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PURPOSE - To report the occurrence of periorbital infections in 3 children treated with the tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond) after traumatic periorbital laceration.
METHODS - We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients referred to Vanderbilt Children's Hospital for the treatment of periorbital infections to identify cases associated with the use of Dermabond. The clinical features and outcomes of each case were reviewed. We performed a meta-analysis of published cases to identify any association of tissue adhesive with wound infection rate.
RESULTS - The review identified 3 patients, all of whom were younger than 3 years of age and developed cellulitis within 24 hours of wound closure. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic therapy was started in less than 3 hours in all cases. Cultures were obtained in 2 of the 3 cases; both grew Streptococcus pyogenes. Two cases required surgical intervention, including one with necrotizing fasciitis. In the meta-analysis, the wound infection rate was 1.8% in tissue adhesive closure and 0.3% in standard wound closure (odds ratio 6.0; 95% confidence interval 0.7-50.3, P = 0.06).
CONCLUSIONS - The development of periorbital cellulitis after the closure of periorbital lacerations with Dermabond should alert the physician to the possibility of periorbital infection, including necrotizing fasciitis. The literature review suggests a trend toward an increased infection rate with tissue adhesive closure. We propose that ineffective wound sterilization before tissue adhesive wound closure may be a contributing factor.
Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hemodialysis and hemofiltration have been important technologies in saving the lives of patients with acute (ARF) and chronic renal failure by clearing small solutes from plasma and thereby preventing death from acidemia, hyperkalemia, volume overload, and uremia. These therapeutic approaches, however, are still suboptimal, as patients with ARF have mortality rates exceeding 50%, and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have, on average, a life expectancy of 4-5 years. The preeminent cause of death in patients with ARF is the development of sepsis or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome with resulting systemic vasodilation, hypotension, ischemic injury to solid organs, multi-organ failure, and death. This vasodilation is due to persistent and excessive pro-inflammation. Similarly, the reduced survival times of patients with ESRD on chronic dialysis have been associated with a persistent and chronic systemic pro-inflammatory state. We have hypothesized that the loss of renal tubule cell mass acutely in acute tubule necrosis and chronically in ESRD results in an immunologically dysregulated state leading to excessive pro-inflammation. The replacement of renal tubule cell function may thus change the current dismal prognosis of patients with these disorders. In this regard, this report presents the first patient ever treated with a bioartificial kidney consisting of a synthetic hemofilter in series with a renal tubule assist device (RAD) containing approximately 10(9) human renal tubule cells. This treatment in a critically ill patient with multi-organ failure and ARF in the intensive care unit was associated temporally with improved cardiovascular parameters and enhanced native kidney function. Multiple systemic plasma cytokine levels and gene expression profiles of peripheral white blood cells were also temporally changed with cell therapy. Clinical trials in patients suffering from either ARF or ESRD are currently ongoing to evaluate the influence of the RAD on the inflammatory response in these groups of patients.
Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel