The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) can be performed using minimally invasive stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) or by implanting subdural electrodes via a craniotomy or multiple burr holes. There is anecdotal evidence that SEEG is becoming more common in the United States, though this has yet to be quantified. To address this question, all SEEG and burr hole/craniotomy subdural iEEG procedures were extracted from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Part B data files for the years 2000-2016. National trends were compared over time. In 2016, SEEG became the most frequently performed intracranial monitoring procedure in the Medicare population, increasing from 28.8% of total cases in 2000 to 43.1% in 2016 (p = 0.02). The proportion of strip electrode cases (through burr holes) significantly declined, while the frequency of craniotomies for subdural grid placement did not significantly change. These data are consistent with a nationwide increase in the utilization of SEEG with a concomitant decline in burr hole placement of subdural strip electrodes in the United States. The factors driving these changes are unknown, but are likely due in part to the desire for minimally invasive surgical options.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVEStereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) is being used with increasing frequency to interrogate subcortical, cortical, and multifocal epileptic foci. The authors describe a novel technique for SEEG in patients with suspected epileptic foci refractory to medical management.METHODSIn the authors' technique, standard epilepsy evaluation and neuroimaging are used to create a hypothesis-driven SEEG plan, which informs the 3D printing of a novel single-path, multiple-trajectory, omnidirectional platform. Following skull-anchor platform fixation, electrodes are sequentially inserted according to the preoperative plan. The authors describe their surgical experience and technique based on a review of all cases, adult and pediatric, in which patients underwent invasive epilepsy monitoring via SEEG during an 18-month period at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Platform and anatomical variables influencing localization error were evaluated using multivariate linear regression.RESULTSUsing this novel technology, 137 electrodes were inserted in 15 patients with focal epilepsy with favorable recording results and no clinical complications. The mean entry point localization error was 1.42 mm (SD 0.98 mm), and the mean target point localization error was 3.36 mm (SD 2.68 mm). Platform distance, electrode trajectory angle, and intracranial distance, but not skull thickness, were independently associated with localization error.CONCLUSIONSThe multiple-trajectory, single-path, omnidirectional platform offers satisfactory accuracy and favorable clinical results, while avoiding cumbersome frames and prohibitive up-front costs associated with other SEEG technologies.
Objective Precurved electrode arrays (EAs) are commonly used in cochlear implants (CIs). Modiolar placement of such arrays has been shown to lead to better hearing outcomes. In this project, we retrospectively evaluated the modiolar positioning of EAs within a large CI imaging database. We aimed to discover the rate at which perimodiolar placement is successfully achieved and to evaluate a new technique we propose to preoperatively plan patient-customized EA insertion depths to improve perimodiolar placement at the time of surgery. Study Design Retrospective chart review and radiographic analysis. Setting Single tertiary academic referral center. Subjects and Methods Ninety-seven CI ears were evaluated. Perimodiolar positioning of electrodes was quantified using pre- and postimplantation computed tomography scans and automated image analysis techniques. Results Average perimodiolar distance was 0.59 ± 0.18 mm. Disagreement between the actual and our recommended insertion depth was found to be positively correlated with perimodiolar distance ( r = 0.49, P < .0001). Conclusions These results show that the average CI recipient with a precurved EA has a number of electrodes distant to the modiolus where they are not most effective. Our results also indicate the approach we propose for selecting patient-customized EA insertion depth would lead to better perimodiolar placement of precurved EAs.
INTRODUCTION - Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, and is under active investigation for other neurologic and psychiatric indications. While many studies describe outcomes and complications related to stimulation therapies, the majority of these are from large academic centers, and results may differ from those in general neurosurgical practice.
METHODS - Using data from both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), we identified all DBS procedures related to primary placement, revision, or removal of intracranial electrodes. Cases of cortical stimulation and stimulation for epilepsy were excluded.
