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BACKGROUND - Omalizumab is indicated for treatment of patients with moderate to severe allergic asthma. Previous studies have shown 70% of these patients also have chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The present series examines the impact of omalizumab on medication use for CRS in a cohort of asthmatic CRS patients who received this therapy.
METHODS - The sample included 25 patients with adequate prescription data preinitiation and postinitiation of therapy. Data was available for a full 12 months both preinitiation and postinitiation of therapy in 20 of 25 patients and for 4 to 8 months in the remaining 5 of 25. Average antibiotic use (# of unique prescriptions per month) and systemic steroid dose (mg/month) were tabulated for each patient and compared before and after initiation of therapy.
RESULTS - Mean antibiotic prescriptions/month decreased by 37%, and this was statistically significant (p = 0.013). Antibiotic use decreased in 15 of 25 (60%), was the same in 7 of 25 (28%), and increased in 3 of 25 (12%) patients. Chronic steroid administration was required in 19 of 25 patients, and dosing was highly variable. Mean monthly steroid dose decreased substantially in 8 of 19 (42%) patients, with reduction ranging from 40% to 100% from pretreatment levels. A modest decrease of 17% to 30% was observed in 4 of 19 (21%) patients. Steroid use was essentially unchanged in 4 of 19 (21%), but dramatically increased (71% to 366% above pretreatment dose) in 3 of 19 (15%) patients.
CONCLUSION - Omalizumab therapy is associated with a decrease in overall antibiotic use for CRS. A subset of patients also experience significant reduction in steroid dependence. Further study is necessary to determine factors predictive of response.
© 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
OBJECTIVES - We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model to pre-emptively select patients for genotyping based on medication exposure risk.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING - Using deidentified electronic health records, we derived a prognostic model for the prescription of statins, warfarin, or clopidogrel. The model was implemented into a clinical decision support (CDS) tool to recommend pre-emptive genotyping for patients exceeding a prescription risk threshold. We evaluated the rule on an independent validation cohort and on an implementation cohort, representing the population in which the CDS tool was deployed.
RESULTS - The model exhibited moderate discrimination with area under the receiver operator characteristic curves ranging from 0.68 to 0.75 at 1 and 2 years after index dates. Risk estimates tended to underestimate true risk. The cumulative incidences of medication prescriptions at 1 and 2 years were 0.35 and 0.48, respectively, among 1,673 patients flagged by the model. The cumulative incidences in the same number of randomly sampled subjects were 0.12 and 0.19, and in patients over 50 years with the highest body mass indices, they were 0.22 and 0.34.
CONCLUSION - We demonstrate that prognostic algorithms can guide pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing toward those likely to benefit from it.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Opioid use for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain has increased drastically over the past decade. Although no evidence of efficacy exists supporting the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) with chronic opioid therapy, a large number of patients are receiving this therapy. Geographic variation in the use of opioids has been demonstrated in the past, but there are no studies examining variation of chronic opioid use.
OBJECTIVE - This study examines both the extent of geographic variation and the factors associated with variation across states of chronic opioid use among patients with FM.
METHODS - Using a large, nationally representative dataset of commercially insured individuals, the following characteristics were examined: sex, disease prevalence, physician prevalence, illicit drug use, and the prescence of a prescription monitoring program. Other contextual and structural characteristics were also assessed.
RESULTS - The analysis included 245,758 patients with FM; 11.3% received chronic opioid therapy during the study period. There was a 5-fold difference between the states with the lowest rate of use (~4%) and those with the highest (~20%). The weighted %CV was 36.2%. Percent female and previous illicit opioid use rates were associated with higher rates of chronic opioid use, and FM prevalence and physician prevalence were associated with lower rates. The presence of a prescription monitoring program was not significantly correlated.
CONCLUSIONS - Geographic variation in chronic opioid use among patients with FM exists at rates similar to those seen in other studies examining opioid use. This large level of geographic variation suggests that the prescribing decision is not based solely on physician-patient interaction but also on contextual and structural factors at the state level. The level of physician and condition prevalence suggest that information dissemination and peer-to-peer interaction may play a key role in adopting evidence-based medicine for the treatment of patients suffering from FM and related conditions. Level of diagnosis prevalence as a predictor of evidence-based practice has not been reported in the literature and is an important contribution to research on geographic variation.
