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Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) can be performed using minimally invasive stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) or by implanting subdural electrodes via a craniotomy or multiple burr holes. There is anecdotal evidence that SEEG is becoming more common in the United States, though this has yet to be quantified. To address this question, all SEEG and burr hole/craniotomy subdural iEEG procedures were extracted from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Part B data files for the years 2000-2016. National trends were compared over time. In 2016, SEEG became the most frequently performed intracranial monitoring procedure in the Medicare population, increasing from 28.8% of total cases in 2000 to 43.1% in 2016 (p = 0.02). The proportion of strip electrode cases (through burr holes) significantly declined, while the frequency of craniotomies for subdural grid placement did not significantly change. These data are consistent with a nationwide increase in the utilization of SEEG with a concomitant decline in burr hole placement of subdural strip electrodes in the United States. The factors driving these changes are unknown, but are likely due in part to the desire for minimally invasive surgical options.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective Precurved electrode arrays (EAs) are commonly used in cochlear implants (CIs). Modiolar placement of such arrays has been shown to lead to better hearing outcomes. In this project, we retrospectively evaluated the modiolar positioning of EAs within a large CI imaging database. We aimed to discover the rate at which perimodiolar placement is successfully achieved and to evaluate a new technique we propose to preoperatively plan patient-customized EA insertion depths to improve perimodiolar placement at the time of surgery. Study Design Retrospective chart review and radiographic analysis. Setting Single tertiary academic referral center. Subjects and Methods Ninety-seven CI ears were evaluated. Perimodiolar positioning of electrodes was quantified using pre- and postimplantation computed tomography scans and automated image analysis techniques. Results Average perimodiolar distance was 0.59 ± 0.18 mm. Disagreement between the actual and our recommended insertion depth was found to be positively correlated with perimodiolar distance ( r = 0.49, P < .0001). Conclusions These results show that the average CI recipient with a precurved EA has a number of electrodes distant to the modiolus where they are not most effective. Our results also indicate the approach we propose for selecting patient-customized EA insertion depth would lead to better perimodiolar placement of precurved EAs.
INTRODUCTION - Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, and is under active investigation for other neurologic and psychiatric indications. While many studies describe outcomes and complications related to stimulation therapies, the majority of these are from large academic centers, and results may differ from those in general neurosurgical practice.
METHODS - Using data from both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), we identified all DBS procedures related to primary placement, revision, or removal of intracranial electrodes. Cases of cortical stimulation and stimulation for epilepsy were excluded.
RESULTS - Over 28,000 cases of DBS electrode placement, revision, and removal were identified during the years 2004-2013. In the Medicare dataset, 15.2% and of these procedures were for intracranial electrode revision or removal, compared to 34.0% in the NSQIP dataset. In NSQIP, significant predictors of revision and removal were decreased age (odds ratio (OR) of 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98) and higher ASA classification (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.75). Up to 48.5% of revisions may have been due to improper targeting or lack of therapeutic effect.
CONCLUSION - Data from multiple North American databases suggest that intracranial neurostimulation therapies have a rate of revision and removal higher than previously reported, between 15.2 and 34.0%. While there are many limitations to registry-based studies, there is a clear need to better track and understand the true prevalence and nature of such failures as they occur in the wider surgical community.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gastric motility is coordinated by bio-electrical events known as slow waves. Abnormalities in slow waves are linked to major functional and motility disorders. In recent years, the use of high-resolution (HR) recordings have provided a unique view of spatiotemporal activation profiles of normal and dysrhythmic slow wave activity. To date, in vivo studies of gastric slow wave activity have primarily focused on the activation phase of the slow wave event. In this study, the recovery phase of slow waves was investigated through the use of HR recording techniques. The recovery phase of the slow wave event was detected through the use of the signal derivative, computed via a wavelet transform. The activation to recovery interval (ARi) metric was computed as a difference between the recovery time and activation time. The detection method was validated with synthetic slow wave signals of varying morphologies with the addition of synthetic ventilator and high frequency noise. The methods was then applied to HR experimental porcine gastric slow wave recordings. Ventilator noise more than 10% of the slow wave amplitude affected the estimation of the ARi metric. Signal to noise ratio below 3 dB affected the ARi metric, but with minor deviation in accuracy. Experimental ARi values ranged from 3.7-4.7 s from three data sets, with significant differences across them.
Motility of the stomach is in part coordinated by an electrophysiological event called slow waves, which are generated by pacemaker cells called the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In functional motility disorders, which can be associated with a reduction of ICC, dynamic slow wave dysrhythmias can occur. In recent years, high-resolution (HR) mapping techniques have been applied to describe both normal and dysrhythmic slow wave patterns. The main aim of this study was to inform gastric HR mapping array design by determining the efficient inter-electrode distance required to accurately capture normal and dysrhythmic gastric slow wave activity. A two-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate normal activity and four types of reported slow wave dysrhythmias in human patients: ectopic activation, retrograde propagation, slow conduction, conduction block. For each case, the simulated data were re-sampled at 4, 6, 10, 12, 20 and 30mm inter-electrode distances. The accuracy of each distance was compared to a reference set sampled at 2mm inter-electrode distance, in terms of accuracy of velocity, using an ANOVA. Manual groupings were also conducted to test the ability of the human markers to distinguish separate cycles of slow waves as inter-electrode distance increases. The largest interelectrode distance for human gastric slow wave analysis, which produced both accurate grouping and velocity, was 10mm (CI [0.3 2.4]mms(-1); p<;0.05). Therefore an inter-electrode distance of less than 10mm was required to accurately describe the types of baseline and dysrhythmic activities reported in this study. However, it is likely that more spatially complex dysrhythmias, such as re-entry, may require finer inter-electrode distances.
