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Dynamic reflexivity in action: an armchair walkthrough of a qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods study of mindfulness training in schoolchildren.
Cheek J, Lipschitz DL, Abrams EM, Vago DR, Nakamura Y
(2015) Qual Health Res 25: 751-62
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Child, Curriculum, Empathy, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Health Services Research, Humans, Mindfulness, Qualitative Research, Quality of Life, Research Design, Resilience, Psychological, Students, United States
Show Abstract · Added January 4, 2020
Dynamic reflexivity is central to enabling flexible and emergent qualitatively driven inductive mixed-method and multiple methods research designs. Yet too often, such reflexivity, and how it is used at various points of a study, is absent when we write our research reports. Instead, reports of mixed-method and multiple methods research focus on what was done rather than how it came to be done. This article seeks to redress this absence of emphasis on the reflexive thinking underpinning the way that mixed- and multiple methods, qualitatively driven research approaches are thought about and subsequently used throughout a project. Using Morse's notion of an armchair walkthrough, we excavate and explore the layers of decisions we made about how, and why, to use qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods research in a study of mindfulness training (MT) in schoolchildren.
© The Author(s) 2015.
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MeSH Terms
Clinical utility of quantitative imaging.
Rosenkrantz AB, Mendiratta-Lala M, Bartholmai BJ, Ganeshan D, Abramson RG, Burton KR, Yu JP, Scalzetti EM, Yankeelov TE, Subramaniam RM, Lenchik L
(2015) Acad Radiol 22: 33-49
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biomarkers, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Humans, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Molecular Imaging, Molecular Probe Techniques, Molecular Probes
Show Abstract · Added February 12, 2015
Quantitative imaging (QI) is increasingly applied in modern radiology practice, assisting in the clinical assessment of many patients and providing a source of biomarkers for a spectrum of diseases. QI is commonly used to inform patient diagnosis or prognosis, determine the choice of therapy, or monitor therapy response. Because most radiologists will likely implement some QI tools to meet the patient care needs of their referring clinicians, it is important for all radiologists to become familiar with the strengths and limitations of QI. The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force has explored the clinical application of QI and summarizes its work in this review. We provide an overview of the clinical use of QI by discussing QI tools that are currently used in clinical practice, clinical applications of these tools, approaches to reporting of QI, and challenges to implementing QI. It is hoped that these insights will help radiologists recognize the tangible benefits of QI to their patients, their referring clinicians, and their own radiology practice.
Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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9 MeSH Terms
Re-evaluation of nondiagnostic biopsies of suspected low-grade glioma using isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation immunohistochemistry.
Anderson MD, Abel TW, Moots PL
(2013) Neuro Oncol 15: 811-3
MeSH Terms: Adult, Biopsy, Brain Neoplasms, Evaluation Studies as Topic, False Positive Reactions, Glioma, Humans, Immunoenzyme Techniques, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, Middle Aged, Mutant Proteins, Mutation, Neoplasm Grading
Added March 7, 2014
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13 MeSH Terms
Evaluation of metformin in early breast cancer: a modification of the traditional paradigm for clinical testing of anti-cancer agents.
Goodwin PJ, Stambolic V, Lemieux J, Chen BE, Parulekar WR, Gelmon KA, Hershman DL, Hobday TJ, Ligibel JA, Mayer IA, Pritchard KI, Whelan TJ, Rastogi P, Shepherd LE
(2011) Breast Cancer Res Treat 126: 215-20
MeSH Terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Breast Neoplasms, Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Female, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, Metformin, Prognosis
Show Abstract · Added March 23, 2014
Metformin, an inexpensive oral agent commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, has been garnering increasing attention as a potential anti-cancer agent. Preclinical, epidemiologic, and clinical evidences suggest that metformin may reduce overall cancer risk and mortality, with specific effects in breast cancer. The extensive clinical experience with metformin, coupled with its known (and modest) toxicity, has allowed the traditional process of drug evaluation to be shortened. We review the rationale for a modified approach to evaluation and outline the key steps that will optimize development of this agent in breast cancer, including discussion of a Phase III adjuvant trial (NCIC MA.32) that has recently been initiated.
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10 MeSH Terms
Community psychology in Italy: introduction and prospects.
