The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
While cannabis is associated with positive syndrome schizophrenia (SZ), it is unclear whether cannabinoids are also related to negative symptoms such as affective blunting. We examined whether cannabis use is associated with schizotypy and utilized event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess affect processing. Cannabis users demonstrated increased P300 amplitudes for unpleasant trait words, and demonstrated higher positive syndrome schizotypy which correlated with levels of cannabis use. The cannabis group also exhibited lower negative syndrome schizotypy. The lack of blunted responses during the affect ERP and decreased negative subscale schizotypy scores provide evidence that the endocannabinoid theory of schizophrenia may be primarily relevant in relation to positive syndrome SZ.
Different methods of assessing human brain function possess specific advantages and disadvantages compared to others, but it is believed that combining different approaches will provide greater information than can be obtained from each alone. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution, whereas the converse is true for electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials or ERPs). In this review of recent work, we highlight a novel approach to combining these modalities in a manner designed to increase information on the origins and locations of the generators of specific ERPs and the relationship between fMRI and ERP signals. Near infrared imaging techniques have also been studied as alternatives to fMRI and can be readily integrated with simultaneous electrophysiological recordings. Each of these modalities may in principle be also used in so-called steady-state acquisitions in which the correlational structure of signals from the brain may be analyzed to provide new insights into brain function.
A parametric method is proposed to examine the relationship between neuronal activity, measured with event related potentials (ERPs), and the hemodynamic response, observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), during an auditory oddball paradigm. After verifying that the amplitude of the evoked response P300 increases as the probability of oddball target presentation decreases, we explored the corresponding effect of target frequency on the fMRI signal. We predicted and confirmed that some regions that showed activation changes following each oddball are affected by the rate of presentation of the oddballs, or the probability of an oddball target. We postulated that those regions that increased activation with decreasing probability might be responsible for the corresponding changes in the P300 amplitude. fMRI regions that correlated with the amplitude of the P300 wave were supramarginal gyri, thalamus, insula and right medial frontal gyrus, and are presumably sources of the P300 wave. Other regions, such as anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, were activated during the oddball paradigm but their fMRI signal changes were not correlated with the P300 amplitudes. This study thus shows how combining fMRI and ERP in a parametric design identifies task-relevant sources of activity and allows separation of regions that have different response properties.
Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.