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AIMS - Current therapy fails to emulate rapid (first-phase) insulin release in relation to a meal, a key defect in types 1 and 2 diabetes. We aimed to quantify the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of insulin tregopil, an enterically-absorbed insulin analog that restores the normal distribution of insulin between the hepatic portal and peripheral circulations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - The PK and PD profiles of insulin tregopil were studied in overnight-fasted, catheterized, conscious canines using four approaches: (1) equimolar intraportal infusions of tregopil vs human insulin; (2) escalating doses of oral tregopil; (3) identical, consecutive enteric doses of tregopil; and (4) comparison of oral tregopil to inhaled and subcutaneous human insulin administration.
RESULTS - Equimolar intraportal infusions of tregopil and human insulin resulted in very similar PK profiles and PD profiles were nearly identical. Enteric delivery of tregopil brought about rapid absorption with t = 20 minutes in most cases. Median t was 20 minutes for oral tregopil and inhaled insulin and 88 minutes for subcutaneous human insulin. The time required for arterial plasma insulin levels to return to baseline was approximately 90, 210 and 360 minutes for oral tregopil, inhaled insulin and subcutaneous insulin, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - Enterically delivered tregopil is rapidly absorbed and restores a portal-to-peripheral vascular distribution. These characteristics should improve postprandial hyperglycaemia in types 1 and 2 diabetes.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
We recently reported the case of a young patient with multisystem failure carrying a de novo mutation in SLC12A2, the gene encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC1). Heterologous expression studies in nonepithelial cells failed to demonstrate dominant-negative effects. In this study, we examined expression of the mutant cotransporter in epithelial cells. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown on glass coverslips, permeabilized support, and Matrigel, we show that the fluorescently tagged mutant cotransporter is expressed in cytoplasm and at the apical membrane and affects epithelium integrity. Expression of the mutant transporter at the apical membrane also results in the mislocalization of some of the wild-type transporter to the apical membrane. This mistargeting is specific to NKCC1 as the Na-K-ATPase remains localized on the basolateral membrane. To assess transporter localization in vivo, we created a mouse model using CRISPR/cas9 that reproduces the 11 bp deletion in exon 22 of Slc12a2. Although the mice do not display an overt phenotype, we show that the colon and salivary gland expresses wild-type NKCC1 abundantly at the apical pole, confirming the data obtained in cultured epithelial cells. Enough cotransporter must remain, however, on the basolateral membrane to participate in saliva secretion, as no significant decrease in saliva production was observed in the mutant mice.
Studies of regulatory activity and gene expression have revealed an intriguing dichotomy: There is substantial turnover in the regulatory activity of orthologous sequences between species; however, the expression level of orthologous genes is largely conserved. Understanding how distal regulatory elements, for example, enhancers, evolve and function is critical, as alterations in gene expression levels can drive the development of both complex disease and functional divergence between species. In this study, we investigated determinants of the conservation of regulatory enhancer activity for orthologous sequences across mammalian evolution. Using liver enhancers identified from genome-wide histone modification profiles in ten diverse mammalian species, we compared orthologous sequences that exhibited regulatory activity in all species (conserved-activity enhancers) to shared sequences active only in a single species (species-specific-activity enhancers). Conserved-activity enhancers have greater regulatory potential than species-specific-activity enhancers, as quantified by both the density and diversity of transcription factor binding motifs. Consistent with their greater regulatory potential, conserved-activity enhancers have greater regulatory activity in humans than species-specific-activity enhancers: They are active across more cellular contexts, and they regulate more genes than species-specific-activity enhancers. Furthermore, the genes regulated by conserved-activity enhancers are expressed in more tissues and are less tolerant of loss-of-function mutations than those targeted by species-specific-activity enhancers. These consistent results across various stages of gene regulation demonstrate that conserved-activity enhancers are more pleiotropic than their species-specific-activity counterparts. This suggests that pleiotropy is associated with the conservation of regulatory across mammalian evolution.