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When Enough Is Enough: Decision Criteria for Moving a Known Drug into Clinical Testing for a New Indication in the Absence of Preclinical Efficacy Data.
Pulley JM, Jerome RN, Zaleski NM, Shirey-Rice JK, Pruijssers AJ, Lavieri RR, Chettiar SN, Naylor HM, Aronoff DM, Edwards DA, Niswender CM, Dugan LL, Crofford LJ, Bernard GR, Holroyd KJ
(2017) Assay Drug Dev Technol 15: 354-361
MeSH Terms: Animals, Clinical Trials as Topic, Decision Making, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Drug Repositioning, Humans, Models, Animal
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
Many animal models of disease are suboptimal in their representation of human diseases and lack of predictive power in the success of pivotal human trials. In the context of repurposing drugs with known human safety, it is sometimes appropriate to conduct the "last experiment first," that is, progressing directly to human investigations. However, there are not accepted criteria for when to proceed straight to humans to test a new indication. We propose a specific set of criteria to guide the decision-making around when to initiate human proof of principle without preclinical efficacy studies in animal models. This approach could accelerate the transition of novel therapeutic approaches to human applications.
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MeSH Terms
Therapeutic administration of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody reduces the severity of chikungunya virus disease in rhesus macaques.
Broeckel R, Fox JM, Haese N, Kreklywich CN, Sukulpovi-Petty S, Legasse A, Smith PP, Denton M, Corvey C, Krishnan S, Colgin LMA, Ducore RM, Lewis AD, Axthelm MK, Mandron M, Cortez P, Rothblatt J, Rao E, Focken I, Carter K, Sapparapau G, Crowe JE, Diamond MS, Streblow DN
(2017) PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005637
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Viral, B-Lymphocytes, Chikungunya Fever, Chikungunya virus, Disease Models, Animal, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Immunologic Factors, Macaca mulatta, T-Lymphocytes, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat CHIKV infections. We recently isolated a panel of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), one (4N12) of which exhibited prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic activity against CHIKV in immunocompromised mice. Here, we describe the development of an engineered CHIKV mAb, designated SVIR001, that has similar antigen binding and neutralization profiles to its parent, 4N12. Because therapeutic administration of SVIR001 in immunocompetent mice significantly reduced viral load in joint tissues, we evaluated its efficacy in a rhesus macaque model of CHIKV infection. Rhesus macaques that were treated after infection with SVIR001 showed rapid elimination of viremia and less severe joint infiltration and disease compared to animals treated with SVIR002, an isotype control mAb. SVIR001 reduced viral burden at the site of infection and at distant sites and also diminished the numbers of activated innate immune cells and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SVIR001 therapy; however, did not substantively reduce the induction of CHIKV-specific B or T cell responses. Collectively, these results show promising therapeutic activity of a human anti-CHIKV mAb in rhesus macaques and provide proof-of-principle for its possible use in humans to treat active CHIKV infections.
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12 MeSH Terms
Discovery of N-(5-Fluoropyridin-2-yl)-6-methyl-4-(pyrimidin-5-yloxy)picolinamide (VU0424238): A Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 Selected for Clinical Evaluation.
Felts AS, Rodriguez AL, Blobaum AL, Morrison RD, Bates BS, Thompson Gray A, Rook JM, Tantawy MN, Byers FW, Chang S, Venable DF, Luscombe VB, Tamagnan GD, Niswender CM, Daniels JS, Jones CK, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Emmitte KA
(2017) J Med Chem 60: 5072-5085
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Aminopyridines, Animals, Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, HEK293 Cells, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Humans, Macaca fascicularis, Male, Mice, Inbred Strains, Picolinic Acids, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5, Structure-Activity Relationship, Tissue Distribution
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
Preclinical evidence in support of the potential utility of mGlu NAMs for the treatment of a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders is extensive, and multiple such molecules have entered clinical trials. Despite some promising results from clinical studies, no small molecule mGlu NAM has yet to reach market. Here we present the discovery and evaluation of N-(5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-6-methyl-4-(pyrimidin-5-yloxy)picolinamide (27, VU0424238), a compound selected for clinical evaluation. Compound 27 is more than 900-fold selective for mGlu versus the other mGlu receptors, and binding studies established a K value of 4.4 nM at a known allosteric binding site. Compound 27 had a clearance of 19.3 and 15.5 mL/min/kg in rats and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. Imaging studies using a known mGlu PET ligand demonstrated 50% receptor occupancy at an oral dose of 0.8 mg/kg in rats and an intravenous dose of 0.06 mg/kg in baboons.