Santinello M, Martini ER, Perkins DD
(2010) J Prev Interv Community 38: 1-7
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Child, Community Participation, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Health Promotion, Health Services Research, Humans, Italy, Psychology, Social, Public Policy
Show Abstract · Added February 8, 2020
The history of community psychology in Italy is briefly reviewed. The field has developed extensively in universities and applied settings over the past 30 years. This issue presents 5 recent examples from different regions of Italy of preventive and other community psychological intervention studies. They include an evaluation of a program to increase the independent mobility of children walking to and from school, the ecological evaluation of child and adolescent residential care communities, participatory action-research with adolescents in schools and neighborhoods, evaluation of a participatory local health intervention planning process, and the description and evaluation of a collaborative, Internet-based community planning training program.
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MeSH Terms
Are airflow obstruction and radiographic evidence of emphysema risk factors for lung cancer? A nested case-control study using quantitative emphysema analysis.
Maldonado F, Bartholmai BJ, Swensen SJ, Midthun DE, Decker PA, Jett JR
(2010) Chest 138: 1295-302
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Age Distribution, Aged, Airway Obstruction, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Case-Control Studies, Comorbidity, Confidence Intervals, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Female, Humans, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Incidence, Logistic Models, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Middle Aged, Pulmonary Emphysema, Radiographic Image Enhancement, Reference Values, Risk Assessment, Sex Distribution, Spirometry, Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Show Abstract · Added February 1, 2016
OBJECTIVES - Several studies have identified airflow obstruction as a risk factor for lung cancer independent of smoking history, but the risk associated with the presence of radiographic evidence of emphysema has not been extensively studied. We proposed to assess this risk using a quantitative volumetric CT scan analysis.
METHODS - Sixty-four cases of lung cancer were identified from a prospective cohort of 1,520 participants enrolled in a spiral CT scan lung cancer screening trial. Each case was matched to six control subjects for age, sex, and smoking history. Quantitative CT scan analysis of emphysema was performed. Spirometric measures were also conducted. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression making use of the 1:6 set groups of 64 cases and 377 matched control subjects.
RESULTS - Decreased FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC were significantly associated with a diagnosis of lung cancer with ORs of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.00-1.32; P = .046) and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.02-1.62; P = .031), respectively. The quantity of radiographic evidence of emphysema was not found to be a significant risk for lung cancer with OR of 1.042 (95% CI, 0.816-1.329; P = .743). Additionally, there was no significant association between severe emphysema and lung cancer with OR of 1.57 (95% CI, 0.73-3.37).
CONCLUSIONS - We confirm previous observations that airflow obstruction is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. The absence of a clear relationship between radiographic evidence of emphysema and lung cancer using an automated quantitative volumetric analysis may result from different population characteristics than those of prior studies, radiographic evidence of emphysema quantitation methodology, or absence of any relationship between emphysema and lung cancer risk.
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25 MeSH Terms
A framework for mandatory impact evaluation to ensure well informed public policy decisions.
Oxman AD, Bjørndal A, Becerra-Posada F, Gibson M, Block MA, Haines A, Hamid M, Odom CH, Lei H, Levin B, Lipsey MW, Littell JH, Mshinda H, Ongolo-Zogo P, Pang T, Sewankambo N, Songane F, Soydan H, Torgerson C, Weisburd D, Whitworth J, Wibulpolprasert S
(2010) Lancet 375: 427-31
MeSH Terms: Decision Making, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Evidence-Based Practice, Health Services Research, Humans, Policy Making, Politics, Public Policy, World Health Organization
Added May 19, 2014
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9 MeSH Terms
Criteria for evaluation of novel markers of cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Hlatky MA, Greenland P, Arnett DK, Ballantyne CM, Criqui MH, Elkind MS, Go AS, Harrell FE, Hong Y, Howard BV, Howard VJ, Hsue PY, Kramer CM, McConnell JP, Normand SL, O'Donnell CJ, Smith SC, Wilson PW, American Heart Association Expert Panel on Subclinical Atherosclerotic Diseases and Emerging Risk Factors and the Stroke Council
(2009) Circulation 119: 2408-16
MeSH Terms: American Heart Association, Biomarkers, Cardiovascular Diseases, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Humans, Prognosis, Risk Assessment, Sensitivity and Specificity, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 2, 2014
There is increasing interest in utilizing novel markers of cardiovascular disease risk, and consequently, there is a need to assess the value of their use. This scientific statement reviews current concepts of risk evaluation and proposes standards for the critical appraisal of risk assessment methods. An adequate evaluation of a novel risk marker requires a sound research design, a representative at-risk population, and an adequate number of outcome events. Studies of a novel marker should report the degree to which it adds to the prognostic information provided by standard risk markers. No single statistical measure provides all the information needed to assess a novel marker, so measures of both discrimination and accuracy should be reported. The clinical value of a marker should be assessed by its effect on patient management and outcomes. In general, a novel risk marker should be evaluated in several phases, including initial proof of concept, prospective validation in independent populations, documentation of incremental information when added to standard risk markers, assessment of effects on patient management and outcomes, and ultimately, cost-effectiveness.
