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Herein we present a simple, reproducible and versatile approach for in situ protein digestion and identification on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. This adaptation is based on the use of an enzyme delivery platform (hydrogel discs) that can be positioned on the surface of a tissue section. By simultaneous deposition of multiple hydrogels over select regions of interest within the same tissue section, multiple peptide extracts can be obtained from discrete histological areas. After enzymatic digestion, the hydrogel extracts are submitted for LC-MS/MS analysis followed by database inquiry for protein identification. Further, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is used to reveal the spatial distribution of the identified peptides within a serial tissue section. Optimization was achieved using cutaneous tissue from surgically excised pressure ulcers that were subdivided into two prime regions of interest: the wound bed and the adjacent dermal area. The robust display of tryptic peptides within these spectral analyses of histologically defined tissue regions suggests that LC-MS/MS in combination with IMS can serve as useful exploratory tools.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The dominant motional mode for membrane proteins is uniaxial rotational diffusion about the membrane normal axis, and investigations of their rotational dynamics can yield insight into both the oligomeric state of the protein and its interactions with other proteins such as the cytoskeleton. However, results from the spectroscopic methods used to study these dynamics are dependent on the orientation of the probe relative to the axis of motion. We have employed polarized fluorescence confocal microscopy to measure the orientation of eosin-5-maleimide covalently reacted with Lys-430 of human erythrocyte band 3. Steady-state polarized fluorescence images showed distinct intensity patterns, which were fit to an orientation distribution of the eosin absorption and emission dipoles relative to the membrane normal axis. This orientation was found to be unchanged by trypsin treatment, which cleaves band 3 between the integral membrane domain and the cytoskeleton-attached domain. this result suggests that phosphorescence anisotropy changes observed after trypsin treatment are due to a rotational constraint change rather than a reorientation of eosin. By coupling time-resolved prompt fluorescence anisotropy with confocal microscopy, we calculated the expected amplitudes of the e-Dt and e-4Dt terms from the uniaxial rotational diffusion model and found that the e-4Dt term should dominate the anisotropy decay. Delayed fluorescence and phosphorescence anisotropy decays of control and trypsin-treated band 3 in ghosts, analyzed as multiple uniaxially rotating populations using the amplitudes predicted by confocal microscopy, were consistent with three motional species with uniaxial correlation times ranging from 7 microseconds to 1.4 ms.
In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. Simultaneous fits to simulated time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy and linear EPR data, together with simultaneous fits to experimental time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy decays and saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) spectra of 5-SLE noncovalently bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been performed. These results demonstrate that data from optical and EPR experiments can be combined and globally fit to a single dynamic model.
An acyl spin-label derivative of 5-aminoeosin (5-SLE) was chemically synthesized and employed in studies of rotational dynamics of the free probe and of the probe when bound noncovalently to bovine serum albumin using the spectroscopic techniques of fluorescence anisotropy decay and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and their long-lifetime counterparts phosphorescence anisotropy decay and saturation transfer EPR. Previous work (Beth, A. H., Cobb, C. E., and J. M. Beechem, 1992. Synthesis and characterization of a combined fluorescence, phosphorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance probe. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy III. 504-512) has shown that the spin-label moiety only slightly altered the fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes and quantum yields of 5-SLE when compared with 5-SLE whose nitroxide had been reduced with ascorbate and with the diamagnetic homolog 5-acetyleosin. In the present work, we have utilized time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and linear EPR spectroscopies to observe and quantitate the psec motions of 5-SLE in solution and the nsec motions of the 5-SLE-bovine serum albumin complex. Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy decay and saturation transfer EPR studies have been carried out to observe and quantitate the microseconds motions of the 5-SLE-albumin complex in glycerol/buffer solutions of varying viscosity. These latter studies have enabled a rigorous comparison of rotational correlation times obtained from these complementary techniques to be made with a single probe. The studies described demonstrate that it is possible to employ a single molecular probe to carry out the full range of fluorescence, phosphorescence, EPR, and saturation transfer EPR studies. It is anticipated that "dual" molecular probes of this general type will significantly enhance capabilities for extracting dynamics and structural information from macromolecules and their functional assemblies.
The anion-exchange protein (band 3) reaction site in human erythrocytes for the fluorescent/phosphorescent probe eosinyl-5-maleimide (EMA) has been identified. Proteolytic dissection of band 3 in situ indicated that EMA reacts with the membrane-spanning Mr 17K peptide produced by chymotrypsin cleavage of band 3 in intact erythrocytes followed by removal of the cytoplasmic domain by mild trypsin digestion of ghost membranes. Sequencing of the major eosin-labeled peptide obtained from HPLC purification of an extensive chymotrypsin digest of purified Mr 17K peptide allowed assignment of the covalent reaction site for EMA to lysine-430 of the human erythrocyte protein [Tanner et al. (1988) Biochem. J. 256, 703-712]. Hydropathy plots based upon the primary structure of the protein [Lux et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9089-9093] suggest that this residue is in an extracellularly accessible loop connecting membrane-spanning segments 1 and 2 of native band 3 in the erythrocyte membrane. Inhibition of sequential labeling of intact erythrocytes by pairs of chemical probes including EMA, the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (H2-DIDS), and the reactively bifunctional spin-label bis(sulfo-N-succinimidyl) doxyl-2-spiro-5'-azelate (BSSDA) has also been investigated. Each of these reagents affinity labels band 3 when added separately to a suspension of intact human erythrocytes by formation of one or more stable covalent bonds. Prelabeling of intact erythrocytes with EMA reduced subsequent labeling of band 3 by H2-DIDS by approximately 95% and by BSSDA by 90%. Similarly, prelabeling with H2-DIDS reduced subsequent labeling of band 3 by EMA by over 90%, and BSSDA prelabeling reduced EMA labeling by approximately 95%. Therefore, though having widely divergent chemical structures and protein modification reactivities, each of these negatively charged reagents may be competing for reaction with spatially overlapping sites on band 3 which are accessible from the extracellular space.