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Structural principles underlying the composition of protective antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails are poorly defined. Here, we exploited antibody cooperativity to develop a therapeutic mAb cocktail against Ebola virus. We systematically analyzed the antibody repertoire in human survivors and identified a pair of potently neutralizing mAbs that cooperatively bound to the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP). High-resolution structures revealed that in a two-antibody cocktail, molecular mimicry was a major feature of mAb-GP interactions. Broadly neutralizing mAb rEBOV-520 targeted a conserved epitope on the GP base region. mAb rEBOV-548 bound to a glycan cap epitope, possessed neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector function activities, and potentiated neutralization by rEBOV-520. Remodeling of the glycan cap structures by the cocktail enabled enhanced GP binding and virus neutralization. The cocktail demonstrated resistance to virus escape and protected non-human primates (NHPs) against Ebola virus disease. These data illuminate structural principles of antibody cooperativity with implications for development of antiviral immunotherapeutics.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are potassium-selective ion channels. As their name suggests, GIRK channels are effectors of G G protein-couple receptors whereby activation of these GPCRs leads to increased GIRK channel activity resulting in decreased cellular excitability. In this way, GIRK channels play diverse roles in physiology as effectors of G-coupled GPCRs: peacemaking in the heart rate, modulation of hormone secretion in endocrine tissues, as well as numerous CNS functions including learning, memory, and addiction/reward. Notably, GIRK channels are widely expressed along the spinothalamic tract and are positioned to play roles in both ascending and descending pain pathways. More notably, GIRK channel knockout and knock-down studies have found that GIRK channels play a major role in the action of opioid analgesics which act predominantly through G-coupled, opioid-activated GPCRs (e.g., μ-opioid receptors). Recent advances in GIRK channel pharmacology have led to the development of small molecules that directly and selectively activate GIRK channels. Based on research implicating the involvement of GIRK channels in pain pathways and as effectors of opioid analgesics, we conducted a study to determine whether direct pharmacological activation of GIRK channels could produce analgesic efficacy and/or augment the analgesic efficacy morphine, an opioid receptor agonist capable of activating μ-opioid receptors as well as other opioid receptor subtypes. In the present study, we demonstrate that the small-molecule GIRK activator, VU0466551, has analgesic effects when dosed alone or in combination with submaximally effective doses of morphine.
Tizanidine, a widely used muscle relaxant that can lower blood pressure, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). We studied 1,626 patients prescribed tizanidine and 5,012 prescribed cyclobenzaprine concurrently with a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor. The primary outcome was severe hypotension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤ 70 mmHg during periods of drug co-exposure. Severe hypotension occurred more often in the tizanidine group (2.03%; n = 33) than the cyclobenzaprine group (1.28%; n = 64); odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; P = 0.029. This difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for a log-transformed propensity score that included age, sex, race, Charlson's comorbidity index, and concurrent use of antihypertensive medications (OR = 1.57; P = 0.049). A sensitivity analysis that defined hypotension as SBP < 90 mmHg also yielded higher rates of hypotension among patients prescribed tizanidine. In conclusion, CYP1A2 inhibition increases the risk of hypotensive episodes associated with the use of tizanidine in routine clinical practice.
© 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
OBJECTIVES - This study sought to compare a continuous infusion diuretic strategy versus an intermittent bolus diuretic strategy, with the addition of low-dose dopamine (3 μg/kg/min) in the treatment of hospitalized patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
BACKGROUND - HFpEF patients are susceptible to development of worsening renal function (WRF) when hospitalized with acute heart failure; however, inpatient treatment strategies to achieve safe and effective diuresis in HFpEF patients have not been studied to date.
METHODS - In a prospective, randomized, clinical trial, 90 HFpEF patients hospitalized with acute heart failure were randomized within 24 h of admission to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) intravenous bolus furosemide administered every 12 h; 2) continuous infusion furosemide; 3) intermittent bolus furosemide with low-dose dopamine; and 4) continuous infusion furosemide with low-dose dopamine. The primary endpoint was percent change in creatinine from baseline to 72 h. Linear and logistic regression analyses with tests for interactions between diuretic and dopamine strategies were performed.
RESULTS - Compared to intermittent bolus strategy, the continuous infusion strategy was associated with higher percent increase in creatinine (continuous infusion: 16.01%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.58% to 23.45% vs. intermittent bolus: 4.62%; 95% CI: -1.15% to 10.39%; p = 0.02). Low-dose dopamine had no significant effect on percent change in creatinine (low-dose dopamine: 12.79%; 95% CI: 5.66% to 19.92%, vs. no-dopamine: 8.03%; 95% CI: 1.44% to 14.62%; p = 0.33). Continuous infusion was also associated with greater risk of WRF than intermittent bolus (odds ratio [OR]: 4.32; 95% CI: 1.26 to 14.74; p = 0.02); no differences in WRF risk were seen with low-dose dopamine. No significant interaction was seen between diuretic strategy and low-dose dopamine (p > 0.10).
