductase and cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) using an enzyme-linked affinity approach. Purified enzymes were first bound to wells of a polystyrene plate, and biotinylated partner enzymes were added and bound. A streptavidin-peroxidase complex was added, and protein-protein binding was monitored by measuring peroxidase activity of the bound biotinylated proteins. In a model study, we examined protein-protein interactions of Pseudomonas putida putidaredoxin (Pdx) and putidaredoxin reductase (PdR). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.96) was observed for binding of PdR-biotin to immobilized Pdx compared with binding of Pdx-biotin to immobilized PdR (the estimated K(d) value for the Pdx.PdR complex was 0.054muM). Human P450 2A6 interacted strongly with NADPH-P450 reductase; the K(d) values (with the reductase) ranged between 0.005 and 0.1muM for P450s 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. Relatively weak interaction was found between holo-b(5) or apo-b(5) (devoid of heme) with NADPH-P450 reductase. Among the rat, rabbit, and human P450 1A2 enzymes, the rat enzyme showed the tightest interaction with b(5), although no increases in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities were observed with any of the P450 1A2 enzymes. Human P450s 2A6, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 interacted well with b(5), with P450 3A4 yielding the lowest K(d) values followed by P450s 2A6 and 2D6. No appreciable increases in interaction between human P450s with b(5) or NADPH-P450 reductase were observed when typical substrates for the P450s were included. We also found that NADPH-P450 reductase did not cause changes in the P450.substrate K(d) values estimated from substrate-induced UV-visible spectral changes with rabbit P450 1A2 or human P450 2A6, 2D6, or 3A4. Collectively, the results show direct and tight interactions between P450 enzymes and the accessory proteins NADPH-P450 reductase and b(5), with different affinities, and that ligand binding to mammalian P450s did not lead to increased interaction between P450s and the reductase.
We describe predictions of the structures of CASP5 targets using Rosetta. The Rosetta fragment insertion protocol was used to generate models for entire target domains without detectable sequence similarity to a protein of known structure and to build long loop insertions (and N-and C-terminal extensions) in cases where a structural template was available. Encouraging results were obtained both for the de novo predictions and for the long loop insertions; we describe here the successes as well as the failures in the context of current efforts to improve the Rosetta method. In particular, de novo predictions failed for large proteins that were incorrectly parsed into domains and for topologically complex (high contact order) proteins with swapping of segments between domains. However, for the remaining targets, at least one of the five submitted models had a long fragment with significant similarity to the native structure. A fully automated version of the CASP5 protocol produced results that were comparable to the human-assisted predictions for most of the targets, suggesting that automated genomic-scale, de novo protein structure prediction may soon be worthwhile. For the three targets where the human-assisted predictions were significantly closer to the native structure, we identify the steps that remain to be automated.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Previous work from this laboratory indicated that the N-terminus of recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2 expressed in Escherichia coli is blocked (P. Sandhu, Z. Guo, T. Baba, M. V. Martin, R. H. Tukey, and F. P. Guengerich, (1994) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 30, 168 -177). A modification of this construct was done to insert an extra 12 residues containing a thrombin-sensitive site just beyond the most N-terminal hydrophobic segment, and the protein was expressed, purified, and cut with thrombin. Treatment of E. coli membranes in which the P450 1A2 with 12 extra residues was present with thrombin did not release the truncated form, suggesting that the added thrombin site may be imbedded in the membrane. The N-terminal of the recombinant proteins were blocked but mild acid hydrolysis generated the expected Met residues as analyzed by Edman degradation. Laser light scattering studies indicated that purified thrombin-cleaved P450 1A2 (devoid of the usual N-terminal 25 residues or the first 36 residues of the wild-type protein) was still aggregated in the absence of detergent and that some nondenaturing detergents could reduce the apparent size to that of a tetramer. The N-terminal truncated protein was as catalytically active as full-length P450 1A2 but required a higher concentration of NADPH-P450 reductase. P450 1A2 exhibited catalytic activity in E. coli cells, and activity of the purified enzyme could be supported by E. coli flavodoxin and NADPH-flavodoxin reductase. Spinach ferredoxin and NADPH-ferredoxin reductase could also substitute for NADPH-P450 reductase. These artificial electron donors did not require phospholipid for oxidation reactions; however, phospholipid was required for optimal activity when either P450 1A2 or the truncated form was used with NADPH-P450 reductase. Rates of oxidation of 7-ethoxyresorufin were considerably higher for both P450 1A2 and the truncated form when NADPH-P450 reductase was replaced with the "oxygen surrogate" iodosylbenzene, indicating that P450 reduction and oxygen activation are normally limiting in this P450 1A2 reaction.
The cDNA sequence encoding the complete mature form of the steroidogenic ferredoxin from chicken testis has been determined and the amino acid sequence deduced therefrom has been compared with the sequences of bovine, human and porcine steroidogenic ferredoxins. The chicken sequence is between 84% and 88% identical with those of the other mitochondrial iron-sulfur proteins. Thus, the amino acid structure of steroidogenic ferredoxins which transfer electrons to mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P-450 has been very highly conserved over evolutionary time.