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Measuring the hierarchical general factor model of psychopathology in young adults.
Lahey BB, Zald DH, Perkins SF, Villalta-Gil V, Werts KB, Van Hulle CA, Rathouz PJ, Applegate B, Class QA, Poore HE, Watts AL, Waldman ID
(2018) Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 27:
MeSH Terms: Adult, Cohort Studies, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Mental Disorders, Models, Statistical, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
There is evidence that models of psychopathology specifying a general factor and specific second-order factors fit better than competing structural models. Nonetheless, additional tests are needed to examine the generality and boundaries of the general factor model. In a selected second wave of a cohort study, first-order dimensions of psychopathology symptoms in 499 23- to 31-year-old twins were analyzed. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a bifactor model specifying a general factor and specific internalizing and externalizing factors fit better than competing models. Factor loadings in this model were sex invariant despite greater variances in the specific internalizing factor among females and greater variances in the general and specific externalizing factors among males. The bifactor structure was robust to the exclusion of any single first-order dimension of psychopathology. Furthermore, the results were essentially unchanged when all overlapping symptoms that define multiple disorders were excluded from symptom dimensions. Furthermore, the best-fitting bifactor model also emerged in exploratory structural equation modeling with freely estimated cross-loadings. The general factor of psychopathology was robust across variations in measurement and analysis.
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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9 MeSH Terms
'Speaking up' about patient safety concerns and unprofessional behaviour among residents: validation of two scales.
Martinez W, Etchegaray JM, Thomas EJ, Hickson GB, Lehmann LS, Schleyer AM, Best JA, Shelburne JT, May NB, Bell SK
(2015) BMJ Qual Saf 24: 671-80
MeSH Terms: Academic Medical Centers, Adult, Attitude of Health Personnel, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Internship and Residency, Male, Organizational Culture, Patient Safety, Physicians, Professional Misconduct, Psychometrics, Reproducibility of Results, Surveys and Questionnaires, United States
Show Abstract · Added May 13, 2016
OBJECTIVE - To develop and test the psychometric properties of two new survey scales aiming to measure the extent to which the clinical environment supports speaking up about (a) patient safety concerns and (b) unprofessional behaviour.
METHOD - Residents from six large US academic medical centres completed an anonymous, electronic survey containing questions regarding safety culture and speaking up about safety and professionalism concerns.
RESULTS - Confirmatory factor analysis supported two separate, one-factor speaking up climates (SUCs) among residents; one focused on patient safety concerns (SUC-Safe scale) and the other focused on unprofessional behaviour (SUC-Prof scale). Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.70) and were unique from validated safety and teamwork climate measures (r<0.85 for all correlations), a measure of discriminant validity. The SUC-Safe and SUC-Prof scales were associated with participants' self-reported speaking up behaviour about safety and professionalism concerns (r=0.21, p<0.001 and r=0.22, p<0.001, respectively), a measure of concurrent validity, while teamwork and safety climate scales were not.
CONCLUSIONS - We created and provided evidence for the reliability and validity of two measures (SUC-Safe and SUC-Prof scales) associated with self-reported speaking up behaviour among residents. These two scales may fill an existing gap in residency and safety culture assessments by measuring the openness of communication about safety and professionalism concerns, two important aspects of safety culture that are under-represented in existing metrics.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
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16 MeSH Terms
Item response theory analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT).
Cho SJ, Wilmer J, Herzmann G, McGugin RW, Fiset D, Van Gulick AE, Ryan KF, Gauthier I
(2015) Psychol Assess 27: 552-66
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Facial Recognition, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Neuropsychological Tests, Psychological Theory, Psychometrics, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2016
We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bifactor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and 3 specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the 3 specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and 2 age groups (age ≤ 20 vs. age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT.
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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11 MeSH Terms
Nutrient-based dietary patterns of head and neck squamous cell cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay.
Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, De Stefani E, Correa P, Ronco AL, Acosta G, Mendilaharsu M, Silva C, Luaces ME
(2013) Cancer Causes Control 24: 1167-74
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Case-Control Studies, Diet, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Food, Head and Neck Neoplasms, Humans, Male, Meat, Middle Aged, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Surveys and Questionnaires, Uruguay
Show Abstract · Added September 3, 2013
OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutrient-based dietary patterns and squamous cell cancers of the head and neck.
METHODS - We used a case-control study which included 548 cases and 548 controls. From these participants, we derived 23 nutrients and they were then submitted to a factorability analysis in order to conduct a principal component factor analysis.
