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IMPORTANCE - Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with fludeoxyglucose F 18 (FDG) is recommended for the noninvasive diagnosis of pulmonary nodules suspicious for lung cancer. In populations with endemic infectious lung disease, FDG-PET may not accurately identify malignant lesions.
OBJECTIVES - To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET for pulmonary nodules suspicious for lung cancer in regions where infectious lung disease is endemic and compare the test accuracy in regions where infectious lung disease is rare.
DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION - Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Web of Science were searched from October 1, 2000, through April 28, 2014. Articles reporting information sufficient to calculate sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer were included. Only studies that enrolled more than 10 participants with benign and malignant lesions were included. Database searches yielded 1923 articles, of which 257 were assessed for eligibility. Seventy studies were included in the analysis. Studies reported on a total of 8511 nodules; 5105 (60%) were malignant.
DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS - Abstracts meeting eligibility criteria were collected by a research librarian and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. A random-effects logistic regression model was used to summarize and assess the effect of endemic infectious lung disease on test performance.
MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES - The sensitivity and specificity for FDG-PET test performance.
RESULTS - Heterogeneity for sensitivity (I2 = 87%) and specificity (I2 = 82%) was observed across studies. The pooled (unadjusted) sensitivity was 89% (95% CI, 86%-91%) and specificity was 75% (95% CI, 71%-79%). There was a 16% lower average adjusted specificity in regions with endemic infectious lung disease (61% [95% CI, 49%-72%]) compared with nonendemic regions (77% [95% CI, 73%-80%]). Lower specificity was observed when the analysis was limited to rigorously conducted and well-controlled studies. In general, sensitivity did not change appreciably by endemic infection status, even after adjusting for relevant factors.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - The accuracy of FDG-PET for diagnosing lung nodules was extremely heterogeneous. Use of FDG-PET combined with computed tomography was less specific in diagnosing malignancy in populations with endemic infectious lung disease compared with nonendemic regions. These data do not support the use of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in endemic regions unless an institution achieves test performance accuracy similar to that found in nonendemic regions.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE - Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), a strong risk factor for gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in children residing in the Colombian Andes. We aimed to validate the use of the Entero-test to culture and genotype H pylori strains from asymptomatic Colombian children.
METHODS - Children (ages 10-15 years, n = 110, 80 of which were H pylori positive by the urea breath test [UBT]) were subjected to the Entero-test, and strings were cultured and/or used for DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These children had been treated for H pylori in 2007. A second population of children (ages 10-15 years, n = 95),which had not been previously treated, was also subjected to the Entero-test.
RESULTS - Of UBT-positive children in the treated group, 29 of 80 (36%) Entero-test samples were H pylori culture positive; 29 additional string extracts were tested by PCR for the H pylori virulence factors cagA and vacA. PCR from cultures and extracts yielded a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 87%. In the untreated group, 16 of 94 UBT-positive children (17%) produced Entero-tests that were culture positive. Fifty-eight of 94 (62%) string extracts were PCR positive for cagA and/or vacA. In previously treated children, H pylori strains were more often the less virulent vacA s2 (P = 0.001), m2 (P = 0.006), and i2 genotypes (P = 0.039).
CONCLUSIONS - The Entero-test may be used as a noninvasive test to detect H pylori in asymptomatic children residing in high-risk areas for gastric cancer. Treatment of H pylori in children was associated with less virulent genotypes.
BACKGROUND - The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used to evaluate suspicious pulmonary lesions due to its diagnostic accuracy. The southeastern United States has a high prevalence of infectious granulomatous lung disease, and the accuracy of FDG-PET may be reduced in this population. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with known or suspected non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution.
METHODS - A total of 279 patients, identified through our prospective database, underwent an operation for known or suspected lung cancer. Preoperative FDG-PET in 211 eligible patients was defined by standardized uptake value greater than 2.5 or by description ("moderate" or "intense") as avid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and decision diagrams were calculated for FDG-PET in all patients and in patients with indeterminate nodules.
RESULTS - In all eligible patients (n=211), sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 92% and 40%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 55%. Overall FDG-PET accuracy to diagnose lung cancer was 81%. Preoperative positive likelihood ratio for FDG-PET diagnosis of lung cancer in this population was 1.5 compared with previously published values of 7.1. In 113 indeterminate lesions, 65% had lung cancer and the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 40%, respectively. Twenty-four benign nodules (60%) had false positive FDG-PET scans. Twenty-two of 43 benign nodules (51%) were granulomas.
CONCLUSIONS - In a region with endemic granulomatous diseases, the specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosis of lung cancer was 40%. Clinical decisions and future clinical predictive models for lung cancer must accommodate regional variation of FDG-PET scan results.
Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ehrlichiosis, a tickborne illness transmitted by tick vectors Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis, can be acquired in endemic areas. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fulminant in nature. We report three cases of ehrlichiosis in pediatric oncology patients, one of whom was a stem cell transplant recipient. Early symptoms included fever, malaise, and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. Laboratory abnormalities were initially attributed to chemotherapy toxicity. Illness was severe in all three patients and one patient died even after initiation of doxycycline. These cases emphasize the need for a high index of suspicion for tickborne illness in oncology patients, and the importance of a low threshold for starting empiric treatment before confirming the diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE - To identify factors that predict noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment in the province of Ica, Peru.
METHODS - Between 1998 and 2000 a case-control study (1:1 ratio) was conducted in the province of Ica, with 55 cases (persons who dropped out of treatment) being identified. The factors evaluated were chosen from Lalonde's model of the field of health. The respective odds ratios were calculated by means of univariate analysis and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS - The following factors were identified as being predictive of noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment: thinking that the information that health workers provided on treatment was insufficient (odds ratio (OR) = 4.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.77-10.02), thinking that the office hours for receiving treatment were inadequate (OR = 9.95; 95% CI, 1.97-50.21), and consuming illegal drugs (OR = 7.15; 95% CI, 1.69-30.23).
CONCLUSIONS - To improve compliance with tuberculosis treatment, it is necessary to provide patients with personalized information on the disease and its treatment, and to offer them flexible, appropriate times to receive treatment. Drug consumption is the most serious risk factor for noncompliance, and identifying and following up with drug users is crucial.