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Schaller MD, McDowell G, Porter A, Shippen D, Friedman KL, Gentry MS, Serio TR, Sundquist WI
(2017) Elife 6:
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Career Mobility, Employment, Humans, Research Personnel, United States, Workforce
Show Abstract · Added April 8, 2019
Numerous concerns have been raised about the sustainability of the biomedical research enterprise in the United States. Improving the postdoctoral training experience is seen as a priority in addressing these concerns, but even identifying who the postdocs are is made difficult by the multitude of different job titles they can carry. Here, we summarize the detrimental effects that current employment structures have on training, compensation and benefits for postdocs, and argue that academic research institutions should standardize the categorization and treatment of postdocs. We also present brief case studies of two institutions that have addressed these challenges and can provide models for other institutions attempting to enhance their postdoctoral workforces and improve the sustainability of the biomedical research enterprise.
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MeSH Terms
Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Chaturvedi S, Oluwole O, Cataland S, McCrae KR
(2017) Thromb Res 151: 51-56
MeSH Terms: Adult, Cross-Sectional Studies, Depression, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic, Risk Factors, Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic, Surveys and Questionnaires, Survivors, Unemployment
Show Abstract · Added January 24, 2017
INTRODUCTION - Survivors of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have high rates of chronic morbidities including neurocognitive complications and depression. There is limited information regarding the psychological consequences of TTP. We conducted this cross sectional study to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of PTSD and depression in survivors of TTP.
METHODS - An online survey tool comprising demographic and clinical information and two validated self-administered questionnaires, the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), was distributed to individuals with TTP. Multivariable regression was used to identify clinical and demographic associations of depression and PTSD.
RESULTS - A total of 236 individuals completed either the BDI II or PCL-5 and were included in the analysis. Median age was 44years and 87.3% were female. Median time from diagnosis was 80months. BDI-II scores >13 indicating at least mild depressive symptoms were present in 80.8% individuals (15.8%, 28.2%, and 36.8% with mild, moderate and severe symptoms, respectively) and 35.1% had a positive screen for PTSD (PCL-5 score≥38). A previous diagnosis of depression [OR 3.65 (95% CI 1.26-10.57); p=0.017] and unemployment attributed to TTP [OR 5.86 (95% CI 1.26-27.09); p=0.024] were associated with depression. Younger age (p=0.017), a pre-existing anxiety disorder [OR 3.57 (95% CI 1.76-7.25), p<0.001], and unemployment attributable to TTP [OR 6.42 (95% CI 2.75-415.00), p<0.001] were associated with PTSD.
CONCLUSION - We report a high prevalence of PTSD and depression in TTP survivors. These results are concerning and indicate a need for further investigation to better define this association and its consequences.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
Cognitive deficits are associated with unemployment in adults with sickle cell anemia.
Sanger M, Jordan L, Pruthi S, Day M, Covert B, Merriweather B, Rodeghier M, DeBaun M, Kassim A
(2016) J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 38: 661-71
MeSH Terms: Adult, Anemia, Sickle Cell, Cognitive Dysfunction, Educational Status, Executive Function, Female, Humans, Intelligence, Male, Middle Aged, Retrospective Studies, Unemployment, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added August 10, 2017
An estimated 25-60% of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) are unemployed. Factors contributing to the high unemployment rate in this population are not well studied. With the known risk of cognitive deficits associated with SCD, we tested the hypothesis that unemployment is related to decrements in intellectual functioning. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 50 adults with sickle cell anemia who completed cognitive testing, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, as part of standard care. Employment status was recorded at the time of testing. Medical variables examined as possible risk factors for unemployment included disease phenotype, cerebral infarction, and pain frequency. The mean age of the sample was 30.7 years (range = 19-59); 56% were women. Almost half of the cohort (44%) were unemployed. In a multivariate logistic regression model, lower IQ scores (odds ratio = 0.88; p = .002, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.82, 0.96]) and lower educational attainment (odds ratio = 0.13; p = .012, 95% CI [0.03, 0.65]) were associated with increasing odds of unemployment. The results suggest that cognitive impairment in adults with sickle cell anemia may contribute to the risk of unemployment. Helping these individuals access vocational rehabilitation services may be an important component of multidisciplinary care.
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13 MeSH Terms
Direct-to-consumer genomics companies should provide guidance to their customers on (not) sharing personal genomic information.
Garrison NA, Non AL
(2014) Am J Bioeth 14: 55-7
MeSH Terms: Employment, Genetic Privacy, Genetic Testing, Humans, Public Policy, Social Media, Social Networking, Workplace
Added January 20, 2015
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8 MeSH Terms
Male gender role strain as a barrier to African American men's physical activity.
