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Doxorubicin forms the basis of chemotherapy regimens for several malignancies, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we present a coupled experimental/modeling approach to establish an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to describe how the concentration and duration of doxorubicin therapy shape subsequent cell population dynamics. This work features a series of longitudinal fluorescence microscopy experiments that characterize (1) doxorubicin uptake dynamics in a panel of TNBC cell lines, and (2) cell population response to doxorubicin over 30 days. We propose a treatment response model, fully parameterized with experimental imaging data, to describe doxorubicin uptake and predict subsequent population dynamics. We found that a three compartment model can describe doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, and pharmacokinetic parameters vary significantly among the cell lines investigated. The proposed model effectively captures population dynamics and translates well to a predictive framework. In a representative cell line (SUM-149PT) treated for 12 hours with doxorubicin, the mean percent errors of the best-fit and predicted models were 14% (±10%) and 16% (±12%), which are notable considering these statistics represent errors over 30 days following treatment. More generally, this work provides both a template for studies quantitatively investigating treatment response and a scalable approach toward predictions of tumor response in vivo.
Nanogels with a biomolecular coating (biocoating) were shown to be capable of triggered delivery of anticancer drug Doxorubicin. The biocoating was formed utilizing binding between glycogen and the tetra-functional lectin Concanavalin A, which can be triggered to disassemble (and release) upon exposure to glucose and changes in solution pH. We also show the nanogel's thermoresponsivity can be used to accelerate Doxorubicin release. Moreover, we showed that transferrin immobilized on the nanogel surface could accelerate nanogel uptake by cancer cells. In these experiments, we showed that Doxorubicin was able to be released to the nucleus of human liver cancer cell line (HepG2) within 3 h. Doxorubicin-loaded nanogels exhibit a strong growth inhibition ability toward HepG2. This investigation showcases how nanogel design and chemistry can be tuned to achieve useful biomedical applications.
Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Cancer-naïve, female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either saline (1 mL/kg) or doxorubicin (DOX) (1 mg/kg in a volume of 1 mL/kg) weekly for five weeks (total dose = 5 mg/kg), and underwent cognition testing and PET imaging immediately following the treatment regime and 30 days post treatment. We did not observe significant differences with CFC testing post-treatment for either group. However, the chemotherapy group exhibited significantly decreased performance in the NOR test and decreased F-FDG uptake only in the prefrontal cortex 30 days post-treatment. These results suggest that long-term impairment within the prefrontal cortex is a plausible mechanism of CICD in this study, suggesting DOX-induced toxicity in the prefrontal cortex at the dose used.
It is not understood why healthy tissues can exhibit varying levels of sensitivity to the same toxic stimuli. Using BH3 profiling, we find that mitochondria of many adult somatic tissues, including brain, heart, and kidneys, are profoundly refractory to pro-apoptotic signaling, leading to cellular resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapies and ionizing radiation. In contrast, mitochondria from these tissues in young mice and humans are primed for apoptosis, predisposing them to undergo cell death in response to genotoxic damage. While expression of the apoptotic protein machinery is nearly absent by adulthood, in young tissues its expression is driven by c-Myc, linking developmental growth to cell death. These differences may explain why pediatric cancer patients have a higher risk of developing treatment-associated toxicities.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The organic anion-transporting polypeptides represent an important family of drug uptake transporters that mediate the cellular uptake of a broad range of substrates including numerous drugs. Doxorubicin is a highly efficacious and well-established anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Although doxorubicin is a known substrate for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1, ABCB1), significantly less is known regarding its interactions with drug uptake transporters. Here, we investigated the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters to the disposition of doxorubicin. A recombinant vaccinia-based method for expressing uptake transporters in HeLa cells revealed that OATP1A2, but not OATP1B1 or OATP1B3, and the rat ortholog Oatp1a4 were capable of significant doxorubicin uptake. Interestingly, transwell assays using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cell line cells stably expressing specific uptake and/or efflux transporters revealed that OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2, either alone or in combination with MDR1, significantly transported doxorubicin. An assessment of polymorphisms in SLCO1A2 revealed that four variants were associated with significantly impaired doxorubicin transport in vitro. In vivo doxorubicin disposition studies revealed that doxorubicin plasma area under the curve was significantly higher (1.7-fold) in Slco1a/1b versus wild-type mice. The liver-to-plasma ratio of doxorubicin was significantly decreased (2.3-fold) in Slco1a/1b2 mice and clearance was reduced by 40% compared with wild-type mice, suggesting Oatp1b transporters are important for doxorubicin hepatic uptake. In conclusion, we demonstrate important roles for OATP1A/1B in transporter-mediated uptake and disposition of doxorubicin.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
The loss of strength in combination with constant fatigue is a burden on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapy drug used in the clinic, causes skeletal muscle dysfunction and increases mitochondrial H2O2 We hypothesized that the combined effect of cancer and chemotherapy in an immunocompetent breast cancer mouse model (E0771) would compromise skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function, leading to an increase in H2O2-emitting potential and impaired muscle function. Here, we demonstrate that cancer chemotherapy decreases mitochondrial respiratory capacity supported with complex I (pyruvate/glutamate/malate) and complex II (succinate) substrates. Mitochondrial H2O2-emitting potential was altered in skeletal muscle, and global protein oxidation was elevated with cancer chemotherapy. Muscle contractile function was impaired following exposure to cancer chemotherapy. Genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle attenuated mitochondrial H2O2 emission and protein oxidation, preserving mitochondrial and whole muscle function despite cancer chemotherapy. These findings suggest mitochondrial oxidants as a mediator of cancer chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction.
Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model.
OBJECTIVES - To evaluate the accuracy and change over time of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging for assessing residual blood flow after transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma with drug-eluting beads at 2 different follow-up intervals.
METHODS - Data from 16 tumors treated by transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads were successfully obtained. As part of the study, patients provided consent to undergo contrast-enhanced US examinations the morning before embolization, 1 to 2 weeks after embolization, and the morning before follow-up contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) (1 month after embolization). Blinded review of contrast-enhanced US and MRI/CT studies were performed by 2 radiologists who evaluated residual flow as no change, partial change, or no residual flow. Inter- and intra-reader variability rates were calculated before discordant individual reads were settled by consensus.
RESULTS - The only adverse event reported during the contrast-enhanced US examinations was a single episode of transient back pain. Contrast-enhanced US at 1 to 2 weeks after embolization (n = 14) resulted in 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. Contrast-enhanced US 1 month after embolization (n = 15) resulted in 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 92% negative predictive value, and 93% accuracy. Inter-reader agreement was 86% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 to 2 weeks, 93% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 month, and 100% for contrast-enhanced MRI/CT at 1 month, whereas intra-reader agreement was 71% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 to 2 weeks, 87% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 month, and 91% for MRI/CT.
CONCLUSIONS - Contrast-enhanced US imaging at 1 to 2 weeks after the procedure may be a viable alternative to MRI/CT for evaluating residual blood flow after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads, albeit with a higher degree of reader variability.
© 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important pathogenic role in the development of many diseases, including kidney disease. Major ROS generators in the glomerulus of the kidney are the p47(phox)-containing NAPDH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2. The cytosolic p47(phox) subunit is a key regulator of the assembly and function of NOX1 and NOX2 and its expression and phosphorylation are upregulated in the course of renal injury, and have been shown to exacerbate diabetic nephropathy. However, its role in nondiabetic-mediated glomerular injury is unclear. To address this, we subjected p47(phox)-null mice to either adriamycin-mediated or partial renal ablation-mediated glomerular injury. Deletion of p47(phox) protected the mice from albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in both injury models. Integrin α1-null mice develop more severe glomerulosclerosis compared with wild-type mice in response to glomerular injury mainly due to increased production of ROS. Interestingly, the protective effects of p47(phox) knockout were more profound in p47(phox)/integrin α1 double knockout mice. In vitro analysis of primary mesangial cells showed that deletion of p47(phox) led to reduced basal levels of superoxide and collagen IV production. Thus, p47(phox)-dependent NADPH oxidases are a major glomerular source of ROS, contribute to kidney injury, and are potential targets for antioxidant therapy in fibrotic disease.
Titin is the largest known protein and a critical determinant of myofibril elasticity and sarcomere structure in striated muscle. Accumulating evidence that mRNA transcripts are post-transcriptionally regulated by specific motifs located in the flanking untranslated regions (UTRs) led us to consider the role of titin 5'-UTR in regulating its translational efficiency. Titin 5'-UTR is highly homologous between human, mouse, and rat, and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a stem-loop and two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) converging on a shared in frame stop codon. We generated a mouse titin 5'-UTR luciferase reporter construct and targeted the stem-loop and each uAUG for mutation. The wild-type and mutated constructs were transfected into the cardiac HL-1 cell line and primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). SV40 driven 5'-UTR luciferase activity was significantly suppressed by wild-type titin 5'-UTR (∼ 70% in HL-1 cells and ∼ 60% in NRVM). Mutating both uAUGs was found to alleviate titin 5'-UTR suppression, while eliminating the stem-loop had no effect. Treatment with various growth stimuli: pacing, PMA or neuregulin had no effect on titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. Doxorubicin stress stimuli reduced titin 5'-UTR suppression, while H2O2 had no effect. A reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13422986 at position -4 of the uAUG2 was introduced and found to further repress titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. We conclude that the uAUG motifs in titin 5'-UTR serve as translational repressors in the control of titin gene expression, and that mutations/SNPs of the uAUGs or doxorubicin stress could alter titin translational efficiency.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.