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2 Members
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16 MeSH Terms
Beyond Anthracyclines: Preemptive Management of Cardiovascular Toxicity in the Era of Targeted Agents for Hematologic Malignancies.
Sethi TK, Basdag B, Bhatia N, Moslehi J, Reddy NM
(2017) Curr Hematol Malig Rep 12: 257-267
MeSH Terms: Animals, Anthracyclines, Antineoplastic Agents, Cardiotoxicity, Cardiovascular Diseases, Disease Management, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Hematologic Neoplasms, Humans, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2017
Advances in drug discovery have led to the use of effective targeted agents in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Drugs such as proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma and tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have changed the face of treatment of hematologic malignancies. There are several reports of cardiovascular adverse events related to these newer agents. Both "on-target" and "off-target" effects of these agents can cause organ-specific toxicity. The need for long-term administration for most of these agents requires continued monitoring of toxicity. Moreover, the patient population is older, often over 50 years of age, making them more susceptible to cardiovascular side effects. Additional factors such as prior exposure to anthracyclines often add to this toxicity. In light of their success and widespread use, it is important to recognize and manage the unique side effect profile of targeted agents used in hematologic malignancies. In this article, we review the current data for the incidence of cardiovascular side effects of targeted agents in hematologic malignancies and discuss a preemptive approach towards managing these toxicities.
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11 MeSH Terms
Development of a reliable automated screening system to identify small molecules and biologics that promote human β-cell regeneration.
Aamodt KI, Aramandla R, Brown JJ, Fiaschi-Taesch N, Wang P, Stewart AF, Brissova M, Powers AC
(2016) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 311: E859-E868
MeSH Terms: Activins, Adenosine, Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists, Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide), Adult, Automation, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Proliferation, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Erythropoietin, Exenatide, Female, GABA Agents, Harmine, Humans, Incretins, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Male, Middle Aged, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Myostatin, Nucleosides, Peptides, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Prolactin, Regeneration, Serotonin, Serotonin Receptor Agonists, Vasodilator Agents, Venoms, Young Adult, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Numerous compounds stimulate rodent β-cell proliferation; however, translating these findings to human β-cells remains a challenge. To examine human β-cell proliferation in response to such compounds, we developed a medium-throughput in vitro method of quantifying adult human β-cell proliferation markers. This method is based on high-content imaging of dispersed islet cells seeded in 384-well plates and automated cell counting that identifies fluorescently labeled β-cells with high specificity using both nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. β-Cells from each donor were assessed for their function and ability to enter the cell cycle by cotransduction with adenoviruses encoding cell cycle regulators cdk6 and cyclin D3. Using this approach, we tested 12 previously identified mitogens, including neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors, and molecules, involved in adenosine and Tgf-1β signaling. Each compound was tested in a wide concentration range either in the presence of basal (5 mM) or high (11 mM) glucose. Treatment with the control compound harmine, a Dyrk1a inhibitor, led to a significant increase in Ki-67 β-cells, whereas treatment with other compounds had limited to no effect on human β-cell proliferation. This new scalable approach reduces the time and effort required for sensitive and specific evaluation of human β-cell proliferation, thus allowing for increased testing of candidate human β-cell mitogens.
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32 MeSH Terms
Prefrontal Cortex-Mediated Impairments in a Genetic Model of NMDA Receptor Hypofunction Are Reversed by the Novel M PAM VU6004256.
