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AIMS - To assess the efficacy and safety of ezetimibe/simvastatin (E/S) plus extended-release niacin (N) in hyperlipidaemic patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS) without DM (MetS/non-DM) or neither (non-DM/non-MetS).
METHODS - A subgroup analysis of a double-blind, 64-week trial of 1220 randomized patients who received E/S (10/20 mg) + N (to 2 g) or E/S (10/20 mg) for 64 weeks, or N (to 2 g) for 24 weeks then E/S (10/20 mg) + N (2 g) or E/S (10/20 mg) for 40 additional weeks. The evaluable populations of this analysis included n = 765 patients at 24 weeks and n = 574 at 64 weeks. Among those receiving N, only those who attained the 2-g dose were included in the analysis.
RESULTS - E/S+N improved levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, other lipids and lipoprotein ratios compared with N and E/S at 24 weeks and E/S at 64 weeks. The combination increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI comparably to N and more than E/S. E/S+N reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels more effectively than N and similarly to E/S. E/S+N was generally well tolerated. Discontinuations due to flushing with N and E/S+N were comparable and greater than E/S in all subgroups. Fasting glucose trended higher for N vs. E/S. Glucose elevations from baseline to 12 weeks were highest for patients with DM (24.9 mg/dl for N, 21.2 mg/dl for E/S+N, 17.5 mg/dl for E/S); fasting glucose then declined to pretreatment levels at 64 weeks in all subgroups. New-onset DM was more frequent among MetS patients than those without MetS during the first 24 weeks and trended higher among those assigned to N-containing regimens [n = 5(5.1%) for N, n = 2(1.7%) for E/S, n = 21(8.8%) for E/S+N]; during the 24-64 week extension study, diabetes was diagnosed in five additional patients in the E/S(cumulative incidence of 5.9%) and one in the E/S+N (cumulative incidence of 9.2%). Treatment-incident elevations in uric acid levels were increased among subjects assigned to N-containing regimens, but there were no effects on symptomatic gout.
CONCLUSION - Combination E/S+N is a safe treatment option for hyperlipidaemic patients including those with DM and MetS, but requires monitoring of glucose and potentially uric acid levels.
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The safety and efficacy of combination ezetimibe/simvastatin (E/S) plus extended-release niacin was assessed in 942 patients with type IIa/IIb hyperlipidemia for 64 weeks in a randomized, double-blind study. Patients received E/S (10/20 mg) plus niacin (to 2 g) or E/S (10/20 mg) for 64 weeks, or niacin (to 2 g) for 24 weeks and then E/S (10/20 mg) plus niacin (2 g) or E/S (10/20 mg) for an additional 40 weeks. The primary end point, the safety of E/S plus niacin, included prespecified adverse events (ie, liver, muscle, discontinuations due to flushing, gallbladder-related, cholecystectomy, fasting glucose changes, new-onset diabetes). The secondary end points included the percentage of change from baseline in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, other lipids, lipoprotein ratios and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The anticipated niacin-associated flushing led to a greater rate of study discontinuations with the E/S plus niacin regimen than with E/S alone (0.7%, p <0.001). The rate of liver and muscle adverse events was low (<1%) in both groups. Four patients had gallbladder-related adverse events; 1 patient in the E/S and 1 in the E/S plus niacin group underwent cholecystectomy. The occurrence of new-onset diabetes was 3.1% for the E/S and 4.9% for the E/S plus niacin group. The fasting glucose levels increased to greater than baseline during the first 12 weeks (E/S, 3.2 mg/dl; E/S plus niacin, 7.7 mg/dl) and gradually decreased to pretreatment levels by 64 weeks in both groups. E/S plus niacin significantly improved HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and A-I, and lipoprotein ratios compared with E/S (p
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hyperlipidemia is common after renal transplantation. On the basis of current lipid guidelines, the majority of renal transplant recipients should have plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <100 mg/dL. Even with statin (HMG-CoA [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA] reductase inhibitor) therapy, a significant number of renal transplant recipients have LDL-C levels >100 mg/dL. We report that ezetimibe, a novel inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption, was well tolerated and effectively reduced the LDL-C level to <100 mg/dL in our cohort of renal transplant recipients with persistently elevated LDL-C levels during treatment with maximally tolerated statin medications.
Hyperlipidemia affects the majority of renal transplant patients. Multiple risk factors contribute to elevated serum cholesterol including the use of certain immunosuppressant agents. HMG-Co A reductase inhibitors have become the preferred class of cholesterol-lowering medication with an increasing body of evidence to support their safety, efficacy, and outcomes in both the normal and renal transplant populations. New guidelines recommend lowering previous LDL-c goals as outcomes appears to continually improve. As a result, ezetimibe has been added to patients with persistently elevated triglycerides and/or LDL-c in individuals who possessed a renal transplant and were deemed to be on a maximum safe dose of statin agent. After the addition of ezetimibe, total cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides fell by 21%, 31%, and 13%, respectively. Creatinine phosphokinase, liver enzyme serum levels, and renal function were not affected to any level of clinical significance with the addition of ezetimibe. Large interpatient variability of measurable immunosuppressant levels was seen but no serious adverse events were attributed to a change in levels.