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AXL Mediates Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cell Invasion through Regulation of Extracellular Acidification and Lysosome Trafficking.
Maacha S, Hong J, von Lersner A, Zijlstra A, Belkhiri A
(2018) Neoplasia 20: 1008-1022
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Animals, Benzocycloheptenes, Biological Transport, Cathepsin B, Cell Line, Tumor, Chick Embryo, Chorioallantoic Membrane, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Esophageal Neoplasms, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Lactates, Lysosomes, Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Symporters, Triazoles
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy that is characterized by resistance to chemotherapy and a poor clinical outcome. The overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is frequently associated with unfavorable prognosis in EAC. Although it is well documented that AXL mediates cancer cell invasion as a downstream effector of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this process is not completely understood. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that AXL mediates cell invasion through the regulation of lysosomes peripheral distribution and cathepsin B secretion in EAC cell lines. Furthermore, we show that AXL-dependent peripheral distribution of lysosomes and cell invasion are mediated by extracellular acidification, which is potentiated by AXL-induced secretion of lactate through AKT-NF-κB-dependent MCT-1 regulation. Our novel mechanistic findings support future clinical studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the AXL inhibitor R428 (BGB324) in highly invasive EAC.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
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MeSH Terms
HER2 Testing and Clinical Decision Making in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Bartley AN, Washington MK, Colasacco C, Ventura CB, Ismaila N, Benson AB, Carrato A, Gulley ML, Jain D, Kakar S, Mackay HJ, Streutker C, Tang L, Troxell M, Ajani JA
(2017) J Clin Oncol 35: 446-464
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Algorithms, Biomarkers, Tumor, Esophageal Neoplasms, Esophagogastric Junction, Humans, Receptor, ErbB-2, Stomach Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Context ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA. Objectives To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making. Design The College of American Pathologists (CAP), American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened an Expert Panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature to develop an evidence-based guideline with recommendations for optimal HER2 testing in patients with GEA. Results The Panel is proposing 11 recommendations with strong agreement from the open comment participants. Recommendations The Panel recommends that tumor specimen(s) from all patients with advanced GEA, who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, should be assessed for HER2 status before the initiation of HER2-targeted therapy. Clinicians should offer combination chemotherapy and an HER2-targeted agent as initial therapy for all patients with HER2-positive advanced GEA. For pathologists, guidance is provided for morphologic selection of neoplastic tissue, testing algorithms, scoring methods, interpretation and reporting of results, and laboratory quality assurance. Conclusion This guideline provides specific recommendations for assessment of HER2 in patients with advanced GEA while addressing pertinent technical issues and clinical implications of the results.
0 Communities
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8 MeSH Terms
Integrated molecular analysis reveals complex interactions between genomic and epigenomic alterations in esophageal adenocarcinomas.
Peng D, Guo Y, Chen H, Zhao S, Washington K, Hu T, Shyr Y, El-Rifai W
(2017) Sci Rep 7: 40729
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Cell Line, Tumor, Comparative Genomic Hybridization, Computational Biology, DNA Copy Number Variations, DNA Methylation, Epigenesis, Genetic, Epigenomics, Esophageal Neoplasms, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Gene Ontology, Gene Regulatory Networks, Genomics, Humans
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rapidly rising in the United States and Western countries. In this study, we carried out an integrative molecular analysis to identify interactions between genomic and epigenomic alterations in regulating gene expression networks in EAC. We detected significant alterations in DNA copy numbers (CN), gene expression levels, and DNA methylation profiles. The integrative analysis demonstrated that altered expression of 1,755 genes was associated with changes in CN or methylation. We found that expression alterations in 84 genes were associated with changes in both CN and methylation. These data suggest a strong interaction between genetic and epigenetic events to modulate gene expression in EAC. Of note, bioinformatics analysis detected a prominent K-RAS signature and predicted activation of several important transcription factor networks, including β-catenin, MYB, TWIST1, SOX7, GATA3 and GATA6. Notably, we detected hypomethylation and overexpression of several pro-inflammatory genes such as COX2, IL8 and IL23R, suggesting an important role of epigenetic regulation of these genes in the inflammatory cascade associated with EAC. In summary, this integrative analysis demonstrates a complex interaction between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms providing several novel insights for our understanding of molecular events in EAC.