Grannan MD, Mielnik CA, Moran SP, Gould RW, Ball J, Lu Z, Bubser M, Ramsey AJ, Abe M, Cho HP, Nance KD, Blobaum AL, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Jones CK
(2016) ACS Chem Neurosci 7: 1706-1716
MeSH Terms: Action Potentials, Animals, Cholinergic Agents, Cognition Disorders, Conditioning (Psychology), Disease Models, Animal, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Fear, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings, Long-Term Synaptic Depression, Male, Mice, 129 Strain, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Motor Activity, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Nootropic Agents, Prefrontal Cortex, Pyramidal Cells, Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, Recognition (Psychology), Tissue Culture Techniques
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Abnormalities in the signaling of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) within cortical and limbic brain regions are thought to underlie many of the complex cognitive and affective symptoms observed in individuals with schizophrenia. The M muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype is a closely coupled signaling partner of the NMDAR. Accumulating evidence suggests that development of selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M receptor represent an important treatment strategy for the potential normalization of disruptions in NMDAR signaling in patients with schizophrenia. In the present studies, we evaluated the effects of the novel and highly potent M PAM, VU6004256, in ameliorating selective prefrontal cortical (PFC)-mediated physiologic and cognitive abnormalities in a genetic mouse model of global reduction in the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR (NR1 knockdown [KD]). Using slice-based extracellular field potential recordings, deficits in muscarinic agonist-induced long-term depression (LTD) in layer V of the PFC in the NR1 KD mice were normalized with bath application of VU6004256. Systemic administration of VU6004256 also reduced excessive pyramidal neuron firing in layer V PFC neurons in awake, freely moving NR1 KD mice. Moreover, selective potentiation of M by VU6004256 reversed the performance impairments of NR1 KD mice observed in two preclinical models of PFC-mediated learning, specifically the novel object recognition and cue-mediated fear conditioning tasks. VU6004256 also produced a robust, dose-dependent reduction in the hyperlocomotor activity of NR1 KD mice. Taken together, the current findings provide further support for M PAMs as a novel therapeutic approach for the PFC-mediated impairments in schizophrenia.
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23 MeSH Terms
Biased allosteric agonism and modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5: Implications for optimizing preclinical neuroscience drug discovery.
Sengmany K, Singh J, Stewart GD, Conn PJ, Christopoulos A, Gregory KJ
(2017) Neuropharmacology 115: 60-72
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Calcium Signaling, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Discovery, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists, Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists, Female, HEK293 Cells, Humans, MAP Kinase Signaling System, Mice, Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Allosteric modulators, that exhibit no intrinsic agonist activity, offer the advantage of spatial and temporal fine-tuning of endogenous agonist activity, allowing the potential for increased selectivity, reduced adverse effects and improved clinical outcomes. Some allosteric ligands can differentially activate and/or modulate distinct signaling pathways arising from the same receptor, phenomena referred to as 'biased agonism' and 'biased modulation'. Emerging evidence for CNS disorders with glutamatergic dysfunction suggests the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu) is a promising target. Current mGlu allosteric modulators have largely been classified based on modulation of intracellular calcium (iCa) responses to orthosteric agonists alone. We assessed eight mGlu allosteric modulators previously classified as mGlu PAMs or PAM-agonists representing four distinct chemotypes across multiple measures of receptor activity, to explore their potential for engendering biased agonism and/or modulation. Relative to the reference orthosteric agonist, DHPG, the eight allosteric ligands exhibited distinct biased agonism fingerprints for iCa mobilization, IP accumulation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HEK293A cells stably expressing mGlu and in cortical neuron cultures. VU0424465, DPFE and VU0409551 displayed the most disparate biased signaling fingerprints in both HEK293A cells and cortical neurons that may account for the marked differences observed previously for these ligands in vivo. Select mGlu allosteric ligands also showed 'probe dependence' with respect to their cooperativity with different orthosteric agonists, as well as biased modulation for the magnitude of positive cooperativity observed. Unappreciated biased agonism and modulation may contribute to unanticipated effects (both therapeutic and adverse) when translating from recombinant systems to preclinical models. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors, 5 years on'.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
Discovery of Small-Molecule Modulators of the Human Y4 Receptor.