Griffith DM, Gunter K, Allen JO
(2011) Health Educ Behav 38: 482-91
MeSH Terms: Adult, African Americans, Aged, Employment, Family Relations, Focus Groups, Gender Identity, Health Behavior, Humans, Male, Michigan, Middle Aged, Motor Activity, Qualitative Research, Socioeconomic Factors, Time Factors, Urban Population
Show Abstract · Added March 27, 2014
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors that influence their health behaviors. Thematic content analysis revealed three interrelated barriers to physical activity: (a) work, family, and community commitments and priorities limited time and motivation for engaging in physical activity; (b) physical activity was not a normative individual or social activity and contributed to men prioritizing work and family responsibilities over physical activity; and (c) the effort men exerted in seeking to fulfill the provider role limited their motivation and energy to engage in physical activity. These findings highlight the need for physical activity interventions that consider how health fits in the overall context of men's lives.
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17 MeSH Terms
Response inhibition and response monitoring in a saccadic countermanding task in schizophrenia.
Thakkar KN, Schall JD, Boucher L, Logan GD, Park S
(2011) Biol Psychiatry 69: 55-62
MeSH Terms: Adult, Cognition Disorders, Employment, Female, Humans, Inhibition (Psychology), Male, Memory, Short-Term, Psychomotor Performance, Reaction Time, Saccades, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic Psychology, Social Adjustment
Show Abstract · Added February 12, 2015
BACKGROUND - Cognitive control deficits are pervasive in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and are reliable predictors of functional outcome, but the specificity of these deficits and their underlying neural mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The objective of the present study was to determine the nature of response inhibition and response monitoring deficits in SZ and their relationship to symptoms and social and occupational functioning with a behavioral paradigm that provides a translational approach to investigating cognitive control.
METHODS - Seventeen patients with SZ and 16 demographically matched healthy control subjects participated in a saccadic countermanding task. Performance on this task is approximated as a race between movement generation and inhibition processes; this race model provides an estimate of the time needed to cancel a planned movement. Response monitoring can be assessed by reaction time adjustments on the basis of trial history.
RESULTS - Saccadic reaction time was normal, but patients required more time to inhibit a planned saccade. The latency of the inhibitory process was associated with the severity of negative symptoms and poorer occupational functioning. Both groups slowed down significantly after correctly cancelled and erroneously noncancelled stop signal trials, but patients slowed down more than control subjects after correctly inhibited saccades.
CONCLUSIONS - These results suggest that SZ is associated with a difficulty in inhibiting planned movements and an inflated response adjustment effect after inhibiting a saccade. Furthermore, behavioral results are consistent with potential abnormalities in frontal and supplementary eye fields in patients with SZ.
Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
Unemployment among adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.
Kirchhoff AC, Leisenring W, Krull KR, Ness KK, Friedman DL, Armstrong GT, Stovall M, Park ER, Oeffinger KC, Hudson MM, Robison LL, Wickizer T
(2010) Med Care 48: 1015-25
MeSH Terms: Adult, Attitude to Health, Confidence Intervals, Disease-Free Survival, Employment, Female, Health Status, Humans, Linear Models, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Odds Ratio, Quality of Life, Risk Factors, Siblings, Socioeconomic Factors, Survivors, Unemployment, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 27, 2014
BACKGROUND - Adult childhood cancer survivors report high levels of unemployment, although it is unknown whether this is because of health or employability limitations.
OBJECTIVES - We examined 2 employment outcomes from 2003 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS): (1) health-related unemployment and (2) unemployed but seeking work. We compared survivors with a nearest-age CCSS sibling cohort and examined demographic and treatment-related risk groups for each outcome.
METHODS - We studied 6339 survivors and 1967 siblings ≥25 years of age excluding those unemployed by choice. Multivariable generalized linear models evaluated whether survivors were more likely to be unemployed than siblings and whether certain survivors were at a higher risk for unemployment.
RESULTS - Survivors (10.4%) reported health-related unemployment more often than siblings (1.8%; Relative Risk [RR], 6.07; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 4.32-8.53). Survivors (5.7%) were more likely to report being unemployed but seeking work than siblings (2.7%; RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.43-2.54). Health-related unemployment was more common in female survivors than males (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.43-2.08). Cranial radiotherapy doses ≥25 Gy were associated with higher odds of unemployment (health-related: OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.54-4.74; seeking work: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.15-2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, and had lower education and income and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings.
CONCLUSIONS - Childhood cancer survivors have higher levels of unemployment because of health or being between jobs. High-risk survivors may need vocational assistance.
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20 MeSH Terms
Roles and well-being among healthy women and women with rheumatoid arthritis.
Coty MB, Wallston KA
(2008) J Adv Nurs 63: 189-98
MeSH Terms: Adaptation, Psychological, Adolescent, Adult, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Case-Control Studies, Employment, Female, Health Status, Humans, Marriage, Middle Aged, Mothers, Personal Satisfaction, Regression Analysis, Severity of Illness Index, Socioeconomic Factors, Stress, Psychological, Surveys and Questionnaires
Show Abstract · Added July 28, 2015
AIM - This paper is a report of a study examining the relationships among number of roles, role quality, role stress, role balance, and psychological well-being in women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis.
BACKGROUND - A substantial literature exists examining multiple roles in healthy women. However, less is known about multiple roles and well-being in women with a chronic illness such as rheumatoid arthritis.
METHODS - A questionnaire study was conducted in 2003 examining four role-related constructs (number of roles, quality of roles, role stress, and role balance) and psychological well-being in healthy women (n = 47) and women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 50). Correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses were calculated to determine the nature of the relationships among the variables.