RESULTS - We were able to identify four nutrient-derived patterns. The first pattern (meat-based pattern) was positively associated with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (OR 2.85, 95 % CI 1.81-4.15), whereas the third pattern (fruit-based) was strongly protective (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.27-0.63). The other nutrient patterns were also significantly associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with minor ORs.
CONCLUSION - Both patterns suggest that red meat and fruits are major factors in the etiology of head and neck squamous cell cancer, replicating previous studies in the field.
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16 MeSH Terms
Is there a general factor of prevalent psychopathology during adulthood?
Lahey BB, Applegate B, Hakes JK, Zald DH, Hariri AR, Rathouz PJ
(2012) J Abnorm Psychol 121: 971-7
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Comorbidity, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Interview, Psychological, Male, Mental Disorders, Middle Aged, Models, Psychological, Prevalence
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
The patterns of comorbidity among prevalent mental disorders in adults lead them to load on "externalizing," "distress," and "fears" factors. These factors are themselves robustly correlated, but little attention has been paid to this fact. As a first step in studying the implications of these interfactor correlations, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses on diagnoses of 11 prevalent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) mental disorders in a nationally representative sample. A model specifying correlated externalizing, distress, and fears factors fit well, but an alternative model was tested in which a "general" bifactor was added to capture what these disorders share in common. There was a modest but significant improvement in fit for the bifactor model relative to the 3-factor oblique model, with all disorders loading strongly on the bifactor. Tests of external validity revealed that the fears, distress, and externalizing factors were differentially associated with measures of functioning and potential risk factors. Nonetheless, the general bifactor accounted for significant independent variance in future psychopathology, functioning, and other criteria over and above the fears, distress, and externalizing factors. These findings support the hypothesis that these prevalent forms of psychopathology have both important common and unique features. Future studies should determine whether this is because they share elements of their etiology and neurobiological mechanisms. If so, the existence of common features across diverse forms of prevalent psychopathology could have important implications for understanding the nature, etiology, and outcomes of psychopathology.
(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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13 MeSH Terms
Development of a quality of patient-health care provider communication scale from the perspective of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Salt E, Crofford LJ, Studts JL, Lightfoot R, Hall LA
(2013) Chronic Illn 9: 103-15
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Antirheumatic Agents, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Communication, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Perception, Physician-Patient Relations, Psychometrics, Reproducibility of Results, Surveys and Questionnaires, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added September 18, 2013
OBJECTIVES - To devise a patient-perspective driven measure of the quality of patient-health care provider communication and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 150 patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
METHODS - Items were developed from interviews with 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Two rheumatologists, a behavioral scientist, and a nurse researcher provided item feedback. Exploratory factor analysis with Oblimin rotation was used to examine the dimensionality of the newly developed Patient-Health Care Provider Communication Scale (PHCPCS). Cronbach's alpha was computed to assess internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Construct validity was tested by comparing the PHCPCS with the Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (PICS) using correlation analysis.
RESULTS - The PHCPCS measured two dimensions of the quality of patient-health care provider communication [Quality Communication (α = 0.94) and Negative Patient-Health Care Provider Communication (α = 0.73)]. The total PHCPCS score and its Quality Communication Subscale were positively correlated with the total score on the PICS and with the doctor facilitation subscale of the PICS.
DISCUSSION - This new measure of the quality of patient-health care provider communication has the potential for use in clinical practice, provider education, and further studies to improve health care to patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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17 MeSH Terms
Nutrient-derived dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay.
De Stefani E, Ronco AL, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Correa P, Acosta G, Mendilaharsu M
(2012) Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 13: 231-5
MeSH Terms: Case-Control Studies, Colorectal Neoplasms, Dietary Carbohydrates, Dietary Fats, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Food, Humans, Meat, Prognosis, Risk Factors, Uruguay, Vegetables
Show Abstract · Added September 3, 2013
In order to explore the role of nutrients and bioactive related substances in colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control in Uruguay, which is the country with the highest production of beef in the world. Six hundred and eleven (611) cases afflicted with colorectal cancer and 1,362 controls drawn from the same hospitals in the same time period were analyzed through unconditional multiple logistic regression. This base population was submitted to a principal components factor analysis and three factors were retained. They were labeled as the meat-based, plant-based, and carbohydrates patterns. They were rotated using orthogonal varimax method. The highest risk was positively associated with the meat-based pattern (OR for the highest quartile versus the lowest one 1.63, 95 % CI 1.22-2.18, P value for trend = 0.001), whereas the plant-based pattern was strongly protective (OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.45-0.81, P value for trend <0.0001. The carbohydrates pattern was only positively associated with colon cancer risk (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09). The meat-based pattern was rich in saturated fat, animal protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus, nutrients originated in red meat. Since herocyclic amines are formed in the well-done red meat through the action of amino acids and creatine, it is suggestive that this pattern could be an important etiologic agent for colorectal cancer.