0 Communities
1 Members
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15 MeSH Terms
HER2 Testing and Clinical Decision Making in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Bartley AN, Washington MK, Ventura CB, Ismaila N, Colasacco C, Benson AB, Carrato A, Gulley ML, Jain D, Kakar S, Mackay HJ, Streutker C, Tang L, Troxell M, Ajani JA
(2016) Am J Clin Pathol 146: 647-669
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Antineoplastic Agents, Clinical Decision-Making, Esophageal Neoplasms, Esophagogastric Junction, Genetic Testing, Humans, Medical Oncology, Receptor, ErbB-2, Stomach Neoplasms, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
CONTEXT - ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA.
OBJECTIVES - To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making.
DESIGN - The College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature to develop an evidence-based guideline with recommendations for optimal HER2 testing in patients with GEA.
RESULTS - The panel is proposing 11 recommendations with strong agreement from the open-comment participants.
RECOMMENDATIONS - The panel recommends that tumor specimen(s) from all patients with advanced GEA, who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, should be assessed for HER2 status before the initiation of HER2-targeted therapy. Clinicians should offer combination chemotherapy and a HER2-targeted agent as initial therapy for all patients with HER2-positive advanced GEA. For pathologists, guidance is provided for morphologic selection of neoplastic tissue, testing algorithms, scoring methods, interpretation and reporting of results, and laboratory quality assurance.
CONCLUSIONS - This guideline provides specific recommendations for assessment of HER2 in patients with advanced GEA while addressing pertinent technical issues and clinical implications of the results.
© 2016 College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
0 Communities
1 Members
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11 MeSH Terms
Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma.
Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Analysis Working Group: Asan University, BC Cancer Agency, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Broad Institute, Brown University, Case Western Reserve University, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Duke University, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Institute for Systems Biology, KU Leuven, Mayo Clinic, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, National Cancer Institute, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Stanford University, University of Alabama, University of Michigan, University of North Carolina, University of Pittsburgh, University of Rochester, University of Southern California, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Washington, Van Andel Research Institute, Vanderbilt University, Washington University, Genome Sequencing Center: Broad Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, Genome Characterization Centers: BC Cancer Agency, Broad Institute, Harvard Medical School, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, University of North Carolina, University of Southern California Epigenome Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Van Andel Research Institute, Genome Data Analysis Centers: Broad Institute, Brown University:, Harvard Medical School, Institute for Systems Biology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, University of California Santa Cruz, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Biospecimen Core Resource: International Genomics Consortium, Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Tissue Source Sites: Analytic Biologic Services, Asan Medical Center, Asterand Bioscience, Barretos Cancer Hospital, BioreclamationIVT, Botkin Municipal Clinic, Chonnam National University Medical School, Christiana Care Health System, Cureline, Duke University, Emory University, Erasmus University, Indiana University School of Medicine, Institute of Oncology of Moldova, International Genomics Consortium, Invidumed, Israelitisches Krankenhaus Hamburg, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, National Cancer Center Goyang, Ontario Tumour Bank, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Pusan National University Medical School, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, St. Joseph’s Hospital &Medical Center, St. Petersburg Academic University, Tayside Tissue Bank, University of Dundee, University of Kansas Medical Center, University of Michigan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Disease Working Group: Duke University, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, National Cancer Institute, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Data Coordination Center: CSRA Inc., Project Team: National Institutes of Health
(2017) Nature 541: 169-175
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Esophageal Neoplasms, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Genome, Human, Genomics, Humans, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Stomach Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas resembled squamous carcinomas of other organs more than they did oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Our analyses identified three molecular subclasses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but none showed evidence for an aetiological role of human papillomavirus. Squamous cell carcinomas showed frequent genomic amplifications of CCND1 and SOX2 and/or TP63, whereas ERBB2, VEGFA and GATA4 and GATA6 were more commonly amplified in adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal adenocarcinomas strongly resembled the chromosomally unstable variant of gastric adenocarcinoma, suggesting that these cancers could be considered a single disease entity. However, some molecular features, including DNA hypermethylation, occurred disproportionally in oesophageal adenocarcinomas. These data provide a framework to facilitate more rational categorization of these tumours and a foundation for new therapies.