FINDINGS - The two groups were similar in demographics except for employment, with fewer women with rheumatoid arthritis employed. The two groups differed statistically significantly on psychological well-being. Women with rheumatoid arthritis had a lower mean psychological well-being score than healthy women. Regression analyses revealed that role stress was the only unique predictor of psychological well-being in healthy women, while role balance was the sole unique predictor among women with rheumatoid arthritis.
CONCLUSION - Women with rheumatoid arthritis experienced lower levels of well-being than their healthy counterparts. Examination of the relationships among the variables can facilitate the development of interventions to improve these women's mental health. Nurses are in a position to assess the psychosocial needs of women with rheumatoid arthritis and assist those experiencing role stress and role imbalance.
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18 MeSH Terms
Employment status among adult survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
Pang JW, Friedman DL, Whitton JA, Stovall M, Mertens AC, Robison LL, Weiss NS
(2008) Pediatr Blood Cancer 50: 104-10
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Male, Neoplasms, Siblings, Socioeconomic Factors, Survivors, Unemployment, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 27, 2014
BACKGROUND - With increased cure, childhood cancer survivors are reaching adulthood and seeking employment. Host, disease and treatment risk factors may contribute to inability to attain or maintain employment.
PROCEDURE - The prevalence and risk factors for unemployment were evaluated using self-reported employment history in 10,399 childhood cancer survivors and 3,083 siblings >/= age 18 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS).
RESULTS - Among survivors, 5.6% reported unemployment, compared with 1.2% of siblings (odds ratio [OR] 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6, 5.1). Increased risks were observed within all cancer diagnoses. In multivariate analysis, diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumor (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), bone cancer (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0, 2.1), treatment with >/=30 Gy cranial radiotherapy (OR 4.0; 95% CI 2.9, 5.5), female gender (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2, 1.7) and age < 4 years at diagnosis (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) increased risk. Diagnosis of CNS or bone tumor or cranial radiotherapy >/=30 Gy remained significant after adjusting for treatment, medical late effects, age and gender. Risk of unemployment decreased with attained age (OR((year)) 0.89; 95% CI 0.87, 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS - Compared to siblings, adult childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for unemployment with highest risk defined by diagnosis, treatment and demographic factors.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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14 MeSH Terms
Long-term cognitive, emotional, and functional outcomes in trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage.
Jackson JC, Obremskey W, Bauer R, Greevy R, Cotton BA, Anderson V, Song Y, Ely EW
(2007) J Trauma 62: 80-8
MeSH Terms: Activities of Daily Living, Cognition Disorders, Employment, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Incidence, Intensive Care Units, Male, Mental Disorders, Middle Aged, Pilot Projects, Risk Factors, Tennessee, Treatment Outcome, Wounds and Injuries
Show Abstract · Added March 10, 2014
BACKGROUND - Trauma patients without intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficits are typically considered low risk for lasting neuropsychological and emotional deficits, and such sequela may be overlooked, especially in those with skull fractures and concussions. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for persistent cognitive impairment and emotional and functional difficulties in a sample of adult trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage.
METHODS - We queried the Vanderbilt University Trauma Registry for all patients admitted during 2003 with an Injury Severity Score >25 and a head computed tomography scan showing no intracranial hemorrhage. Of the 97 patients identified, 58 were evaluated, in person between 12 to 24 months after hospital discharge, with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, emotional, and functional instruments. The Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly-Short Form (IQCODE-SF) was used to evaluate for pre-existing cognitive deficits in patients suspected of having cognitive impairment before their trauma.
RESULTS - A total of 33 (57%) patients were determined to have cognitive impairment, which was most pronounced in the domains of attention and executive functioning/verbal fluency. Of these patients, one (3%) was determined by the IQCODE-SF to be cognitively impaired before trauma intensive care unit hospitalization. Of the 58 patients studied, 21 (36.2%) had a concussion or skull fracture and 37 (63.8%) had neither. Cognitive impairment was significantly more likely to occur in patients who sustained a concussion or skull fracture than in trauma patients who did not (81% versus 43%; p = 0.006). Patients reported significant depressive symptoms (56%), significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (38%), and significant symptoms of anxiety (29%). Quality of life scores were lower than in the general United States population and employment difficulties were widespread. A total of 34% of patients reported being unemployed at follow-up, and cognitive impairment was more common among these patients compared with patients in the workforce (p = 0.03). Neither cognitive impairment nor emotional dysfunction was associated with age, sex, race, Injury Severity Score, blood loss, ventilatory days, or intramedullary nailing of long-bone fractures.
CONCLUSIONS - The majority of trauma survivors without intracranial hemorrhage display persistent cognitive impairment, which is nearly twice as likely in those with skull fractures or concussions. This cognitive impairment was associated with functional defects, poor quality of life, and an inability to return to work. Future research must delineate modifiable risk factors for these poor outcomes, especially in patients with skull fractures and concussions, to help improve long-term cognitive and functional status.
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16 MeSH Terms