HYPOTHESIS - Electrode-to-modiolus distance is correlated with clinically programmed stimulation levels.
BACKGROUND - Conventional wisdom has long supposed a significant relationship between cochlear implant (CI) stimulation levels and electrode-to-modiolus distance; however, to date, no such formal investigation has been completed. Thus, the purpose of this project was to investigate the relationship between stimulation levels and electrode-to-modiolus distance. A strong correlation between the two would suggest that stimulation levels might be used to estimate electrode-to-modiolus geometry.
METHODS - Electrode-to-modiolus distance was determined via CT imaging using validated CI position analysis software in 137 implanted ears from the three manufacturers holding FDA approval in the United States. Analysis included 2,365 total electrodes, with 1,472 from precurved arrays. Distances were compared to clinically programmed C/M levels that were converted to charge units.
RESULTS - Mean modiolar distance with perimodiolar and lateral wall electrodes was 0.47 and 1.15 mm, respectively. Mean suprathreshold charge values were significantly different between each manufacturer. When combining all data, we found a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.367, p < 0.01) that was driven both by the different charge values across companies, and that the company with the highest mean charge values only offers straight electrode arrays. When grouped by electrode type, however, we found a weak correlation (r = 0.12, p < 0.01) for perimodiolar array electrodes only. When considering a single array type from any one manufacturer, only one was observed where distance mildly predicted charge.
CONCLUSION - Our results suggest that electrode distance minimally contributes to the current level required for suprathreshold stimulation.
Absence seizures occur in several types of human epilepsy and result from widespread, synchronous feedback between the cortex and thalamus that produces brief episodes of loss of consciousness. Genetic rodent models have been invaluable for investigating the pathophysiological basis of these seizures. Here, we identify tetratricopeptide-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) knockout mice as a new model of absence epilepsy, featuring spontaneous spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) that are the electrographic hallmark of absence seizures. TRIP8b is an auxiliary subunit of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of absence seizures. In contrast to mice lacking the pore-forming HCN channel subunit HCN2, TRIP8b knockout mice exhibited normal cardiac and motor function and a less severe seizure phenotype. Evaluating the circuit that underlies absence seizures, we found that TRIP8b knockout mice had significantly reduced HCN channel expression and function in thalamic-projecting cortical layer 5b neurons and thalamic relay neurons, but preserved function in inhibitory neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus. Our results expand the known roles of TRIP8b and provide new insight into the region-specific functions of TRIP8b and HCN channels in constraining cortico-thalamo-cortical excitability.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE - The ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus is a primary target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with essential tremor. Despite reliable control of contralateral tremor, there is sometimes a need for lead revision in cases of infection, hardware malfunction, or failure to relieve symptoms. Here, we present the case of a patient undergoing revision after ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) DBS failed to control his tremor. During the electrode removal, the distal portion of the lead was found to be tightly adherent to tissue within the deep brain. Partial removal of the electrode in turn caused weakness, paresthesias, and tremor control similar to the effects produced by thalamotomy or thalamic injury.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION - A 48-year-old man with essential tremor had bilateral Vim DBS leads implanted 10 years earlier but had poor control of his tremor and ultimately opted for surgical revision with lead placement in the zona incerta. During attempted removal of his right lead, the patient became somnolent with contralateral weakness and paresthesias. The procedure was aborted, and postoperative neuroimaging was immediately obtained, showing no signs of stroke or hemorrhage. The patient had almost complete control of his left arm tremor postoperatively, and his weakness soon resolved.
CONCLUSION - To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebral injury after DBS revision and offers insights into the mechanism of high-frequency electric stimulation compared with lesions. That is, although high-frequency stimulation failed to control this patient's tremor, thalamotomy-like injury was completely effective.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the relationship between intrascalar electrode location, electrode type (lateral wall, perimodiolar, and midscala), and angular insertion depth on residual hearing in cochlear implant (CI) recipients.
SETTING - Tertiary academic hospital.
PATIENTS - Adult CI patients with functional preoperative residual hearing with preoperative and postoperative CT scans.
INTERVENTION - Audiological assessment after CI.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Electrode location, angular insertion depth, residual hearing post-CI, and word scores with CI (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC]).
RESULTS - Forty-five implants in 36 patients (9 bilateral) were studied. Thirty-eight electrode arrays (84.4%) were fully inserted in scala tympani (ST), 6 (13.3%) crossed from ST to scala vestibuli (SV), and 1 (2.2%) was completely in SV. Twenty-two of the 38 (57.9%) with full ST insertion maintained residual hearing at 1 month compared with 0 of the 7 (0%) with non-full ST insertion (p = 0.005). Three surgical approaches were used: cochleostomy (C) 6/44, extended round window (ERW) 8/44, and round window (RW) 30/44. C and ERW were small group to compare with RW approaches. However if we combine C + ERW, then RW has higher chance of full ST insertion (p = 0.014). Looking at the full ST group, neither age, sex, nor electrode type demonstrated statistically significant associations with hearing preservation (p = 0.646, p = 0.4, and p = 0.929, respectively). The median angular insertion depth was 429° (range, 373°-512°) with no significant difference between the hearing and nonhearing preserved groups (p = 0.287).
CONCLUSION - Scalar excursion is a strong predictor of losing residual hearing. However, neither age, sex, electrode type, nor angular insertion depth was correlated with hearing preservation in the full ST group. Techniques to decrease the risk of electrode excursion from ST are likely to result in improved residual hearing and CI performance.