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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a myriad of metabolic derangements, including dyslipidemia characterized by low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated cholesterol. However, the effects of kidney disease on HDL composition have not been comprehensively determined. Here we used a targeted mass spectrometric approach to quantify 38 proteins contained in the HDL particles within a CKD cohort of 509 participants with a broad range of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) (CKD stages I-V, and a mean eGFR of 45.5 mL/min/1.73m). After adjusting for multiple testing, demographics, comorbidities, medications, and other characteristics, eGFR was significantly associated with differences in four HDL proteins. Compared to participants with an eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73m or more, those with an eGFR under 15 mL/min/1.73m exhibited 1.89-fold higher retinol-binding protein 4 (95% confidence interval 1.34-2.67), 1.52-fold higher apolipoprotein C-III (1.25-1.84), 0.70-fold lower apolipoprotein L1 (0.55-0.92), and 0.64-fold lower vitronectin (0.48-0.85). Although the HDL apolipoprotein L1 was slightly lower among African Americans than among Caucasian individuals, the relationship to eGFR did not differ by race. After adjustment, no HDL-associated proteins associated with albuminuria. Thus, modest changes in the HDL proteome provide preliminary evidence for an association between HDL proteins and declining kidney function, but this needs to be replicated. Future analyses will determine if HDL proteomics is indeed a clinical predictor of declining kidney function or cardiovascular outcomes.
Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevent cardiovascular disease. However, there is wide individual variation in LDL-C response. Drugs targeting proprotein convertase subtilin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) lower LDL-C and will be used with statins. PCSK9 mediates the degradation of LDL receptors (LDLRs). Therefore, a greater LDL-C response to statins would be expected in individuals with PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants because LDLR degradation is reduced. To examine this hypothesis, the effect of 11 PCSK9 functional variants on statin response was determined in 669 African Americans. One LOF variant, rs11591147 (p.R46L) was significantly associated with LDL-C response to statin (P=0.002). In the three carriers, there was a 55.6% greater LDL-C reduction compared with non-carriers. Another functional variant, rs28362261 (p.N425S), was marginally associated with statin response (P=0.0064).The effect of rs11591147 was present in individuals of European ancestry (N=2388, P=0.054). The therapeutic effect of statins may be modified by genetic variation in PCSK9.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators and potential therapeutic targets of metabolic disease. In this study we show by in vivo administration of locked nucleic acid (LNA) inhibitors that suppression of endogenous miR-29 lowers plasma cholesterol levels by ~40%, commensurate with the effect of statins, and reduces fatty acid content in the liver by ~20%. Whole transcriptome sequencing of the liver reveals 883 genes dysregulated (612 down, 271 up) by inhibition of miR-29. The set of 612 down-regulated genes are most significantly over-represented in lipid synthesis pathways. Among the up-regulated genes are the anti-lipogenic deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and the anti-lipogenic transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), the latter of which we demonstrate is a direct target of miR-29. In vitro radiolabeled acetate incorporation assays confirm that pharmacologic inhibition of miR-29 significantly reduces de novo cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. Our findings indicate that miR-29 controls hepatic lipogenic programs, likely in part through regulation of Ahr and Sirt1, and therefore may represent a candidate therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia.
BACKGROUND - Plasma lipid levels are highly heritable traits, but known genetic loci can only explain a small portion of their heritability.
METHODS AND RESULTS - In this study, we analyzed the role of parental levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs) in explaining the values of the corresponding traits in adult offspring. We also evaluated the contribution of nongenetic factors that influence lipid traits (age, body mass index, smoking, medications, and menopause) alone and in combination with variability at the genetic loci known to associate with TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG levels. We performed comparisons among different sex-specific regression models in 416 families from the Framingham Heart Study and 304 from the SardiNIA cohort. Models including parental lipid levels explain significantly more of the trait variation than models without these measures, explaining up to ≈39% of the total trait variation. Of this variation, the parent-of-origin effect explains as much as ≈15% and it does so in a sex-specific way. This observation is not owing to shared environment, given that spouse-pair correlations were negligible (<1.5% explained variation in all cases) and is distinct from previous genetic and acquired factors that are known to influence serum lipid levels.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings support the concept that unknown genetic and epigenetic contributors are responsible for most of the heritable component of the plasma lipid phenotype, and that, at present, the clinical utility of knowing age-matched parental lipid levels in assessing risk of dyslipidemia supersedes individual locus effects. Our results support the clinical utility of knowing parental lipid levels in assessing future risk of dyslipidemia.
© 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
OBJECTIVES - The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and its 25-year change to left ventricular (LV) structure and function.
BACKGROUND - Longstanding obesity may be associated with clinical cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Whether obesity relates to cardiac dysfunction during young adulthood and middle age has not been investigated.
METHODS - The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult) study enrolled white and black adults ages 18 to 30 years in 1985 to 1986 (Year-0). At Year-25, cardiac function was assessed by conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Twenty-five-year change in BMI (classified as low: <27 kg/m(2) and high: ≥27 kg/m(2)) was categorized into 4 groups (Low-Low, High-Low, Low-High, and High-High). Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between categorical changes in BMI (Low-Low as reference) with LV structural and functional parameters obtained in middle age, adjusting for baseline and 25-year change in risk factors.