RESULTS - Over 28,000 cases of DBS electrode placement, revision, and removal were identified during the years 2004-2013. In the Medicare dataset, 15.2% and of these procedures were for intracranial electrode revision or removal, compared to 34.0% in the NSQIP dataset. In NSQIP, significant predictors of revision and removal were decreased age (odds ratio (OR) of 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98) and higher ASA classification (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.75). Up to 48.5% of revisions may have been due to improper targeting or lack of therapeutic effect.
CONCLUSION - Data from multiple North American databases suggest that intracranial neurostimulation therapies have a rate of revision and removal higher than previously reported, between 15.2 and 34.0%. While there are many limitations to registry-based studies, there is a clear need to better track and understand the true prevalence and nature of such failures as they occur in the wider surgical community.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Absence seizures occur in several types of human epilepsy and result from widespread, synchronous feedback between the cortex and thalamus that produces brief episodes of loss of consciousness. Genetic rodent models have been invaluable for investigating the pathophysiological basis of these seizures. Here, we identify tetratricopeptide-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) knockout mice as a new model of absence epilepsy, featuring spontaneous spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) that are the electrographic hallmark of absence seizures. TRIP8b is an auxiliary subunit of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of absence seizures. In contrast to mice lacking the pore-forming HCN channel subunit HCN2, TRIP8b knockout mice exhibited normal cardiac and motor function and a less severe seizure phenotype. Evaluating the circuit that underlies absence seizures, we found that TRIP8b knockout mice had significantly reduced HCN channel expression and function in thalamic-projecting cortical layer 5b neurons and thalamic relay neurons, but preserved function in inhibitory neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus. Our results expand the known roles of TRIP8b and provide new insight into the region-specific functions of TRIP8b and HCN channels in constraining cortico-thalamo-cortical excitability.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the relationship between intrascalar electrode location, electrode type (lateral wall, perimodiolar, and midscala), and angular insertion depth on residual hearing in cochlear implant (CI) recipients.
SETTING - Tertiary academic hospital.
PATIENTS - Adult CI patients with functional preoperative residual hearing with preoperative and postoperative CT scans.
INTERVENTION - Audiological assessment after CI.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Electrode location, angular insertion depth, residual hearing post-CI, and word scores with CI (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC]).
RESULTS - Forty-five implants in 36 patients (9 bilateral) were studied. Thirty-eight electrode arrays (84.4%) were fully inserted in scala tympani (ST), 6 (13.3%) crossed from ST to scala vestibuli (SV), and 1 (2.2%) was completely in SV. Twenty-two of the 38 (57.9%) with full ST insertion maintained residual hearing at 1 month compared with 0 of the 7 (0%) with non-full ST insertion (p = 0.005). Three surgical approaches were used: cochleostomy (C) 6/44, extended round window (ERW) 8/44, and round window (RW) 30/44. C and ERW were small group to compare with RW approaches. However if we combine C + ERW, then RW has higher chance of full ST insertion (p = 0.014). Looking at the full ST group, neither age, sex, nor electrode type demonstrated statistically significant associations with hearing preservation (p = 0.646, p = 0.4, and p = 0.929, respectively). The median angular insertion depth was 429° (range, 373°-512°) with no significant difference between the hearing and nonhearing preserved groups (p = 0.287).
CONCLUSION - Scalar excursion is a strong predictor of losing residual hearing. However, neither age, sex, electrode type, nor angular insertion depth was correlated with hearing preservation in the full ST group. Techniques to decrease the risk of electrode excursion from ST are likely to result in improved residual hearing and CI performance.
