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Transporting epithelial cells optimize their morphology for solute uptake by building an apical specialization: a dense array of microvilli that serves to increase membrane surface area. In the intestinal tract, individual cells build thousands of microvilli, which pack tightly to form the brush border. Recent studies implicate adhesion molecule CDHR2 in the regulation of microvillar packing via the formation of adhesion complexes between the tips of adjacent protrusions. To gain insight on how CDHR2 contributes to brush border morphogenesis and enterocyte function under native in vivo conditions, we generated mice lacking CDHR2 expression in the intestinal tract. Although CDHR2 knockout (KO) mice are viable, body weight trends lower and careful examination of tissue, cell, and brush border morphology revealed several perturbations that likely contribute to reduced functional capacity of KO intestine. In the absence of CDHR2, microvilli are significantly shorter, and exhibit disordered packing and a 30% decrease in packing density. These structural perturbations are linked to decreased levels of key solute processing and transporting factors in the brush border. Thus, CDHR2 functions to elongate microvilli and maximize their numbers on the apical surface, which together serve to increase the functional capacity of enterocyte.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Inactivating mutations in MYO5B cause microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), but the physiological cause of the diarrhea associated with this disease is unclear. We investigated whether loss of MYO5B results in aberrant expression of apical enterocyte transporters.
METHODS - We studied alterations in apical membrane transporters in MYO5B-knockout mice, as well as mice with tamoxifen-inducible, intestine-specific disruption of Myo5b (VilCre;Myo5b mice) or those not given tamoxifen (controls). Intestinal tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by immunostaining, immunoelectron microscopy, or cultured enteroids were derived. Functions of brush border transporters in intestinal mucosa were measured in Ussing chambers. We obtained duodenal biopsy specimens from individuals with MVID and individuals without MVID (controls) and compared transporter distribution by immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS - Compared to intestinal tissues from littermate controls, intestinal tissues from MYO5B-knockout mice had decreased apical localization of SLC9A3 (also called NHE3), SLC5A1 (also called SGLT1), aquaporin (AQP) 7, and sucrase isomaltase, and subapical localization of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and CDC42. However, CFTR was present on apical membranes of enterocytes from MYO5B knockout and control mice. Intestinal biopsies from patients with MVID had subapical localization of NHE3, SGLT1, and AQP7, but maintained apical CFTR. After tamoxifen administration, VilCre;Myo5b mice lost apical NHE3, SGLT1, DRA, and AQP7, similar to germline MYO5B knockout mice. Intestinal tissues from VilCre;Myo5b mice had increased CFTR in crypts and CFTR localized to the apical membranes of enterocytes. Intestinal mucosa from VilCre;Myo5b mice given tamoxifen did not have an intestinal barrier defect, based on Ussing chamber analysis, but did have decreased SGLT1 activity and increased CFTR activity.
CONCLUSIONS - Although trafficking of many apical transporters is regulated by MYO5B, trafficking of CFTR is largely independent of MYO5B. Decreased apical localization of NHE3, SGLT1, DRA, and AQP7 might be responsible for dysfunctional water absorption in enterocytes of patients with MVID. Maintenance of apical CFTR might exacerbate water loss by active secretion of chloride into the intestinal lumen.
Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
is a clinically significant pathogen that causes mild-to-severe (and often recurrent) colon infections. Disease symptoms stem from the activities of two large, multidomain toxins known as TcdA and TcdB. The toxins can bind, enter, and perturb host cell function through a multistep mechanism of receptor binding, endocytosis, pore formation, autoproteolysis, and glucosyltransferase-mediated modification of host substrates. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize toxin activity provide a survival benefit in preclinical animal models and prevent recurrent infections in human clinical trials. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these neutralizing activities are unclear. To this end, we performed structural studies on a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, PA50, a humanized mAb with both potent and broad-spectrum neutralizing activity, in complex with TcdA. Electron microscopy imaging and multiangle light-scattering analysis revealed that PA50 binds multiple sites on the TcdA C-terminal combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROPs) domain. A crystal structure of two PA50 Fabs bound to a segment of the TcdA CROPs helped define a conserved epitope that is distinct from previously identified carbohydrate-binding sites. Binding of TcdA to the host cell surface was directly blocked by either PA50 mAb or Fab and suggested that receptor blockade is the mechanism by which PA50 neutralizes TcdA. These findings highlight the importance of the CROPs C terminus in cell-surface binding and a role for neutralizing antibodies in defining structural features critical to a pathogen's mechanism of action. We conclude that PA50 protects host cells by blocking the binding of TcdA to cell surfaces.
Misplaced formation of microvilli to basolateral domains and intracellular inclusions in enterocytes are pathognomonic features in congenital enteropathy associated with mutation of the apical plasma membrane receptor syntaxin 3 (STX3). Although the demonstrated binding of Myo5b to the Rab8a and Rab11a small GTPases implicates cytoskeleton-dependent membrane sorting, the mechanisms underlying the microvillar location defect remain unclear. By selective or combinatory disruption of Rab8a and Rab11a membrane traffic , we demonstrate that transport of distinct cargo to the apical brush border rely on either individual or both Rab regulators, whereas certain basolateral cargos are redundantly transported by both factors. Enterocyte-specific and double-knockout mouse neonates showed immediate postnatal lethality and more severe enteropathy than single knockouts, with extensive formation of microvilli along basolateral surfaces. Notably, following an inducible deletion from neonatal enterocytes, basolateral microvilli were induced within 3 days. These data identify a potentially important and distinct mechanism for a characteristic microvillus defect exhibited by enterocytes of patients with neonatal enteropathy.
