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OBJECTIVES - To investigate the association between green tea intake and incident stones in two large prospective cohorts.
METHODS - We examined self-reported incident kidney stone risk in the Shanghai Men's Health Study (n = 58 054; baseline age 40-74 years) and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 69 166; baseline age 40-70 years). Information on the stone history and tea intake was collected by in-person surveys. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for baseline demographic variables, medical history and dietary intakes including non-tea oxalate from a validated food frequency questionnaire.
RESULTS - During 319 211 and 696 950 person-years of follow up, respectively, 1202 men and 1451 women reported incident stones. Approximately two-thirds of men and one-quarter of women were tea drinkers at baseline, of whom green tea was the primary type consumed (95% in men, 88% in women). Tea drinkers (men: hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.88; women: hazard ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.98) and specifically green tea drinkers (men: hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.88; women: hazard ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.95) had lower incident risk than never/former drinkers. Compared with never/former drinkers, a stronger dose-response trend was observed for the amount of dried tea leaf consumed/month by men (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.80, P < 0.001) than by women (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.08, P = 0.041).
CONCLUSIONS - Green tea intake is associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones, and the benefit is observed more strongly among men.
© 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.
OBJECTIVE - Little evidence exists regarding long-term diet quality and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Asian populations, who have undergone a nutrition transition and a diabetes epidemic.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 117,919 Chinese men and women, 40-74 years old, free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline, were followed from 1996 to 2015. Diet quality was assessed by a healthy diet score (HDS) based on eight commonly consumed food groups previously suggested to be related to diabetes. Long-term diet quality and its changes were assessed by repeated surveys using food-frequency questionnaires.
RESULTS - We identified 6,111 incident diabetes cases during a mean follow-up of 11.5 years. Higher HDS was associated with lower diabetes risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85 [95% CI 0.78-0.92] in the highest vs. lowest quintile, <0.0001) after adjustment for potential confounders including BMI. Maintaining a high HDS during follow-up was associated with 26% lower risk compared with a consistently low HDS (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.63-0.85]). The inverse association between HDS and diabetes was observed regardless of participants' age, sex, smoking and exercise habits, obesity status, and metabolic disease status but was more prominent among those who participated in leisure-time exercise ( = 0.004). When considered jointly, a sustained high HDS plus exercise was associated with a 45% reduced risk of diabetes (HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.45-0.67]).
CONCLUSIONS - A high-quality diet, especially maintained over the long term and in conjunction with leisure-time exercise, is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes among urban Chinese adults.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) was the first gene identified by genome-wide association studies to correlate with higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity. FTO remains the locus with the largest and most replicated effect on body weight, but the mechanism whereby FTO affects body weight and the development of obesity is not fully understood. Here we tested whether FTO is associated with differences in food cravings and a key aspect of dopamine function that has been hypothesized to influence food reward mechanisms. Moreover, as food cravings and dopamine function are known to decline with age, we explored effects of age on relations between FTO and food cravings and dopamine function. Seven-eight healthy subjects between 22 and 83years old completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire and underwent genotyping for FTO rs9939609, the first FTO single nucleotide polymorphism associated with obesity. Compared to TT homozygotes, individuals carrying the obesity-susceptible A allele had higher total food cravings, which correlated with higher BMI. Additionally, food cravings declined with age, but this age effect differed across variants of FTO rs9939609: while TT homozygotes showed the typical age-related decline in food cravings, there was no such decline among A carriers. All subjects were scanned with [18F]fallypride PET to assess a recent proposal that at the neurochemical level FTO alters dopamine D2-like receptor (DRD2) function to influence food reward related mechanisms. However, we observed no evidence of FTO effects on DRD2 availability.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cetaceans, a group of mammals adapted to the aquatic environment that descended from terrestrial artiodactyls, exhibit tremendous interspecific differences in a number of phenotypes, including feeding behavior, such as filter feeding in the Mysticeti vs prey-hunting Odontoceti, and size, with the smallest cetacean, the vaquita, at 1.4 meters and the largest, the blue whale, reaching 33 meters. The Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) regulates food intake, energy balance, and somatic growth in both mammals and teleosts. In this study, we examined allelic variants of the MC4R in cetaceans. We sequenced the MC4R from 20 cetaceans, and pharmacologically characterized 17 of these protein products. Results identified a single variation at amino acid 156 in the MC4R from representative species of major cetacean lineages uniquely associated with the toothed whales or Odontoceti (arginine at 156) and baleen whales or Mysticeti (glutamine at 156). The Q156 receptor variant found in the larger baleen whales was functionally less responsive to its endogenous anorexigenic ligand, α-MSH. Furthermore, the R156 receptor variant showed greater constitutive activity and a higher affinity for ligand. These data suggest that the MC4R may be one gene involved in the evolution of feeding ecology, energy balance, and body size in cetaceans.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Little is known about whether prediagnostic nutritional factors may affect survival. We examined the associations of prediagnostic calcium intake from foods and/or supplements with lung cancer survival. The present analysis included 23,882 incident, primary lung cancer patients from 12 prospective cohort studies. