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Experiments in a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, consistently demonstrate the acutely lipotoxic effects of saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate (PA), but not unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleate (OA). PA+OA co-treatment fully prevents PA lipotoxicity through mechanisms that are not well defined but which have been previously attributed to more efficient esterification and sequestration of PA into triglycerides (TGs) when OA is abundant. However, this hypothesis has never been directly tested by experimentally modulating the relative partitioning of PA/OA between TGs and other lipid fates in hepatocytes. In this study, we found that addition of OA to PA-treated hepatocytes enhanced TG synthesis, reduced total PA uptake and PA lipid incorporation, decreased phospholipid saturation and rescued PA-induced ER stress and lipoapoptosis. Knockdown of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the rate-limiting step in TG synthesis, significantly reduced TG accumulation without impairing OA-mediated rescue of PA lipotoxicity. In both wild-type and DGAT-knockdown hepatocytes, OA co-treatment significantly reduced PA lipid incorporation and overall phospholipid saturation compared to PA-treated hepatocytes. These data indicate that OA's protective effects do not require increased conversion of PA into inert TGs, but instead may be due to OA's ability to compete against PA for cellular uptake and/or esterification and, thereby, normalize the composition of cellular lipids in the presence of a toxic PA load.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) generated nonenzymatically display pleiotropic biological actions in inflammation. Their generation by cellular cyclooxygenases (COXs) is currently unknown. To determine whether platelets generate prostaglandin (PG)-containing oxPLs, then characterize their structures and mechanisms of formation, we applied precursor scanning-tandem mass spectrometry to lipid extracts of agonist-activated human platelets. Thrombin, collagen, or ionophore activation stimulated generation of families of PGs comprising PGE₂ and D₂ attached to four phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) phospholipids (16:0p/, 18:1p/, 18:0p/, and 18:0a/). They formed within 2 to 5 min of activation in a calcium, phospholipase C, p38 MAP kinases, MEK1, cPLA₂, and src tyrosine kinase-dependent manner (28.1 ± 2.3 pg/2 × 10⁸ platelets). Unlike free PGs, they remained cell associated, suggesting an autocrine mode of action. Their generation was inhibited by in vivo aspirin supplementation (75 mg/day) or in vitro COX-1 blockade. Inhibitors of fatty acyl reesterification blocked generation significantly, while purified COX-1 was unable to directly oxidize PE in vitro. This indicates that they form in platelets via rapid esterification of COX-1 derived PGE₂/D₂ into PE. In summary, COX-1 in human platelets acutely mediates membrane phospholipid oxidation via formation of PG-esterified PLs in response to pathophysiological agonists.
Hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, especially in obesity. Macrophages are one of the primary cell types involved in atherogenesis and are thought to contribute to lesion formation through both lipid accumulation and proinflammatory gene expression. In this study, we sought to determine the direct impact of triglyceride (TG)-rich VLDL-induced lipid accumulation on macrophage proinflammatory processes. Incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 100 microg/ml VLDL for 6 h led to 2.8- and 3.7-fold increases in intracellular TGs and FFAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The inflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) were all upregulated by at least 2-fold (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in VLDL-treated macrophages. The increase in inflammatory gene expression coincided with the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway members extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK and was ameliorated by U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2. Inhibition of extracellular TG hydrolysis with tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat) resulted in the absence of intracellular TG and FFA accumulation and was accompanied by the amelioration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MIP-1alpha gene expression. These data indicate that VLDL hydrolysis, and the subsequent accumulation of intracellular FFAs and TGs, plays a substantive role in mediating the proinflammatory effects of VLDL. These data have important implications for the direct proatherogenic effects of VLDL on macrophage-driven atherosclerosis.
7-Ketocholesterol (7KC) is a cytotoxic component of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDLs) and induces apoptosis in macrophages by a mechanism involving the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). In the current study, we examined the role of ACAT in 7KC-induced and OxLDL-induced apoptosis in murine macrophages. An ACAT inhibitor, Sandoz 58-035, suppressed 7KC-induced apoptosis in P388D1 cells and both 7KC-induced and OxLDL-induced apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs). Furthermore, compared with wild-type MPMs, ACAT-1-deficient MPMs demonstrated significant resistance to both 7KC-induced and OxLDL-induced apoptosis. Macrophages treated with 7KC accumulated ACAT-derived [14C]cholesteryl and [3H]7-ketocholesteryl esters. Tandem LC-MS revealed that the 7KC esters contained primarily saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. An inhibitor of cPLA2, arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone, prevented the accumulation of 7KC esters and inhibited 7KC-induced apoptosis in P388D1 cells. The decrease in 7KC ester accumulation produced by the inhibition of cPLA2 was reversed by supplementing with either oleic or arachidonic acid (AA); however, only AA supplementation restored the induction of apoptosis by 7KC. These results suggest that 7KC not only initiates the apoptosis pathway by activating cPLA2, as we have reported previously, but also participates in the downstream signaling pathway when esterified by ACAT to form 7KC-arachidonate.