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12 MeSH Terms
Comparative study of short forms of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia: fear of movement in a surgical spine population.
Archer KR, Phelps KD, Seebach CL, Song Y, Riley LH, Wegener ST
(2012) Arch Phys Med Rehabil 93: 1460-2
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Fear, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Movement, Orthopedic Procedures, Phobic Disorders, Psychometrics, Self Report, Severity of Illness Index
Show Abstract · Added March 10, 2014
OBJECTIVE - To compare the factor structure of 6 short forms of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) by means of confirmatory factor analysis in patients after spinal surgery for degenerative conditions.
DESIGN - A cross-sectional survey study.
SETTING - University-based surgical clinic.
PARTICIPANTS - Adults (N=137) treated by spinal surgery for a degenerative condition (ie, spinal stenosis, spondylosis with or without myelopathy, and spondylolisthesis).
INTERVENTIONS - Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE - Patients completed the TSK within 3 months of hospital discharge.
RESULTS - Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the 2-factor models of the TSK-13 and TSK-11 had a reasonable fit for the data, with internal consistency values >.70. A 1-factor TSK-4 (items 3, 6, 7, and 11) demonstrated an excellent fit for the data, but an adequate internal consistency was not maintained. A poor fit was noted for the 1-factor models of the TSK-13 and TSK-11, and a 4-item TSK (items 1, 2, 9, and 11).
CONCLUSIONS - The current study provides further evidence that specific short-form versions of the TSK may be useful for assessing fear of movement in surgical populations. Results support the measurement of fear of movement using the 2-factor, 13- and 11-item versions of the TSK in patients after spinal surgery. A TSK-4 (items 3, 6, 7, and 11) offers a promising alternative to the TSK-13 and TSK-11. However, further research is needed to test the validity and reliability of the TSK-4 in patients undergoing spinal surgery in order to support its use in a clinical environment. Researchers and clinicians interested in a shorter measure of fear of movement should consider using the TSK-11.
Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
Using confirmatory factor analysis to measure contemporaneous activation of defined neuronal networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Lahey BB, McNealy K, Knodt A, Zald DH, Sporns O, Manuck SB, Flory JD, Applegate B, Rathouz PJ, Hariri AR
(2012) Neuroimage 60: 1982-91
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Brain, Brain Mapping, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Models, Theoretical, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
Functional neuroimaging often generates large amounts of data on regions of interest. Such data can be addressed effectively with a widely-used statistical technique based on measurement theory that has not yet been applied to neuroimaging. Confirmatory factor analysis is a convenient hypothesis-driven modeling environment that can be used to conduct formal statistical tests comparing alternative hypotheses regarding the elements of putative neuronal networks. In such models, measures of each activated region of interest are treated as indicators of an underlying latent construct that represents the contemporaneous activation of the elements in the network. As such, confirmatory factor analysis focuses analyses on the activation of hypothesized networks as a whole, improves statistical power by modeling measurement error, and provides a theory-based approach to data reduction with a robust statistical basis. This approach is illustrated using data on seven regions of interest in a hypothesized mesocorticostriatal reward system in a sample of 262 adult volunteers assessed during a card-guessing reward task. A latent construct reflecting contemporaneous activation of the reward system was found to be significantly associated with a latent construct measuring impulsivity, particularly in males.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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12 MeSH Terms
Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality.
Ma JL, Zhang L, Brown LM, Li JY, Shen L, Pan KF, Liu WD, Hu Y, Han ZX, Crystal-Mansour S, Pee D, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, You WC, Gail MH
(2012) J Natl Cancer Inst 104: 488-92
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Amoxicillin, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Ascorbic Acid, China, Confounding Factors (Epidemiology), Dietary Supplements, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Garlic, Gastrointestinal Agents, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Incidence, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Omeprazole, Precancerous Conditions, Proportional Hazards Models, Stomach Neoplasms, Vitamin E, Vitamins
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
In the Shandong Intervention Trial, 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori reduced the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions, whereas 7.3 years of oral supplementation with garlic extract and oil (garlic treatment) or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium (vitamin treatment) did not. Here we report 14.7-year follow-up for gastric cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among 3365 randomly assigned subjects in this masked factorial placebo-controlled trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of gastric cancer incidence, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative hazard of cause-specific mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 3.0% of subjects who received H pylori treatment and in 4.6% of those who received placebo (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.96, P = .032). Gastric cancer deaths occurred among 1.5% of subjects assigned H pylori treatment and among 2.1% of those assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.28). Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014).
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27 MeSH Terms