Sliwoski G, Schubert M, Stichel J, Weaver D, Beck-Sickinger AG, Meiler J
(2016) PLoS One 11: e0157146
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, COS Cells, Cercopithecus aethiops, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Humans, Ligands, Niclosamide, Receptors, Neuropeptide Y, Small Molecule Libraries, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added April 8, 2017
The human neuropeptide Y4 receptor (Y4R) and its native ligand, pancreatic polypeptide, are critically involved in the regulation of human metabolism by signaling satiety and regulating food intake, as well as increasing energy expenditure. Thus, this receptor represents a putative target for treatment of obesity. With respect to new approaches to treat complex metabolic disorders, especially in multi-receptor systems, small molecule allosteric modulators have been in the focus of research in the last years. However, no positive allosteric modulators or agonists of the Y4R have been described so far. In this study, small molecule compounds derived from the Niclosamide scaffold were identified by high-throughput screening to increase Y4R activity. Compounds were characterized for their potency and their effects at the human Y4R and as well as their selectivity towards Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. These compounds provide a structure-activity relationship profile around this common scaffold and lay the groundwork for hit-to-lead optimization and characterization of positive allosteric modulators of the Y4R.
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11 MeSH Terms
3D Printing of Tissue Engineered Constructs for In Vitro Modeling of Disease Progression and Drug Screening.
Vanderburgh J, Sterling JA, Guelcher SA
(2017) Ann Biomed Eng 45: 164-179
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Culture Techniques, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Humans, Models, Biological, Printing, Three-Dimensional, Tissue Engineering
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
2D cell culture and preclinical animal models have traditionally been implemented for investigating the underlying cellular mechanisms of human disease progression. However, the increasing significance of 3D vs. 2D cell culture has initiated a new era in cell culture research in which 3D in vitro models are emerging as a bridge between traditional 2D cell culture and in vivo animal models. Additive manufacturing (AM, also known as 3D printing), defined as the layer-by-layer fabrication of parts directed by digital information from a 3D computer-aided design file, offers the advantages of simultaneous rapid prototyping and biofunctionalization as well as the precise placement of cells and extracellular matrix with high resolution. In this review, we highlight recent advances in 3D printing of tissue engineered constructs that recapitulate the physical and cellular properties of the tissue microenvironment for investigating mechanisms of disease progression and for screening drugs.
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7 MeSH Terms
Interstitial renal fibrosis due to multiple cisplatin treatments is ameliorated by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition.
Katagiri D, Hamasaki Y, Doi K, Negishi K, Sugaya T, Nangaku M, Noiri E
(2016) Kidney Int 89: 374-85
MeSH Terms: Actins, Acute Kidney Injury, Allylamine, Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing), Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Benzamides, Chemokine CCL2, Cisplatin, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Fibrosis, Interleukin-6, Kidney, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Show Abstract · Added February 11, 2016
Elucidation of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), including acute kidney injury (AKI), is important to prevent their progression to chronic kidney disease. Current animal AKI models are often too severe for use in evaluating human AKI. Therefore, new animal models of mild kidney injury are needed. Here a new clinically relevant animal model using multiple low doses of cisplatin (CP) was used to evaluate AKD. When 10 mg/kg CP was administered intraperitoneally once weekly for three times to L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) transgenic mice, moderate renal interstitial fibrosis and tubule dilatation occurred, accompanied by brush-border loss. Urinary L-FABP, a promising biomarker of AKI, changed more drastically than blood urea nitrogen or creatinine. Preventing fibrosis in organs was also studied. Oral administration of a recently reported selective semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor, PXS-4728A, for 1 week attenuated kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis compared with vehicle. Inhibition of renal lipid accumulation in semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor-treated mice, together with reduced oxidative stress and L-FABP suppression in proximal tubules, suggested an antifibrotic effect of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition in this CP-AKD model, a representative onco-nephrology. Thus, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitors may be promising candidates for the prevention of chronic kidney disease in patients using CP to treat malignancy.
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20 MeSH Terms