It has heretofore been assumed that the cyclooxygenases (COXs) are solely responsible for peostaglandin (PG) synthesis in vivo. An important structural feature of PGH2 formed by COX is the trans-configuration of side chains relative to the prostane ring. Previously, we reported that a series of PG-like compounds termed isoprostanes (IsoPs) are formed in vivo in humans from the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonate independent of COX. A major difference between these compounds and PGs is that IsoPs are formed from endoperoxide intermediates, the vast majority of which contain side chains that are cis relative to the prostane ring. In addition, unlike the formation of eicosanoids from COX, IsoPs are formed as racemic mixtures because they are generated nonenzymatically. IsoPs containing E- and D-type prostane rings (E2/D2-IsoPs) are one class of IsoPs formed, and we have reported previously that one of the major IsoPs generated is 15-E2t-IsoP (8-iso-PGE2). Unlike PGE2, 15-E2t-IsoP is significantly more unstable in buffered solutions in vitro and undergoes epimerization to PGE2. Analogously, the D-ring IsoP (15-D2c-IsoP) would be predicted to rearrange to PGD2. We now report that compounds identical in all respects to PGE2 and PGD2 and their respective enantiomers are generated in vivo via the IsoP pathway, presumably by epimerization of racemic 15-E2t-IsoP and 15-D2c-IsoP, respectively. Racemic PGE2 and PGD2 were present esterified in phospholipids derived from liver tissue from rats exposed to oxidant stress at levels of 24 +/- 16 and 37 +/- 12 ng/g of tissue, respectively. In addition, racemic PGs, particularly PGD2, were present unesterified in urine from normal animals and humans and represented up to 10% of the total PG detected. Levels of racemic PGD2 increased 35-fold after treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride to induce oxidant stress. In this setting, PGD2 and its enantiomer generated by the IsoP pathway represented approximately 30% of the total PGD2 present in urine. These findings strongly support the contention that a second pathway exists for the formation of bioactive PGs in vivo that is independent of COX.
BACKGROUND - In epoetin-treated dialysis patients, currently iron is administered by the intravenous route to maintain optimum erythropoiesis. However, rapid infusion of iron in excess of transferrin binding capacity can lead to the availability of unbound iron that can theoretically catalyze peroxidation of lipids, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which when oxidatively modified is proinflammatory and promotes atherogenesis.
METHODS - To address this issue, our study used one of the most specific measures of lipid peroxidation available, namely gas chromatography/mass spectometry (GC/MS) analysis of F2-isoprostanes. Using a prospective design, blood samples were collected 15 minutes before (pre) and 30 minutes after (post) a one-hour infusion of 700 mg bolus of intravenous iron in 22 adult home-hemodialysis patients on a non-hemodialysis day.
RESULTS - With iron-dextran infusion, serum iron markedly increased (mean +/- SE, 42 +/- 4 vs. 311 +/- 92 microg/dL, P < 0.0001) and exceeded the transferrin saturation of 100% in 22 out of 22 patients (pre 23 +/- 3 vs. post 165 +/- 8%, P < 0.0001). Plasma concentrations of free F2-isoprostanes did not change significantly following infusion of iron (pre 40 +/- 5 vs. post 39 +/- 6 pg/mL). However, levels of F2-isoprostanes esterified in plasma lipoproteins increased significantly in the postinfusion samples (pre 199 +/- 19 vs. post 233 +/- 25 pg/mL, P < 0.004). Pre-infusion levels of serum iron correlated directly with pre-infusion levels of esterified F2-isoprostanes (r = 0.56, P = 0.008), which persisted in the postinfusion period (r = 0.43, P = 0.04). However, there was no correlation between esterified F2-isoprostanes and serum ferritin levels. In the last four patients in whom blood samples were collected five hours after the intravenous iron infusion, there were further increases in esterified F2-isoprostanes that very closely correlated with postinfusion serum iron levels (r = 0.99, P = 0.013). In a control study, the in vitro addition of iron dextran to blood samples did not increase free or esterified F2-isoprostanes, suggesting that the increase in esterified F2-isoprostanes seen in vivo after iron infusion in patients is not due to a procedural artifact.
CONCLUSION - Collectively our data suggest that high levels of serum iron appearing soon after a large bolus of iron infusion is associated with significant, albeit modest, increases in levels of F2-isoprostanes esterified in plasma lipoproteins that tended to increase with time. Although it is uncertain whether this degree of lipid peroxidation may have deleterious effects, it may be sagacious to explore whether this can be prevented by slow infusion of frequent smaller doses of iron and, if necessary, along with administration of antioxidants.