CONCLUSIONS - In HFpEF patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, low-dose dopamine had no significant impact on renal function, and a continuous infusion diuretic strategy was associated with renal impairment. (Diuretics and Dopamine in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [ROPA-DOP]; NCT01901809).
Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - A pilot study suggested that combination therapy with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) preserves C-peptide in established type 1 diabetes (T1D) (duration 4 months to 2 years). We hypothesized that ) low-dose ATG/GCSF or ) low-dose ATG alone would slow the decline of β-cell function in patients with new-onset T1D (duration <100 days).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A three-arm, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial was performed by the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group in 89 subjects: 29 subjects randomized to ATG (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) followed by pegylated GCSF (6 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 doses), 29 to ATG alone (2.5 mg/kg), and 31 to placebo. The primary end point was mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide during a 2-h mixed-meal tolerance test 1 year after initiation of therapy. Significance was defined as one-sided value < 0.025.
RESULTS - The 1-year mean AUC C-peptide was significantly higher in subjects treated with ATG (0.646 nmol/L) versus placebo (0.406 nmol/L) ( = 0.0003) but not in those treated with ATG/GCSF (0.528 nmol/L) versus placebo ( = 0.031). HbA was significantly reduced at 1 year in subjects treated with ATG and ATG/GCSF, = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - Low-dose ATG slowed decline of C-peptide and reduced HbA in new-onset T1D. Addition of GCSF did not enhance C-peptide preservation afforded by low-dose ATG. Future studies should be considered to determine whether low-dose ATG alone or in combination with other agents may prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
© 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.
Current therapies used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not effective in all patients. Biologic agents result in approximately 40% remission rates at 1 year in selected populations, prompting a growing interest in combining biologic therapy to improve outcomes. There are limited published data regarding the efficacy and safety of combination targeted therapy in IBD specifically, which include only 1 exploratory randomized control trial and 3 case reports or series. This review evaluates the published literature regarding this therapeutic paradigm in IBD and its extensive utilization in the treatment of other immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. The combination of biologic therapies demonstrates variable degrees of efficacy and highlights some safety concerns, depending upon the agents used and the disease state treated. A trial (Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02764762) combining vedolizumab and adalimumab is currently underway evaluating the effectiveness and safety of this approach in patients with Crohn's disease, which should provide further insight into this treatment concept. While combination biologic therapy is an attractive strategy, the lack of consistent superior efficacy as well as safety concerns militates the need for further trials prior to its general application in IBD.
Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
RATIONALE - Data are limited regarding the safety of 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid (H, 900 mg) plus rifapentine (P, 900 mg) (3HP) for latent infection treatment during pregnancy.
OBJECTIVES - To assess safety and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women who were inadvertently exposed to study medications in two latent tuberculosis infection trials (PREVENT TB or iAdhere) evaluating 3HP and 9 months of daily isoniazid (H, 300 mg) (9H).
METHODS - Data from reproductive-age (15-51 yr) women who received one or more study dose of 3HP or 9H in either trial were analyzed. Drug exposure during pregnancy occurred if the estimated date of conception was on or before the last dose date.
RESULTS - Of 126 pregnancies (125 participants) that occurred during treatment or follow-up, 87 were exposed to study drugs. Among these, fetal loss was reported for 4/31 (13%) and 8/56 (14%), 3HP and 9H, respectively (difference, 13% - 14% = -1%; 95% confidence interval = -17% to +18%) and congenital anomalies in 0/20 and 2/41 (5%) live births, 3HP and 9H, respectively (difference, 0% - 5% = -5%; 95% confidence interval = -18% to +16%). All fetal losses occurred in pregnancies of less than 20 weeks. Of the total 126 pregnancies, fetal loss was reported in 8/54 (15%) and 9/72 (13%), 3HP and 9H, respectively; and congenital anomalies in 1/37 (3%) and 2/56 (4%) live births, 3HP and 9H, respectively. The overall proportion of fetal loss (17/126 [13%]) and anomalies (3/93 [3%]) were similar to those estimated for the United States, 17% and 3%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - Among reported pregnancies in these two latent tuberculosis infection trials, there was no unexpected fetal loss or congenital anomalies. These data offer some preliminary reassurance to clinicians and patients in circumstances when these drugs and regimens are the best option in pregnancy or in women of child-bearing potential. This work used the identifying trial registration numbers NCT00023452 and NCT01582711, corresponding to the primary clinical trials PREVENT TB and iAdhere (Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 26 and 33).
Importance - β-Lactam monotherapy and β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy are both common empirical treatment strategies for children hospitalized with pneumonia, but few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these 2 treatment approaches.
Objective - To compare the effectiveness of β-lactam monotherapy vs β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy among a cohort of children hospitalized with pneumonia.
Design, Setting, and Participants - We analyzed data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a multicenter, prospective, population-based study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, in 3 children's hospitals in Nashville, Tennessee; Memphis, Tennessee; and Salt Lake City, Utah. The study included all children (up to 18 years of age) who were hospitalized with radiographically confirmed pneumonia and who received β-lactam monotherapy or β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. Data analysis was completed in April 2017.