Published by EM Inc USA.
PURPOSE - To assess the safety of psychotropic medication use in children and adolescents, it is critical to be able to identify suicidal behaviors from medical claims data and distinguish them from other injuries. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm using administrative claims data to identify medically treated suicidal behavior in a cohort of children and adolescents.
METHODS - The cohort included 80,183 youth (6-18 years) enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program from 1995-2006 who were prescribed antidepressants. Potential episodes of suicidal behavior were identified using external cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) and ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to the potential mechanisms of or injuries resulting from suicidal behavior. For each identified episode, medical records were reviewed to determine if the injury was self-inflicted and if intent to die was explicitly stated or could be inferred.
RESULTS - Medical records were reviewed for 2676 episodes of potential self-harm identified through claims data. Among 1162 episodes that were classified as suicidal behavior, 1117 (96%) had a claim for suicide and self-inflicted injury, poisoning by drugs, or both. The positive predictive value of code groups to predict suicidal behavior ranged from 0-88% and improved when there was a concomitant hospitalization but with the limitation of excluding some episodes of confirmed suicidal behavior.
CONCLUSIONS - Nearly all episodes of confirmed suicidal behavior in this cohort of youth included an ICD-9-CM code for suicide or poisoning by drugs. An algorithm combining these ICD-9-CM codes and hospital stay greatly improved the positive predictive value for identifying medically treated suicidal behavior.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to describe antidepressant medication use patterns during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN - We evaluated a cohort of 228,876 singleton pregnancies that were covered by Tennessee Medicaid, 1995-2007.
RESULTS - Of 23,280 pregnant women with antidepressant prescriptions before pregnancy, 75% of them filled none in the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, and 10.7% of them used antidepressants throughout pregnancy. Filling 1, 2, and ≥3 antidepressant prescriptions during the second trimester was associated with shortened gestational age by 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3), 3.7 (95% CI, 2.8-4.6), and 4.9 (95% CI, 3.9-5.8) days, when controlled for measured confounders. Third-trimester selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was associated with infant convulsions; adjusted odds ratios were 1.4 (95% CI, 0.7-2.8); 2.8 (95% CI, 1.9-5.5); and 4.9 (95% CI, 2.6-9.5) for filling 1, 2, and ≥3 prescriptions, respectively.
CONCLUSION - Most women discontinue antidepressant medications before or during the first trimester of pregnancy. Second-trimester antidepressant use is associated with preterm birth, and third-trimester selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with infant convulsions.
Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Previous studies suggest that disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) increase tuberculosis (TB) risk. The accuracy of pharmacy and coded-diagnosis information to identify persons with TB is unclear.
METHODS - Within a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (2000-2005) enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid, we identified those with potential TB using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD9-CM) diagnosis codes and/or pharmacy claims. Using the Tennessee TB registry as the gold standard for identification of TB, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and the respective 95% confidence intervals for each TB case-ascertainment strategy.
RESULTS - Ten of 18,094 RA patients had confirmed TB during 61,461 person-years of follow-up (16.3 per 100,000 person-years). The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) and respective 95% confidence intervals were low for confirmed TB based on ICD9-CM codes alone (60.0% (26.2-87.8) and 1.3% (0.5-2.9)), pharmacy data alone (20% (2.5-55.6) and 4.1% (0.5-14.3)), and both (20% (2.5-55.6) and 25.0% (3.2-65.1)).
CONCLUSIONS - Algorithms that use administrative data alone to identify TB have a poor PPV that results in a high false positive rate of TB detection.
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
OBJECTIVES - To describe the prevalence of preinjury warfarin use in a large national sample of trauma patients and to define the relationship between preinjury warfarin use and mortality.
DESIGN - Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING - The National Trauma Databank (7.1).
PATIENTS - All patients admitted to eligible trauma centers during the study period; 1,230,422 patients (36,270 warfarin users) from 402 centers were eligible for analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Prevalence of warfarin use and all-cause in-hospital mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for mortality associated with preinjury warfarin use.
