, a bio/informatics shared resource is still "open for business" - Visit the CDS website
The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the prevalence of valvular heart disease in a cohort of patients taking cabergoline for the management of hyperprolactinemia.
METHODS - A retrospective review of medical records identified patients with hyperprolactinemia who underwent evaluation at Vanderbilt University Medical Center between January and June 2007. The medical records of those patients who were prescribed cabergoline and who underwent elective echocardiography were reviewed for details pertaining to cardiac valvular abnormalities and cabergoline use.
RESULTS - Forty-five patients (mean age, 41 +/- 10 years [SD]) taking 0.91 +/- 0.96 mg of cabergoline per week for a mean duration of 39 +/- 29 months underwent echocardiography. Abnormalities of the cardiac valves were present in 3 patients (7%): 1 patient exhibited mild mitral regurgitation, 1 patient had focal aortic valve thickening, and 1 patient demonstrated mitral valve thickening. We found no significant difference in either the cumulative dose of cabergoline (P = .800) or the duration of cabergoline therapy (P = .745) between those patients with and those without these echocardiographic abnormalities.
CONCLUSION - We found echocardiographic valve abnormalities in 3 of 45 patients (7%) who had been prescribed cabergoline for the management of hyperprolactinemia. This prevalence of valvular heart disease after approximately 3 years of cabergoline treatment is no different from that previously reported in normal populations as determined by echocardiography.
1. The serotonin(2C) (5-HT(2C)) receptor couples to both phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol phosphate (IP) and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-arachidonic acid (AA) signalling cascades. Agonists can differentially activate these effectors (i.e. agonist-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus) perhaps due to agonist-specific receptor conformations which differentially couple to/activate transducer molecules (e.g. G proteins). Since editing of RNA transcripts of the human 5-HT(2C) receptor leads to substitution of amino acids at positions 156, 158 and 160 of the putative second intracellular loop, a region important for G protein coupling, we examined the capacity of agonists to activate both the PLC-IP and PLA(2)-AA pathways in CHO cells stably expressing two major, fully RNA-edited isoforms (5-HT(2C-VSV), 5-HT(2C-VGV)) of the h5-HT(2C) receptor. 2. 5-HT increased AA release and IP accumulation in both 5-HT(2C-VSV) and 5-HT(2C-VGV) expressing cells. As expected, the potency of 5-HT for both RNA-edited isoforms for both responses was 10 fold lower relative to that of the non-edited receptor (5-HT(2C-INI)) when receptors were expressed at similar levels. 3. Consistent with our previous report, the efficacy order of two 5-HT receptor agonists (TFMPP and bufotenin) was reversed for AA release and IP accumulation at the non-edited receptor thus demonstrating agonist trafficking of receptor stimulus. However, with the RNA-edited receptor isoforms there was no difference in the relative efficacies of TFMPP or bufotenin for AA release and IP accumulation suggesting that the capacity for 5-HT(2C) agonists to traffic receptor stimulus is lost as a result of RNA editing. 4. These results suggest an important role for the second intracellular loop in transmitting agonist-specific information to signalling molecules.
Rat and human serotonin 5-HT2C receptor isoforms were evaluated for agonist-independent activation of inositol phosphate production in COS-7 cells. The nonedited isoform (5-HT(2C-INI)) displayed the greatest basal activity, stimulating inositol phosphate production fourfold over the fully edited isoform (5-HT(2C--VGV)). All of the other isoforms tested displayed intermediate levels of basal activity. Decreasing receptor expression levels by 50% produced a parallel decrease in basal activity. 5-HT stimulated inositol phosphate production twofold over basal levels through the 5-HT(2C-INI) receptor and eightfold over basal levels through the 5-HT(2C-VGV) receptor but produced similar maximal levels of inositol phosphate. 5-HT competition for [3H]mesulergine binding to 5-HT(2C-INI) best fit a two-site analysis with K(H) = 7.6 nM and K(L) = 160 nM, whereas 5-HT(2C-VGV) best fit a one-site model with Ki = 163 nM. [3H]5-HT labeled 36% of the total population of 5-HT(2C-INI) receptors labeled by [3H]mesulergine but only 12% of 5-HT(2C-VGV) receptors. [H]5-HT K(D) values increased from 5.1 nM for 5-HT(2C-INI) to 20 nM for 5-HT(2C-VGV). [3H]Mesulergine K(D) values were the same for both isoforms. 5-HT EC50 values for inositol phosphate production increased from 6.1 nM for 5-HT(2C-INI) to 30 nM for 5-HT(2C-VGV). These results demonstrate that RNA editing decreases 5-HT2C receptor basal activity, agonist affinity, and potency, indicating that RNA editing may play a role in regulating serotonergic signal transduction and response to drug therapy.