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9 MeSH Terms
A prospective evaluation of the effect of sample collection site on intraoperative parathormone monitoring during parathyroidectomy.
Beyer TD, Chen E, Ata A, DeCresce R, Prinz RA, Solorzano CC
(2008) Surgery 144: 504-9; discussion 509-10
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Blood Specimen Collection, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Hyperparathyroidism, Primary, Male, Middle Aged, Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures, Monitoring, Intraoperative, Parathyroid Hormone, Parathyroidectomy, Probability, Prospective Studies, Sensitivity and Specificity, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
BACKGROUND - Sample collection site may affect the dynamics of intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring (IPM) and influence surgical decisions.
METHODS - We prospectively studied 45 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. The IPM cure criterion was a decrease in peripheral vein (PV) parathyroid hormone (PTH) of >50% at 10 minutes after gland excision. PTH samples were collected simultaneously from PV and central vein (CV) and compared for PTH decay, the incidence of >50% PTH decay, and the incidence of normal PTH values after gland excision.
RESULTS - Mean PTH levels were significantly higher from the CV before and after gland excision. Mean PTH decay 10 minutes after gland excision was 89% PV versus 88% CV, resulting in mean PTH levels of 27 +/- 23 and 39 +/- 35 pg/mL, respectively (P < .0001). At 5 minutes, >50% decay in PTH was present in 98% PV versus 88% CV samples. By 10 minutes, the incidence of >50% PTH decay was equivalent (98%). This yielded normal range PTH levels from the PV versus CV in 90% versus 76% of patients at 5 minutes, 96% versus 89% at 10 minutes, and 95% versus 81% at 20 minutes. Of 45 patients, 44 (98%) are normocalcemic at a mean follow-up of 6.3 months. IPM predicted the single operative failure.
CONCLUSIONS - CV sampling produces significantly higher PTH levels. Surgeons sampling from a PV may observe a >50% decrease in PTH and normal range PTH values starting 5 minutes after gland excision. Surgeons who sample from the CV and require normalization of PTH levels may have to wait longer and/or continue potentially unnecessary neck exploration.
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18 MeSH Terms
A model for evaluating interface terminologies.
Rosenbloom ST, Miller RA, Johnson KB, Elkin PL, Brown SH
(2008) J Am Med Inform Assoc 15: 65-76
MeSH Terms: Comprehension, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Semantics, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, User-Computer Interface, Vocabulary, Controlled
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
OBJECTIVE - Evaluations of individual terminology systems should be driven in part by the intended usages of such systems. Clinical interface terminologies support interactions between healthcare providers and computer-based applications. They aid practitioners in converting clinical "free text" thoughts into the structured, formal data representations used internally by application programs. Interface terminologies also serve the important role of presenting existing stored, encoded data to end users in human-understandable and actionable formats. The authors present a model for evaluating functional utility of interface terminologies based on these intended uses.
DESIGN - Specific parameters defined in the manuscript comprise the metrics for the evaluation model.
MEASUREMENTS - Parameters include concept accuracy, term expressivity, degree of semantic consistency for term construction and selection, adequacy of assertional knowledge supporting concepts, degree of complexity of pre-coordinated concepts, and the "human readability" of the terminology. The fundamental metric is how well the interface terminology performs in supporting correct, complete, and efficient data encoding or review by humans.
RESULTS - Authors provide examples demonstrating performance of the proposed evaluation model in selected instances.
CONCLUSION - A formal evaluation model will permit investigators to evaluate interface terminologies using a consistent and principled approach. Terminology developers and evaluators can apply the proposed model to identify areas for improving interface terminologies.
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6 MeSH Terms