© 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Most epithelial cells contain apical membrane structures associated to bundles of actin filaments, which constitute the brush border. Whereas microtubule participation in the maintenance of the brush border identity has been characterized, their contribution to de novo microvilli organization remained elusive. Hereby, using a cell model of individual enterocyte polarization, we found that nocodazole induced microtubule depolymerization prevented the de novo brush border formation. Microtubule participation in brush border actin organization was confirmed in polarized kidney tubule MDCK cells. We also found that centrosome, but not Golgi derived microtubules, were essential for the initial stages of brush border development. During this process, microtubule plus ends acquired an early asymmetric orientation toward the apical membrane, which clearly differs from their predominant basal orientation in mature epithelia. In addition, overexpression of the microtubule plus ends associated protein CLIP170, which regulate actin nucleation in different cell contexts, facilitated brush border formation. In combination, the present results support the participation of centrosomal microtubule plus ends in the activation of the polarized actin organization associated to brush border formation, unveiling a novel mechanism of microtubule regulation of epithelial polarity.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by accumulation of vesiculo-tubular endomembranes in the subapical cytoplasm of enterocytes, historically termed "secretory granules." However, neither their identity nor pathophysiological significance is well defined. Using immunoelectron microscopy and tomography, we studied biopsies from MVID patients (3× Myosin 5b mutations and 1× Syntaxin3 mutation) and compared them to controls and genome-edited CaCo2 cell models, harboring relevant mutations. Duodenal biopsies from 2 patients with novel Myosin 5b mutations and typical clinical symptoms showed unusual ultrastructural phenotypes: aberrant subapical vesicles and tubules were prominent in the enterocytes, though other histological hallmarks of MVID were almost absent (ectopic intra-/intercellular microvilli, brush border atrophy). We identified these enigmatic vesiculo-tubular organelles as Rab11-Rab8-positive recycling compartments of altered size, shape and location harboring the apical SNARE Syntaxin3, apical transporters sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Our data strongly indicate that in MVID disrupted trafficking between cargo vesicles and the apical plasma membrane is the primary cause of a defect of epithelial polarity and subsequent facultative loss of brush border integrity, leading to malabsorption. Furthermore, they support the notion that mislocalization of transporters, such as NHE3 substantially contributes to the reported sodium loss diarrhea.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling. Examination of altered apical trafficking in patients with Microvillus Inclusion disease caused by inactivating mutations in MYO5B has led to insights into the regulation of apical trafficking by elements of the apical recycling system. Modeling of MYO5B loss in cell culture and animal models has led to recognition of Rab11a and Rab8a as critical regulators of apical brush border function. All of these studies show the importance of apical membrane trafficking dynamics in maintenance of polarized epithelial cell function.
Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Transporting and sensory epithelial cells shape apical specializations using protocadherin-based adhesion. In the enterocyte brush border, protocadherin function requires a complex of cytoplasmic binding partners, although the composition of this complex and logic governing its assembly remain poorly understood. We found that ankyrin repeat and sterile α motif domain containing 4B (ANKS4B) localizes to the tips of adherent brush border microvilli and is essential for intermicrovillar adhesion. ANKS4B interacts with USH1C and MYO7B, which link protocadherins to the actin cytoskeleton. ANKS4B and USH1C also bind to the MYO7B cargo-binding tail at distinct sites. However, a tripartite complex only forms if ANKS4B and MYO7B are first activated by USH1C. This study uncovers an essential role for ANKS4B in brush border assembly, reveals a hierarchy in the molecular interactions that drive intermicrovillar adhesion, and informs our understanding of diseases caused by mutations in USH1C and ankyrin repeat proteins, such as Usher syndrome.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive small intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates stem and progenitor cell metabolism and is frequently dysregulated in human disease, but its physiologic functions in the mammalian small intestinal epithelium remain poorly defined. We disrupted the genes mTOR, Rptor, Rictor, or both Rptor and Rictor in mouse ISCs, progenitors, and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using Villin-Cre. Mutant tissues and wild-type or heterozygous littermate controls were analyzed by histologic immunostaining, immunoblots, and proliferation assays. A total of 10 Gy irradiation was used to injure the intestinal epithelium and induce subsequent crypt regeneration. We report that mTOR supports absorptive enterocytes and secretory Paneth and goblet cell function while negatively regulating chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cell number. Through additional Rptor, Rictor, and Rptor/Rictor mutant mouse models, we identify mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 as the major IEC regulatory pathway, but mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 also contributes to ileal villus maintenance and goblet cell size. Homeostatic adult small intestinal crypt cell proliferation, survival, and canonical wingless-int (WNT) activity are not mTOR dependent, but Olfm4(+) ISC/progenitor population maintenance and crypt regeneration postinjury require mTOR. Overall, we conclude that mTOR regulates multiple IEC lineages and promotes stem and progenitor cell activity during intestinal epithelium repair postinjury.