Intractable focal epilepsy is a devastating disorder with profound effects on cognition and quality of life. Epilepsy surgery can lead to seizure freedom in patients with focal epilepsy; however, sometimes it fails due to an incomplete delineation of the epileptogenic zone. Brain networks in epilepsy can be studied with resting-state functional connectivity analysis, yet previous investigations using functional magnetic resonance imaging or electrocorticography have produced inconsistent results. Magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive whole-brain recordings, and can be used to study both long-range network disturbances in focal epilepsy and regional connectivity at the epileptogenic zone. In magnetoencephalography recordings from presurgical epilepsy patients, we examined: (i) global functional connectivity maps in patients versus controls; and (ii) regional functional connectivity maps at the region of resection, compared to the homotopic non-epileptogenic region in the contralateral hemisphere. Sixty-one patients were studied, including 30 with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and 31 with focal neocortical epilepsy. Compared with a group of 31 controls, patients with epilepsy had decreased resting-state functional connectivity in widespread regions, including perisylvian, posterior temporo-parietal, and orbitofrontal cortices (P < 0.01, t-test). Decreased mean global connectivity was related to longer duration of epilepsy and higher frequency of consciousness-impairing seizures (P < 0.01, linear regression). Furthermore, patients with increased regional connectivity within the resection site (n = 24) were more likely to achieve seizure postoperative seizure freedom (87.5% with Engel I outcome) than those with neutral (n = 15, 64.3% seizure free) or decreased (n = 23, 47.8% seizure free) regional connectivity (P < 0.02, chi-square). Widespread global decreases in functional connectivity are observed in patients with focal epilepsy, and may reflect deleterious long-term effects of recurrent seizures. Furthermore, enhanced regional functional connectivity at the area of resection may help predict seizure outcome and aid surgical planning.
© The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acute treatment with positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGlu1 and mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (RO0711401 and VU0360172, respectively) reduces the incidence of spike-and wave discharges in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. However, from the therapeutic standpoint, it was important to establish whether tolerance developed to the action of these drugs. We administered either VU0360172 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) or RO0711401 (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to WAG/Rij rats twice daily for ten days. VU0360172 maintained its activity during the treatment, whereas rats developed tolerance to RO0711401 since the 3rd day of treatment and were still refractory to the drug two days after treatment withdrawal. In response to VU0360172, expression of mGlu5 receptors increased in the thalamus of WAG/Rij rats after 1 day of treatment, and remained elevated afterwards. VU0360172 also enhanced mGlu5 receptor expression in the cortex after 8 days of treatment without changing the expression of mGlu1a receptors. Treatment with RO0711401 enhanced the expression of both mGlu1a and mGlu5 receptors in the thalamus and cortex of WAG/Rij rats after 3-8 days of treatment. These data were different from those obtained in non-epileptic rats, in which repeated injections of RO0711401 and VU0360172 down-regulated the expression of mGlu1a and mGlu5 receptors. Levels of VU0360172 in the thalamus and cortex remained unaltered during the treatment, whereas levels of RO0711401 were reduced in the cortex at day 8 of treatment. These findings suggest that mGlu5 receptor PAMs are potential candidates for the treatment of absence epilepsy in humans.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS - Three surgical approaches: cochleostomy (C), round window (RW), and extended round window (ERW); and two electrodes types: lateral wall (LW) and perimodiolar (PM), account for the vast majority of cochlear implantations. The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between surgical approach and electrode type with final intracochlear position of the electrode array and subsequent hearing outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN - Comparative longitudinal study.
METHODS - One hundred postlingually implanted adult patients were enrolled in the study. From the postoperative scan, intracochlear electrode location was determined and using rigid registration, transformed back to the preoperative computed tomography which had intracochlear anatomy (scala tympani and scala vestibuli) specified using a statistical shape model based on 10 microCT scans of human cadaveric cochleae. Likelihood ratio chi-square statistics were used to evaluate for differences in electrode placement with respect to surgical approach (C, RW, ERW) and type of electrode (LW, PM).
RESULTS - Electrode placement completely within the scala tympani (ST) was more common for LW than were PM designs (89% vs. 58%; P < 0.001). RW and ERW approaches were associated with lower rates of electrode placement outside the ST than was the cochleostomy approach (9%, 16%, and 63%, respectively; P < 0.001). This pattern held true regardless of whether the implant was LW or PM. When examining electrode placement and hearing outcome, those with electrode residing completely within the ST had better consonant-nucleus-consonant word scores than did patients with any number of electrodes located outside the ST (P = 0.045).
CONCLUSION - These data suggest that RW and ERW approaches and LW electrodes are associated with an increased likelihood of successful ST placement. Furthermore, electrode position entirely within the ST confers superior audiological outcomes.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - 2b.
© 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.