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One hundred years after Flexner wrote his report for the Carnegie Foundation, calls are heard for another "Flexnerian revolution," a reform movement that would overhaul an approach to medical education that is criticized for its expense and inefficiency, its failure to respond to the health needs of our communities, and the high cost and inefficiency of the health care system it supports. To address these concerns, a group of Vanderbilt educators, national experts, administrators, residents, and students attended a retreat in November 2008. The goal of this meeting was to craft a new vision of physician learning based on the continuous development and assessment of competencies needed for effective and compassionate care under challenging circumstances. The vision that emerged from this gathering was that of a health care workforce comprised of physicians and other professionals, all capable of assessing practice outcomes, identifying learning needs, and engaging in continuous learning to achieve the best care for their patients. Several principles form the foundation for this vision. Learning should be competency based and embedded in the workplace. It should be linked to patient needs and undertaken by individual providers, by teams, and by institutions. Health professionals should be trained in this new model from the start of the educational experience, leading to true interprofessional education, with shared facilities and the same basic coursework. Multiple entry and exit points would provide flexibility and would allow health professionals to redirect their careers as their goals evolved. This article provides a detailed account of the model developed at the retreat and the obstacles that might be encountered in attempting to implement it.
Drug-food interactions in hospitalised patients may result in decreased drug efficacy or increased drug toxicity. The increasing complexity of drug therapy regimens has increased the potential for drug-food interactions to occur, reinforcing the need to develop methods to prevent clinically significant drug-food interactions. Before selecting the optimal method, in terms of feasibility of implementation and successful outcome, drugs with the potential for clinically significant interactions with food must be identified. From an analysis of the literature, 6 methods to prevent drug-food interactions have been suggested as useful tools. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Most have been developed in response to guidelines from the most well recognised agency for quality review in the US, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organisations (JCAHO). Based on those recommendations, an ideal programme to prevent drug-food interactions would be a combined patient counselling and label system to select the most appropriate drug administration times and increase nurse and patient awareness of the potential for drug-food interactions. However, because of time constraints and limited resources, a label system or the provision of a drug-food interaction pamphlet to the patient before discharge would be a more practical method. Newsletters and educational in-services combined with patient counselling or a label system would be a valuable method to prevent drug-food interactions in hospitalised patients.