Main Outcomes and Measures - We defined the referent as β-lactam monotherapy, including exclusive use of an oral or parenteral second- or third-generation cephalosporin, penicillin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Use of a β-lactam plus an oral or parenteral macrolide (azithromycin or clarithromycin) served as the comparison group. We modeled the association between these groups and patients' length of stay using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Covariates included demographic, clinical, and radiographic variables. We further evaluated length of stay in a cohort matched by propensity to receive combination therapy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate secondary outcomes in the unmatched cohort, including intensive care admission, rehospitalizations, and self-reported recovery at follow-up.
Results - Our study included 1418 children (693 girls and 725 boys) with a median age of 27 months (interquartile range, 12-69 months). This cohort was 60.1% of the 2358 children enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the study period; 1019 (71.9%) received β-lactam monotherapy and 399 (28.1%) received β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. In the unmatched cohort, there was no statistically significant difference in length of hospital stay between children receiving β-lactam monotherapy and combination therapy (median, 55 vs 59 hours; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-1.01). The propensity-matched cohort (n = 560, 39.5%) showed similar results. There were also no significant differences between treatment groups for the secondary outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance - Empirical macrolide combination therapy conferred no benefit over β-lactam monotherapy for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. The results of this study elicit questions about the routine empirical use of macrolide combination therapy in this population.
OBJECTIVE - Nonadherence to controller and overuse of reliever asthma medications are associated with exacerbations. We aimed to determine patterns of seasonal asthma medication use and to identify time period(s) during which interventions to improve medication adherence could reduce asthma morbidity.
METHODS - We conducted a retrospective cohort study of asthmatics 4-50 years of age and enrolled in three diverse health insurance plans. Seasonal patterns of medications were reported by monthly prescription fill rates per 1000 individuals with asthma from 1998 to 2013, and stratified by healthcare plan, sex, and age.
RESULTS - There was a distinct and consistent seasonal fill pattern for all asthma medications. The lowest fill rate was observed in the month of July. Fills increased in the autumn and remained high throughout the winter and spring. Compared with the month of May with high medication fills, July represented a relative decrease of fills ranging from 13% (rate ratio, RR: 0.87, 95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 0.72-1.04) for the combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) + long acting beta agonists (LABA) to 45% (RR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.49-0.61) for oral corticosteroids. Such a seasonal pattern was observed each year across the 16-year study period, among healthcare plans, sexes, and ages. LABA containing control medication (ICS+LABA and LABA) fill rates were more prevalent in older asthmatics, while leukotriene receptor antagonists were more prevalent in the younger population.
CONCLUSIONS - A seasonal pattern of asthma medication fill rates likely represents a reactive response to a loss of disease control and increased symptoms. Adherence to and consistent use of asthma medications among individuals who use medications in reaction to seasonal exacerbations might be a key component in reducing the risk of asthma exacerbations.
Importance - Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a potentially lethal genetic arrhythmia syndrome characterized by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with physical or emotional stress, for which current therapy with β-blockers is incompletely effective. Flecainide acetate directly suppresses sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release-the cellular mechanism responsible for triggering ventricular arrhythmias in CPVT-but has never been assessed prospectively.
Objective - To determine whether flecainide dosed to therapeutic levels and added to β-blocker therapy is superior to β-blocker therapy alone for the prevention of exercise-induced arrhythmias in CPVT.
Design, Setting, and Participants - This investigator-initiated, multicenter, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted from December 19, 2011, through December 29, 2015, with a midtrial protocol change at 10 US sites. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of CPVT and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator underwent a baseline exercise test while receiving maximally tolerated β-blocker therapy that was continued throughout the trial. Patients were then randomized to treatment A (flecainide or placebo) for 3 months, followed by exercise testing. After a 1-week washout period, patients crossed over to treatment B (placebo or flecainide) for 3 months, followed by exercise testing.
Interventions - Patients received oral flecainide or placebo twice daily, with the dosage guided by trough serum levels.
Main Outcomes and Measures - The primary end point of ventricular arrhythmias during exercise was compared between the flecainide and placebo arms. Exercise tests were scored on an ordinal scale of worst ventricular arrhythmia observed (0 indicates no ectopy; 1, isolated premature ventricular beats; 2, bigeminy; 3, couplets; and 4, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia).
Results - Of 14 patients (7 males and 7 females; median age, 16 years [interquartile range, 15.0-22.5 years]) randomized, 13 completed the study. The median baseline exercise test score was 3.0 (range, 0-4), with no difference noted between the baseline and placebo (median, 2.5; range, 0-4) exercise scores. The median ventricular arrhythmia score during exercise was significantly reduced by flecainide (0 [range, 0-2] vs 2.5 [range, 0-4] for placebo; P < .01), with complete suppression observed in 11 of 13 patients (85%). Overall and serious adverse events did not differ between the flecainide and placebo arms.
Conclusions and Relevance - In this randomized clinical trial of patients with CPVT, flecainide plus β-blocker significantly reduced ventricular ectopy during exercise compared with placebo plus β-blocker and β-blocker alone.
Trial Registration - clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01117454.