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BACKGROUND - Whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in populations with a high burden of risk factors for kidney disease is unknown. We sought to determine whether PUFA intake is associated with ESRD.
METHODS - We conducted a nested case-control study of ESRD within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective cohort of low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Through 2012, 1,074 incident ESRD cases were identified by linkage with the United States Renal Data System and matched to 3,230 controls by age, sex and race. Dietary intake of total, n-3 or n-6 PUFA was assessed from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models that included matching variables, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, education, income, total energy intake and percent energy from protein and saturated fat.
RESULTS - The mean (SD) age of participants was 55 (9) years. Most participants were women (55 %), black (87 %), with hypertension (67 %) and on average obtained 8 % of their energy from PUFA. Higher PUFA intake was marginally associated with a lower risk of ESRD in adjusted analyses. The adjusted odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for ESRD for the 5 vs. 1 quintile of PUFA were 0.79 (0.60-1.05; P = 0.06) for total PUFA, 0.81 (0.61-1.06; P = 0.04) for n-6 PUFA and 0.93 (0.71-1.21; P = 0.45) for n-3 PUFA.
CONCLUSIONS - We observed a marginally significant inverse trend between dietary PUFA intake and ESRD incidence, mainly driven by n-6 fatty acid intake. Our findings require replication but suggest that a diet rich in n-6 PUFA may prevent ESRD development in a population with a high burden of kidney disease risk factors.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Protein energy wasting and systemic inflammation are prevalent in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to improve protein homeostasis. We hypothesized that administration of high-dose (2.9 g/d) ω-3 would be associated with decreased muscle protein breakdown in MHD patients with systemic inflammation.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS - This is a substudy from a randomized, placebo-controlled study (NCT00655525). Patients were recruited between September 2008 and June 2011. Primary inclusion criteria included signs of chronic inflammation (average C-reactive protein of ≥5 mg/L over three consecutive measurements), lack of active infectious or inflammatory disease, no hospitalization within 1 month prior to the study, and not receiving steroids (>5 mg/d) and/or immunosuppressive agents. The primary outcomes were forearm muscle and whole body protein breakdown and synthesis before and after the intervention. The patients received ω-3 (n=11) versus placebo (n=9) for 12 weeks. Analysis of covariance was used to compare outcome variables at 12 weeks. Models were adjusted for a propensity score that was derived from age, sex, race, baseline high sensitivity C-reactive protein, diabetes mellitus, and fat mass because the groups were not balanced for several characteristics.
RESULTS - Compared with placebo, ω-3 supplementation was significantly associated with decreased muscle protein breakdown at 12 weeks (-31, [interquartile range, -98--13] versus 26 [interquartile range, 13-87] µg/100 ml per min; P=0.01), which remained significant after multivariate adjustment (-46, [95% confidence interval, -102 to -1] µg/100 ml per min). ω-3 Supplementation resulted in decreased forearm muscle protein synthesis while the rate in the placebo group increased; however, there is no longer a statistically significant difference in skeletal muscle protein synthesis or in net protein balance after multivariate adjustment. There was no statistically significant effect of ω-3 supplementation on whole body protein synthesis or breakdown.
CONCLUSIONS - High-dose ω-3 supplementation over 12 weeks in MHD patients with systemic inflammation was associated with attenuation of forearm muscle protein breakdown but did not influence skeletal muscle protein synthesis, skeletal muscle net protein balance or any component of the whole-body protein balance. These results should be interpreted cautiously given the imbalance in the two groups and the short duration of the intervention.
Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Dietary consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against cardiometabolic disease through modulation of systemic and adipose inflammation. However, it is often difficult to detect the subtle effects of n-3 PUFA on inflammatory biomarkers in traditional intervention studies. We aimed to identify novel n-3 PUFA modulated gene expression using unbiased adipose transcriptomics during evoked endotoxemia in a clinical trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation. We analyzed adipose gene expression using RNA sequencing in the fenofibrate and omega-3 fatty acid modulation of endotoxemia (FFAME) trial of healthy individuals at three timepoints: before and after n-3 PUFA supplementation (n=8; 3600mg/day EPA/DHA) for 6weeks compared with placebo (n=6), as well as during a subsequent evoked inflammatory challenge (lipopolysaccharide 0.6ng/kg i.v.). As expected, supplementation with n-3 PUFA vs. placebo alone had only modest effects on adipose tissue gene expression, e.g., increased expression of immediate early response IER2. In contrast, the transcriptomic response to evoked endotoxemia was significantly modified by n-3 PUFA supplementation, with several genes demonstrating significant n-3 PUFA gene-nutrient interactions, e.g., enhanced transcriptional responses in specific immune genes IER5L, HES1, IL1RN, CCL18, IL1RN, IL7R, IL8, CCL3 and others. These data highlight potential mechanisms whereby n-3 PUFA consumption may enhance the immune response to an inflammatory challenge. In conclusion, unbiased transcriptomics during evoked inflammation reveals novel immune modulating functions of n-3 PUFA nutritional intervention in a dynamic pathophysiological setting.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
SCOPE - Omega-3 PUFAs (n-3 PUFAs) reduce IL-6 gene expression, but their effects on transcription regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to conduct an integrated analysis with both population and in vitro studies to systematically explore the relationships among n-3 PUFA, DNA methylation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene expression, and protein concentration of IL6.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Using data in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, we found that higher methylation of IL6 promoter cg01770232 was associated with higher IL-6 plasma concentration (p = 0.03) and greater IL6 gene expression (p = 0.0005). Higher circulating total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cg01770232 methylation (p = 0.007) and lower IL-6 concentration (p = 0.02). Moreover, an allele of IL6 rs2961298 was associated with higher cg01770232 methylation (p = 2.55 × 10(-7) ). The association between n-3 PUFA and cg01770232 methylation was dependent on rs2961298 genotype (p = 0.02), but higher total n-3 PUFA was associated with lower cg01770232 methylation in the heterozygotes (p = 0.04) not in the homozygotes.
CONCLUSION - Higher n-3 PUFA is associated with lower methylation at IL6 promoter, which may be modified by IL6 SNPs.
© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially the n3-series, may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but recent randomized studies have failed to demonstrate these benefits. One of the prevailing hypotheses is that PUFA intake may not confer benefits beyond those provided by statins, but studies comparing statin users to non-users with regard to effects of PUFA are lacking.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Black and white men and women (n = 69,559) in the Southern Community Cohort Study were studied. Cox regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, recruitment site, education, income, smoking, diabetes, and dietary variables were used.
RESULTS - At baseline the mean ± SD age was 52 ± 9 years, 60% of participants were women, 54% had hypertension and 16% used statins. We observed modest inverse associations between n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA intake with mortality among non-statin users but not among statin users. In adjusted analyses, the HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality (6,396 deaths over a median of 6.4 years) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile were 0.90 (0.82-1.00) for n3-PUFA and 0.80 (0.70-0.92) for n6-PUFA among non-statin users, whereas they were 1.06 (0.87-1.28) and 0.96 (0.78-1.19) for n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA, respectively, among statin users.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results suggest potential benefits of PUFA consumption on mortality which are only apparent in the absence of statin therapy. It seems prudent to consider the potential benefit of PUFA consumption in the primary prevention of CVD among patients who are not candidates for statin therapy but are at increased risk for CVD and mortality.
Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. All rights reserved.
Resolvins, maresins, and protectins can be formed from fish oils. These specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) have been implicated in the resolution of inflammation. Synthetic versions of such SPMs exert anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and when administered to animal models. However, their importance as endogenous products formed in sufficient amounts to exert anti-inflammatory actions in vivo remains speculative. We biased our ability to detect SPMs formed in healthy volunteers by supplementing fish oil in doses shown previously to influence blood pressure and platelet aggregation under placebo-controlled conditions. Additionally, we sought to determine the relative formation of SPMs during an acute inflammatory response and its resolution, evoked in healthy volunteers by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bioactive lipids, enzymatic epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and free radical-catalyzed prostanoids [isoprostanes (iPs)] formed from arachidonic acid and the fish oils, served as comparators. Despite the clear shift from ω-6 to ω-3 EETs and iPs, we failed to detect a consistent signal, in most cases, of SPM formation in urine or plasma in response to fish oil, and in all cases in response to LPS on a background of fish oil. Our results question the relevance of these SPMs to the putative anti-inflammatory effects of fish oils in humans.
Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
BACKGROUND - We examined associations between fish and n-3 LCFA and mortality in a prospective study with a large proportion of blacks with low socio-economic status.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We observed 6914 deaths among 77,604 participants with dietary data (follow-up time 5.5 years). Of these, 77,100 participants had available time-to-event data. We investigated associations between mortality with fish and n-3 LCFA intake, adjusting for age, race, sex, kcal/day, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, education, chronic disease, insurance coverage, and meat intake. Intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower mortality among all participants. Analysis of trends in overall mortality by quintiles of intake showed that intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower risk of total mortality among all participants. When participants with chronic disease were excluded, the observed association remained only between intakes of baked/grilled fish, while fried fish was associated with lower risk of mortality in participants with prevalent chronic disease. The association between n-3 LCFA intake and lower risk of mortality was significant among those with diabetes at baseline. There was an inverse association of mortality with fried fish intake in men, but not women. Total fish and baked/grilled fish intakes were associated with lower mortality among blacks while fried fish intake was associated with lower mortality among whites. Effect modifications were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION - Our findings suggest a modest benefit of fish consumption on mortality.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
SCOPE - Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We conducted meta-analyses (N = 11 668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein), and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma versus erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid for docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid.
CONCLUSION - Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes.
© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in preventing recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is controversial and their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress in this population are not known. This study examined the effects of high-dose marine n-3 PUFAs added to conventional therapy on the recurrence of AF and on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF were randomized to n-3 PUFAs (4 g/day; n = 126) or placebo (n = 64) in a 2:1 ratio in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The primary outcome was time to recurrence of AF. Secondary outcomes were changes in biomarkers of inflammation (serum interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-10, tissue necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor), N-terminal-pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide, and oxidative stress (urinary F2-isoprostanes). AF recurred in 74 patients (58.7%) randomized to n-3 PUFAs and in 30 patients (46.9%) who received placebo; time to recurrence of AF did not differ significantly in the 2 groups (hazard ratio 1.20; 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.90, adjusted p = 0.438). Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFAs did not result in clinically meaningful changes in concentrations of inflammatory markers, N-terminal-pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide or F2-isoprostanes. In conclusion, in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF, treatment with n-3 PUFAs 4 g/day did not reduce the recurrence of AF, nor was it associated with clinically important effects on concentrations of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. (Clinical trial registration number, NCT 00552084.).
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Chronic systemic inflammation is common in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis (CKD5D) and has been considered a key mediator of the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient population. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) will attenuate the systemic inflammatory process in CKD5D patients.
METHODS - The design was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled pilot trial (NCT00655525). Thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 fashion to receive 2.9 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, n-3) plus docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3) versus placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in pro-inflammatory chemokines measured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Secondary outcomes were changes in systemic inflammatory markers. Analysis of covariance was used to compare percent change from baseline to 12 weeks.
RESULTS - Thirty-one patients completed 12 weeks and three patients completed 6 weeks of the study. Median age was 52 (interquartile range 45, 60) years, 74% were African-American and 79% were male. Supplementation of ω-3 PUFAs effectively decreased the LPS-induced PBMC expression of RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted) and MCP-1 (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1; unadjusted P = 0.04 and 0.06; adjusted for demographics P = 0.02 and 0.05, respectively). There was no significant effect of the intervention on serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and procalcitonin).
CONCLUSIONS - The results of this pilot study suggest that supplementation of ω-3 PUFAs is beneficial in decreasing the levels of endothelial chemokines, RANTES and MCP-1. Studies of larger sample size and longer duration are required to further evaluate effects of ω-3 PUFAs on systemic markers of inflammation, other metabolic parameters and clinical outcomes, particularly cardiovascular outcomes in CKD5D patients.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.