RESULTS - Warfarin use increased among all patients from 2.3% in 2002 to 4.0% in 2006 (P < .001), and in patients older than 65 years, use increased from 7.3% in 2002 to 12.8% in 2006 (P < .001). Among all patients, 9.3% of warfarin users died compared with only 4.8% of nonusers (OR, 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95-2.10; P < .001). After adjusting for important covariates, warfarin use was associated with increased mortality among all patients (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.63-1.81; P < .001) and patients 65 years and older (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.47; P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS - Warfarin use is common among injured patients and its prevalence has increased each year since 2002. Its use is a powerful marker of mortality risk, and even after adjusting for confounding comorbidities, it is associated with a significant increase in death.
This study examined the characteristics of culture-negative osteoarticular infections (OAIs) during the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Culture-negative OAIs were mild compared with culture-positive infections, especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Despite no increase in severity during the study period, the duration of parenteral antibiotics for children with culture-negative OAIs more than tripled in 2004-2008 compared with 2002-2003.
Mortality risk for dialysis patients is highest in the first year. We previously showed a 41% mortality benefit associated with a pilot case management program for incident hemodialysis patients (n = 918). The RightStart Program (RSP) provided prompt medical management and self-management education and was recently expanded to more facilities. We conducted a matched cohort analysis to validate the expanded program's continued effectiveness. Death risk was reduced for RS patients (n = 4308) versus matched controls (C; n = 4308) by 34% (hazard ratio = 0.66, P < 0.0001) at 120 d and 22% at 1 yr (hazard ratio = 0.78, P < 0.0001). RS patients had lower hospitalization during the first year (RS = 15.5 days per patient year versus C = 16.9, P < 0.01). At 120 d, more RS patients achieved hemoglobin 11 to 12 g/dl (RS = 22.4% versus C = 19.7%, P < 0.01), eKt/V > or = 1.2 (RS = 66% versus C = 53.5%, P < 0.01), albumin > or = 4.0 g/dl (RS = 26% versus C = 22%, P < 0.01), and phosphorus 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dl (RS = 52.4% versus C = 45.4%). At 120 d, RS patients had a greater reduction in catheter use (RS = 32% versus C = 25%, P < 0.01) and more vitamin D orders (RS = 60% versus C = 55%, P < 0.01). Expansion of RS to a larger incident patient population results in significant reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with improvement of intermediate outcomes.
CONTEXT - During the 1990s, antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) decreased in the United States. The sustainability of those changes is unknown.
OBJECTIVE - To assess trends in antibiotic prescriptions for ARTI.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data (1995-2006) were used to examine trends in antibiotic prescription rates by antibiotic indication and class. Annual survey data and census denominators were combined in 2-year intervals for rate calculations.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - National annual visit rates and antibiotic prescription rates for ARTI, including otitis media (OM) and non-ARTI.
RESULTS - Among children younger than 5 years, annual ARTI visit rates decreased by 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-24%), from 1883 per 1000 population in 1995-1996 to 1560 per 1000 population in 2005-2006, primarily due to a 33% (95% CI, 22%-43%) decrease in OM visit rates (950 to 634 per 1000 population, respectively). This decrease was accompanied by a 36% (95% CI, 26%-45%) decrease in ARTI-associated antibiotic prescriptions (1216 to 779 per 1000 population). Among persons aged 5 years or older, ARTI visit rates remained stable but associated antibiotic prescription rates decreased by 18% (95% CI, 6%-29%), from 178 to 146 per 1000 population. Antibiotic prescription rates for non-OM ARTI for which antibiotics are rarely indicated decreased by 41% (95% CI, 22%-55%) and 24% (95% CI, 10%-37%) among persons younger than 5 years and 5 years or older, respectively. Overall, ARTI-associated prescription rates for penicillin, cephalosporin, and sulfonamide/tetracycline decreased. Prescription rates for azithromycin increased and it became the most commonly prescribed macrolide for ARTI and OM (10% of OM visits). Among adults, quinolone prescriptions increased.
CONCLUSIONS - Overall antibiotic prescription rates for ARTI decreased, associated with fewer OM visits in children younger than 5 years and with fewer prescriptions for ARTI for which antibiotics are rarely indicated. However, prescription rates for broad-spectrum antibiotics increased significantly.