0 Communities
1 Members
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MeSH Terms
HER2 Testing and Clinical Decision Making in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Bartley AN, Washington MK, Ventura CB, Ismaila N, Colasacco C, Benson AB, Carrato A, Gulley ML, Jain D, Kakar S, Mackay HJ, Streutker C, Tang L, Troxell M, Ajani JA
(2016) Arch Pathol Lab Med 140: 1345-1363
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Biomarkers, Tumor, Clinical Decision-Making, Combined Modality Therapy, Decision Trees, Diagnosis, Differential, Esophageal Neoplasms, Evidence-Based Medicine, Humans, Medical Oncology, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Neoplasm Grading, Neoplasm Staging, Pathology, Clinical, Receptor, ErbB-2, Societies, Medical, Stomach Neoplasms, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
CONTEXT - - ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA.
OBJECTIVES - - To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making.
DESIGN - - The College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature to develop an evidence-based guideline with recommendations for optimal HER2 testing in patients with GEA.
RESULTS - - The panel is proposing 11 recommendations with strong agreement from the open-comment participants.
RECOMMENDATIONS - - The panel recommends that tumor specimen(s) from all patients with advanced GEA, who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, should be assessed for HER2 status before the initiation of HER2-targeted therapy. Clinicians should offer combination chemotherapy and a HER2-targeted agent as initial therapy for all patients with HER2-positive advanced GEA. For pathologists, guidance is provided for morphologic selection of neoplastic tissue, testing algorithms, scoring methods, interpretation and reporting of results, and laboratory quality assurance.
CONCLUSIONS - - This guideline provides specific recommendations for assessment of HER2 in patients with advanced GEA while addressing pertinent technical issues and clinical implications of the results.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
20 MeSH Terms
Prevention of DNA damage in Barrett's esophageal cells exposed to acidic bile salts.
Bhardwaj V, Horvat A, Korolkova O, Washington MK, El-Rifai W, Dikalov SI, Zaika AI
(2016) Carcinogenesis 37: 1161-1169
MeSH Terms: Acetophenones, Acids, Adenocarcinoma, Antioxidants, BRCA1 Protein, Barrett Esophagus, Bile Acids and Salts, Cell Line, Tumor, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Esophageal Neoplasms, Gastric Acid, Gastroesophageal Reflux, Humans, Reactive Oxygen Species
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is one of the fastest rising tumors in the USA. The major risk factor for EA is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). During GERD, esophageal cells are exposed to refluxate which contains gastric acid frequently mixed with duodenal bile. This may lead to mucosal injury and Barrett's metaplasia (BE) that are important factors contributing to development of EA. In this study, we investigated DNA damage in BE cells exposed to acidic bile salts and explored for potential protective strategies. Exposure of BE cells to acidic bile salts led to significant DNA damage, which in turn, was due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that acidic bile salts induce a rapid increase in superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, which were determined using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and Amplex Red assay. Analyzing a panel of natural antioxidants, we identified apocynin to be the most effective in protecting esophageal cells from DNA damage induced by acidic bile salts. Mechanistic analyses showed that apocynin inhibited ROS generation and increases the DNA repair capacity of BE cells. We identified BRCA1 and p73 proteins as apocynin targets. Downregulation of p73 inhibited the protective effect of apocynin. Taken together, our results suggest potential application of natural compounds such as apocynin for prevention of reflux-induced DNA damage and GERD-associated tumorigenesis.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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1 Members
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MeSH Terms
The Role of the Microbiome in Gastrointestinal Cancer.