The isoprostanes (IsoPs) are novel bioactive prostaglandin-like compounds produced in vivo by free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonyl-containing lipids. Previously, we have identified IsoPs containing F-type and D- and E-type prostane rings that are formed by reduction and rearrangement of IsoP endoperoxide intermediates, respectively. We now explore whether thromboxane B2 (TxB2)-like compounds, termed B2-isothromboxanes (B2-IsoTxs), are formed by rearrangement of IsoP endoperoxides. Detection of these compounds was carried out using a stable isotope dilution mass spectrometric assay originally developed for quantification of cyclooxygenase-derived TxB2. Incubations of arachidonic acid with Fe/ADP/ascorbate for 30 min in vitro generated a series of peaks representing putative B2-IsoTx at levels of 62.4 +/- 21.0 ng/mg arachidonate. Using various chemical modification and derivatization approaches, it was determined that these compounds contained hemiacetal ring structures and two double bonds, as would be expected for B2-IsoTx. Analysis of the compounds by electron ionization mass spectrometry yielded multiple mass spectra similar to those of TxB2. B2-IsoTxs are also formed esterified to phospholipids; oxidation of arachidonyl-containing phosphatidylcholine in vitro followed by hydrolysis resulted in the release of large amounts of these compounds. To explore whether B2-IsoTxs are also formed in vivo, a well characterized animal model of lipid peroxidation consisting of orogastric administration of CCl4 to rats was used. Levels of B2-IsoTx esterified in lipids in the liver increased 41-fold from 2.5 +/- 0.5 to 102 +/- 30 ng/g of liver. In addition, circulating levels of free compounds increased from undetectable (<5 pg/ml) to 185 +/- 30 pg/ml after CCl4, a 37-fold increase. Thus, we have provided evidence that IsoTxs constitute another novel class of eicosanoids produced in vivo nonenzymatically by free radical-catalyzed lipid peroxidation. These studies thus expand our understanding of products of lipid peroxidation formed in vivo from the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid.
Chemical modification of collagen is a tool for exploring the platelet-collagen interaction. Since collagen must polymerize prior to the initiation of platelet aggregation and secretion, modification must be shown to affect platelet-collagen interaction and not collagen-collagen interaction. To address this point, the authors carried out the following chemical modifications on soluble monomeric collagen and preformed fibrillar collagen in parallel: 1) N-and O-acetylation, 2) esterification of the carboxyl groups, 3) succinylation of the free amino groups, 4) esterification of succinylated collagen. Intrinsic viscosity studies of the modified soluble collagens were consistent with normal triple helix conformation. Electron microscopy revealed all modified fibrillar collagen to maintain a fibrillar structure. Platelet aggregation and secretion of 14C-serotonin and platelet factor 4 by soluble and fibrillar collagen, respectively, were studied in human platelet-rich plasma. Neutralization of polar groups by 1) totally abolished aggregation and secretion by both collagens, while blocking acidic groups 2) resulted in enhanced aggregation and secretion by both soluble and fibrillar collagen. Blockage of amino groups by 3) abolished aggregation and secretion by both collagens. Esterified succinylated collagen 4) caused aggregation and secretion at relatively high collagen concentrations. These data support the theory that positive groups of collagen are important in platelet-collagen interaction.
Studies of fatty acid (FA) esterification by adipocytes have led to conflicting views with respect to how the process is regulated by norepinephrine (NE). It remains unclear whether NE directly modulates the pathway or whether its effects are indirect and reflect its well-known action to activate lipolysis. Changes in lipolysis can complicate estimation of esterification rates by altering both medium FA and the hydrolysis of newly formed FA esters. In this report, we describe an experimental approach that determined the effect of NE on FA esterification, amidst the complications introduced by activation of lipolysis. Esterification rates were estimated from the simultaneous incorporations (0.1-60 min) of [14C]glucose and [3H]oleate into diglyceride (DG), phospholipid (PL), and triglyceride (TG). Saturation kinetics of incorporation rates, with respect to FA, and more specifically to unbound or albumin-free FA (ubFA), were determined in both basal and NE-treated cells. To obtain true estimates of ester synthesis, incorporation rates were adjusted for label loss from breakdown of labeled esters. Our findings were: 1) In basal versus NE-treated cells, [3H]oleate, on its pathway to esterification, was diluted, respectively, by 2 and 50% of measured cell FA, and the diluting FA appeared derived from lipolysis. 2) Syntheses of PL, DG, and TG, estimated from incorporation of [14C]glucose, saturated at low ubFA. The Km for TG synthesis (0.06 microM) was within the physiological range of ubFA which meant that changes in plasma FA will modulate TG synthesis. PL synthesis, on the other hand (Km less than 0.01 microM), would be largely saturated under physiological conditions. 3) NE treatment increased the molar ratio of FA to albumin in the medium an average 8-fold and ubFA about 87-fold. In addition, NE accelerated hydrolysis of labeled PL and DG. Adjusting incorporation rates for these changes indicated that NE does not directly regulate glyceride synthesis. The assays described should allow estimation of glycerolipid synthesis under various metabolic or disease states and will distinguish direct effects from those reflecting changes in FA concentration or in hydrolysis of labeled FA esters.