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline in each cohort and standardized to caloric intake of 2,000 kcal/d for women and 2,500 kcal/d for men. Stratified, multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 5-year survival rates were 56%, 21%, and 5.7% for localized, regional, and distant stage lung cancer, respectively. Low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake (<500-600 mg/d, less than half of the recommendation) was associated with a small increase in risk of death compared with recommended calcium intakes (800-1,200 mg/d); HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.01-1.13) after adjusting for age, stage, histology, grade, smoking status, pack-years, and other potential prognostic factors. The association between low calcium intake and higher lung cancer mortality was evident primarily among localized/regional stage patients, with HR (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.04-1.27). No association was found for supplemental calcium with survival in the multivariable-adjusted model. This large pooled analysis is the first, to our knowledge, to indicate that low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake may be associated with poorer survival among early-stage lung cancer patients. This multinational prospective study linked low calcium intake to lung cancer prognosis. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a window into the workings of the brain and blood-brain barrier (BBB). Molecules that enter into the central nervous system (CNS) by passive diffusion or receptor-mediated transport through the choroid plexus often appear in the CSF prior to acting within the brain. Other molecules enter the CNS by passing through the BBB into the brain's interstitial fluid prior to appearing in the CSF. This pattern is also often observed for molecules synthesized by neurons or glia within the CNS. The CSF is therefore an important conduit for the entry and clearance of molecules into/from the CNS and thereby constitutes an important window onto brain activity and barrier function. Assessing the CSF basally, under experimental conditions, or in the context of challenges or metabolic diseases can provide powerful insights about brain function. Here, we review important findings made by our labs, as influenced by the late Randall Sakai, by interrogating the CSF.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake.
Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Diabetes, a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is associated with impaired protein metabolism. We investigated whether protein intake is associated with ESRD and whether the risk is higher among blacks with diabetes.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We conducted a nested case-control study of ESRD within the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study of low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Through 2012, 1057 incident ESRD cases were identified by linkage with the United States Renal Data System and matched to 3198 controls by age, sex, and race. Dietary intakes were assessed from a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models that included matching variables, BMI, education, income, hypertension, total energy intake, and percent energy from saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mean (±SD) daily energy intake from protein was higher among ESRD cases than controls (15.7 ± 3.3 vs. 15.1 ± 3.1%, P < 0.0001). For a 1% increase in percent energy intake from protein, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for ESRD were 1.06 (1.02-1.10) for blacks with diabetes, 1.02 (0.98-1.06) for blacks without diabetes, 0.99 (0.90-1.09) for whites with diabetes and 0.94 (0.84-1.06) for whites without diabetes. Protein intake in g/kg/day was also associated with ESRD (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.17-2.65).
CONCLUSION - Our results raise the possibility that among blacks with diabetes, increased dietary protein is associated with increased incidence of ESRD. Studies on how protein intake and metabolism affect ESRD are needed.
Copyright Â© 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Soy food intake may have protective effects against the risk for breast cancer, including estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear.
METHODS - To evaluate the association of soy intake with the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and genes in the tumor tissue of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; ie, breast cancer lacking expression of ER, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), the expression of 800 miRNAs and 302 genes were measured with NanoString nCounter assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from 272 TNBC patients. Soy intake during the 1-year period before the cancer diagnosis was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The association of soy intake with the expression of miRNAs and genes was evaluated via linear regression analysis with adjustments for patient age and TNM stage.
RESULTS - A total of 14 miRNAs and 24 genes were significantly associated with soy food intake (P < .05): Thirteen of the 14 miRNAs (92.9%) and 9 of the 24 genes (37.5%), including tumor suppressors miR-29a-3p and IGF1R, showed overexpression for those women with high soy intake, whereas the remaining miRNAs and genes, including oncogenes KRAS and FGFR4, showed underexpression. Furthermore, cell growth-related genes showed a predominantly underexpression pattern according to a comparison of tumor samples from women with high soy food intake and samples from women with lower soy food intake.
CONCLUSIONS - This study suggests that long-term prediagnosis soy intake may lead to increased expression of tumor suppressors and decreased expression of oncogenes, especially cell growth-related genes, in breast tumor tissues. Cancer 2016;122:2544-51. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
© 2016 American Cancer Society.
In mammals a network of circadian clocks coordinates behavior and physiology with 24-h environmental cycles. Consumption of high-fat diet disrupts this temporal coordination by advancing the phase of the liver molecular clock and altering daily rhythms of eating behavior and locomotor activity. In this study we sought to determine whether these effects of high-fat diet on circadian rhythms were reversible. We chronically fed mice high-fat diet and then returned them to low-fat chow diet. We found that the phase of the liver PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE rhythm was advanced (by 4h) and the daily rhythms of eating behavior and locomotor activity were altered for the duration of chronic high-fat diet feeding. Upon diet reversal, the eating behavior rhythm was rapidly reversed (within 2 days) and the phase of the liver clock was restored by 7 days of diet reversal. In contrast, the daily pattern of locomotor activity was not restored even after 2 weeks of diet reversal. Thus, while the circadian system is sensitive to changes in the macronutrient composition of food, the eating behavior rhythm and liver circadian clock are specifically tuned to respond to changes in diet.