Wroblewski LE, Peek RM, Coburn LA
(2016) Gastroenterol Clin North Am 45: 543-56
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Animals, Carcinogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Colonic Polyps, Colorectal Neoplasms, Diet, Disease Models, Animal, Esophageal Neoplasms, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, Gastrointestinal Tract, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Inflammation, Microbiota, Stem Cells, Stomach Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Humans are host to complex microbial communities previously termed normal flora and largely overlooked. However, resident microbes contribute to both health and disease. Investigators are beginning to define microbes that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal malignancies and the mechanisms by which this occurs. Resident microbes can induce inflammation, leading to cell proliferation and altered stem cell dynamics, which can lead to alterations in DNA integrity and immune regulation and promote carcinogenesis. Studies in human patients and rodent models of cancer have identified alterations in the microbiota of the stomach, esophagus, and colon that increase the risk for malignancy.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
0 Communities
2 Members
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19 MeSH Terms
Genomic Characterization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Reveals Critical Genes Underlying Tumorigenesis and Poor Prognosis.
Qin HD, Liao XY, Chen YB, Huang SY, Xue WQ, Li FF, Ge XS, Liu DQ, Cai Q, Long J, Li XZ, Hu YZ, Zhang SD, Zhang LJ, Lehrman B, Scott AF, Lin D, Zeng YX, Shugart YY, Jia WH
(2016) Am J Hum Genet 98: 709-27
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Animals, Carcinogenesis, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Carrier Proteins, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, DNA Copy Number Variations, Esophageal Neoplasms, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Exome, Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein, Female, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genetic Association Studies, Humans, Male, Membrane Proteins, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, MicroRNAs, Middle Aged, Mutation, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Prognosis, Selection, Genetic, Trans-Activators, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
The genetic mechanisms underlying the poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are not well understood. Here, we report somatic mutations found in ESCC from sequencing 10 whole-genome and 57 whole-exome matched tumor-normal sample pairs. Among the identified genes, we characterized mutations in VANGL1 and showed that they accelerated cell growth in vitro. We also found that five other genes, including three coding genes (SHANK2, MYBL2, FADD) and two non-coding genes (miR-4707-5p, PCAT1), were involved in somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) or structural variants (SVs). A survival analysis based on the expression profiles of 321 individuals with ESCC indicated that these genes were significantly associated with poorer survival. Subsequently, we performed functional studies, which showed that miR-4707-5p and MYBL2 promoted proliferation and metastasis. Together, our results shed light on somatic mutations and genomic events that contribute to ESCC tumorigenesis and prognosis and might suggest therapeutic targets.
Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
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32 MeSH Terms
APE1-mediated DNA damage repair provides survival advantage for esophageal adenocarcinoma cells in response to acidic bile salts.
Hong J, Chen Z, Peng D, Zaika A, Revetta F, Washington MK, Belkhiri A, El-Rifai W
(2016) Oncotarget 7: 16688-702
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Barrett Esophagus, Bile Acids and Salts, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Survival, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase, Esophageal Neoplasms, Gastroesophageal Reflux, Humans
Show Abstract · Added April 8, 2016
Chronic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is the main risk factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Accordingly, EAC cells are subjected to high levels of oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) protein in promoting cancer cell survival by counteracting the lethal effects of acidic bile salts (ABS)-induced DNA damage. Immunohistochemistry analysis of human tissue samples demonstrated overexpression of APE1 in more than half of EACs (70 of 130), as compared to normal esophagus and non-dysplastic BE samples (P < 0.01). To mimic in vivo conditions, we treated in vitro cell models with a cocktail of ABS. The knockdown of endogenous APE1 in EAC FLO-1 cells significantly increased oxidative DNA damage (P < 0.01) and DNA single- and double-strand breaks (P < 0.01), whereas overexpression of APE1 in EAC OE33 cells reversed these effects. Annexin V/PI staining indicated that the APE1 expression in OE33 cells protects against ABS-induced apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous APE1 in FLO-1 cells increased apoptosis under the same conditions. Mechanistic investigations indicated that the pro-survival function of APE1 was associated with the regulation of stress response c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 kinases. Pharmacological inhibition of APE1 base excision repair (BER) function decreased cell survival and enhanced activation of JNK and p38 kinases by ABS. Our findings suggest that constitutive overexpression of APE1 in EAC may be an adaptive pro-survival mechanism that protects against the genotoxic lethal effects of bile reflux episodes.
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11 MeSH Terms