Destruction of the substantia nigra produces striatal D1 dopamine receptor supersensitivity without increasing receptor number or affinity, thus implicating postreceptor mechanisms. The nature of these mechanisms is unknown. Increased striatal c-fos expression ipsilateral to a unilateral lesion of the substantia nigra in rats treated with appropriate dopamine agonists provides a cellular marker of D1 receptor supersensitivity. D1 receptors are positively linked to adenylate cyclase and therefore to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Because expression of the c-fos gene in response to cAMP- and Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated protein kinases depends on phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133, we examined CREB phosphorylation after dopaminergic stimulation in cultured striatal neurons and in the striatum of rats after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine ablation of the substantia nigra. Using an antiserum specific for CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133, we found that dopamine increases CREB phosphorylation in cultured striatal neurons. This effect was blocked by a D1 antagonist. L-Dopa produced marked CREB phosphorylation in striatal neurons in rats ipsilateral, but not contralateral, to a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. This response was blocked by a D1 antagonist, but not a D2 antagonist, and was reproduced by a D1 agonist, but not a D2 agonist. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that D1 receptor supersensitivity is associated with upregulated activity of cAMP-dependent or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or both, following dopamine denervation of striatal neurons.
The selective D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, was injected into the pars reticulata region of the lesioned substantia nigra at various concentrations (3.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.6 or 0.3 mM) just before a s.c. injection of either the selective D1 agonist, SKF 82958; the selective D2 agonist, quinpirole; or the mixed D1-D2 receptor agonist, apomorphine. SCH 23390 pretreatment (1) had no significant effect on quinpirole rotational behavior, (2) attenuated apomorphine rotational behavior and (3) dose-dependently inhibited SKF 82958 rotational behavior with the highest SCH 23390 doses completely blocking SKF 82958 rotational behavior in some animals. These data provide further evidence that dopamine release in the midbrain may act as a neuromodulator of motor behavior, and that D1 receptors play a functional role in this process.
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a mitogen for fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, renal mesangial cells, and jejunal crypt cells. The human carcinoid cell line (termed BON) that we established in our laboratory from a pancreatic carcinoid tumor produces and secretes 5-HT. In this study, therefore, we examined the effect of 5-HT on growth of BON cells. Furthermore, by use of selective 5-HT receptor antagonists, we examined receptor and post-receptor mechanisms by which 5-HT-induced responses were produced. 5-HT stimulated growth of BON cells. 5-HT stimulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis in a dose-dependent fashion and inhibited cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent fashion. The 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, SDZ 21-009, prevented the reduction of cyclic AMP production evoked by 5-HT and inhibited the mitogenic action of 5-HT. The 5-HT1C/2 receptor antagonist, mesulergine, competitively inhibited PI hydrolysis, but did not affect the mitogenic action of 5-HT. The mitogenic action of 5-HT and the reduction of cyclic AMP production evoked by 5-HT were also inhibited by pertussis toxin. These results suggest that 5-HT is an autocrine growth factor for BON cells and that mitogenic mechanism of 5-HT involves receptor-mediated inhibition of the production of cyclic AMP which may be linked to pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP binding protein. 8-bromo-cyclic AMP inhibited growth of BON cells whereas 8-bromo-cyclic GMP had no effect on cell growth. Involvement of protein kinase A in BON cell growth regulation was confirmed by the observation that a cAMP-dependent protein kinase antagonist (Rp-cAMPS) could stimulate BON cell growth.