RESULTS - The mean BMI was 24.4 kg/m(2) in 3,265 participants included at Year-0. Change in BMI adjusted for risk factors was directly associated with incipient myocardial systolic dysfunction assessed by STE (High-High: β-coefficient = 0.67; Low-High: β-coefficient = 0.35 for longitudinal peak systolic strain) and diastolic dysfunction assessed by TDI (High-High: β-coefficient = -074; Low-High: β-coefficient = -0.45 for e') and STE (High-High: β-coefficient = -0.06 for circumferential early diastolic strain rate). Greater BMI was also significantly associated with increased LV mass/height (High-High: β-coefficient = 26.11; Low-High: β-coefficient = 11.87).
CONCLUSIONS - Longstanding obesity from young adulthood to middle age is associated with impaired LV systolic and diastolic function assessed by conventional echocardiography, TDI, and STE in a large biracial cohort of adults age 43 to 55 years.
Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Retinoids and rexinoids are prescribed for conditions ranging from acne vulgaris to hyperkeratosis to cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Dyslipidemia is a frequent consequence of the use of these drugs, with more than one-third of patients manifesting aberrations in triglyceride (TG) levels. The efficacy of retinoic acid derivatives is linked to their influence on lipid metabolism in the skin, which can impair systemic lipid trafficking and metabolism in some patients. Thus, baseline screening for preexisting dyslipidemia and regular follow-up lipid panels are mandated, especially when powerful agents such as bexarotene are used. Dietary modification, increased physical activity, and weight management are the cornerstones of initial management for mild hypertriglyceridemia, which is a contributor to cardiovascular risk. More severe impairments (fasting TG > 500 mg/dL) warrant pharmacologic interventions early on to reduce the risk of pancreatitis. Retinoic acid derivative action, lipid metabolism, and treatment of incident dyslipidemias are reviewed to empower prescribers in management of adverse lipid effects.
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - This review will examine advances in our understanding of the association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
RECENT FINDINGS - Large randomized statin trials and related meta-analyses confirm that lipid-lowering therapy benefits patients with mild to moderate CKD, leaving a degree of residual cardiovascular risk similar to that documented in the general population. However, patients with advanced CKD on dialysis show little to no cardiovascular benefits from lipid-lowering therapy and have an exaggerated residual cardiovascular risk. HDL quantity and functionality may explain some of the residual risk. CKD modulates the level, composition and functionality of HDL, including impaired cholesterol acceptor function and pro-inflammatory effects. Although these abnormalities prevail in CKD, they do not track together and thus support the idea of separate and distinct mechanistic pathways for each of these critical functions of HDL.
SUMMARY - CKD-induced perturbations in HDL composition, metabolism and functionality may contribute to the excess CVD in patients with CKD and present new therapeutic targets for intervention in this population.
OBJECTIVES - This study examined the functionality of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in individuals with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (ESRD-HD).
BACKGROUND - The high rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease is not explained by standard risk factors, especially in patients with ESRD-HD who appear resistant to benefits of statin therapy. HDL is antiatherogenic because it extracts tissue cholesterol and reduces inflammation.
METHODS - Cellular cholesterol efflux and inflammatory response were assessed in macrophages exposed to HDL of patients with ESRD-HD or controls.
RESULTS - HDL from patients with ESRD-HD was dramatically less effective than normal HDL in accepting cholesterol from macrophages (median 6.9%; interquartile range [IQR]: 1.4% to 10.2%) versus control (median 14.9%; IQR: 9.8% to 17.8%; p < 0.001). The profound efflux impairment was also seen in patients with ESRD-HD and diabetes compared with patients with diabetes without renal disease (median 8.1%; IQR: 3.3% to 12.9%) versus control (median 13.6%; IQR: 11.0% to 15.9%; p = 0.009). In vitro activation of cellular cholesterol transporters increased cholesterol efflux to both normal and uremic HDL. HDL of patients with ESRD-HD had reduced antichemotactic ability and increased macrophage cytokine response (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1-beta). HDL of patients with ESRD-HD on statin therapy had reduced inflammatory response while maintaining impaired cholesterol acceptor function. Interestingly, impaired HDL-mediated efflux did not correlate with circulating C-reactive protein levels or cellular inflammatory response.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that abnormal HDL capacity to mediate cholesterol efflux is a key driver of excess CVD in patients on chronic hemodialysis and may explain why statins have limited effect to decrease CV events. The findings also suggest cellular cholesterol transporters as potential therapeutic targets to decrease CV risk in this population.
Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fish oil (FO) is a potent anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering agent. Because inflammation can modulate lipid metabolism and vice versa, we hypothesized that combining FO with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXIBs), well-known anti-inflammatory drugs, can enhance the anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effect of FO. LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 6% olive oil or FO for 12 wk in the presence or absence of indomethacin (Indo, 6 mg/l drinking water). FO reduced plasma total cholesterol by 30% but, in combination with Indo, exerted a greater decrease (44%). The reduction of liver cholesterol ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) by FO (63% and 41%, respectively) was enhanced by Indo (80% in CE and 64% in TG). FO + Indo greatly increased the expression of genes modulating lipid metabolism and reduced the expression of inflammatory genes compared with control. The mRNA and/or protein expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and cytochrome P450 isoforms that alter inflammation and/or lipid metabolism are increased to a greater extent in mice that received FO + Indo. Moroever, the nuclear level of PXR is significantly increased in FO + Indo group. Combining FO with COXIBs may exert their beneficial effects on inflammation and lipid metabolism via PXR and cytochrome P450.