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Most epithelial cells contain apical membrane structures associated to bundles of actin filaments, which constitute the brush border. Whereas microtubule participation in the maintenance of the brush border identity has been characterized, their contribution to de novo microvilli organization remained elusive. Hereby, using a cell model of individual enterocyte polarization, we found that nocodazole induced microtubule depolymerization prevented the de novo brush border formation. Microtubule participation in brush border actin organization was confirmed in polarized kidney tubule MDCK cells. We also found that centrosome, but not Golgi derived microtubules, were essential for the initial stages of brush border development. During this process, microtubule plus ends acquired an early asymmetric orientation toward the apical membrane, which clearly differs from their predominant basal orientation in mature epithelia. In addition, overexpression of the microtubule plus ends associated protein CLIP170, which regulate actin nucleation in different cell contexts, facilitated brush border formation. In combination, the present results support the participation of centrosomal microtubule plus ends in the activation of the polarized actin organization associated to brush border formation, unveiling a novel mechanism of microtubule regulation of epithelial polarity.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The contribution of hormone-independent counterregulatory signals in defense of insulin-induced hypoglycemia was determined in adrenalectomized, overnight-fasted conscious dogs receiving hepatic portal vein insulin infusions at a rate 20-fold basal. Either euglycemia was maintained () or hypoglycemia (≈45 mg/dl) was allowed to occur. There were three hypoglycemic groups: one in which hepatic autoregulation against hypoglycemia occurred in the absence of sympathetic nervous system input (), one in which autoregulation occurred in the presence of norepinephrine (NE) signaling to fat and muscle (), and one in which autoregulation occurred in the presence of NE signaling to fat, muscle, and liver (). Average net hepatic glucose balance (NHGB) during the last hour for was -0.7 ± 0.1, 0.3 ± 0.1 ( < 0.01 vs. ), 0.7 ± 0.1 ( = 0.01 vs. ), and 0.8 ± 0.1 ( = 0.7 vs. ) mg·kg·min, respectively. Hypoglycemia per se () increased NHGB by causing an inhibition of net hepatic glycogen synthesis. NE signaling to fat and muscle () increased NHGB further by mobilizing gluconeogenic precursors resulting in a rise in gluconeogenesis. Lowering glucose per se decreased nonhepatic glucose uptake by 8.9 mg·kg·min, and the addition of increased neural efferent signaling to muscle and fat blocked glucose uptake further by 3.2 mg·kg·min The addition of increased neural efferent input to liver did not affect NHGB or nonhepatic glucose uptake significantly. In conclusion, even in the absence of increases in counterregulatory hormones, the body can defend itself against hypoglycemia using glucose autoregulation and increased neural efferent signaling, both of which stimulate hepatic glucose production and limit glucose utilization.
Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
MARK2 regulates the establishment of polarity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in part through phosphorylation of serine 227 of Rab11-FIP2. We identified Eps15 as an interacting partner of phospho-S227-Rab11-FIP2 (pS227-FIP2). During recovery from low calcium, Eps15 localized to the lateral membrane before pS227-FIP2 arrival. Later in recovery, Eps15 and pS227-FIP2 colocalized at the lateral membrane. In MDCK cells expressing the pseudophosphorylated FIP2 mutant FIP2(S227E), during recovery from low calcium, Eps15 was trapped and never localized to the lateral membrane. Mutation of any of the three NPF domains within GFP-FIP2(S227E) rescued Eps15 localization at the lateral membrane and reestablished single-lumen cyst formation in GFP-FIP2(S227E)-expressing cells in three-dimensional (3D) culture. Whereas expression of GFP-FIP2(S227E) induced the loss of E-cadherin and occludin, mutation of any of the NPF domains of GFP-FIP2(S227E) reestablished both proteins at the apical junctions. Knockdown of Eps15 altered the spatial and temporal localization of pS227-FIP2 and also elicited formation of multiple lumens in MDCK 3D cysts. Thus an interaction of Eps15 and pS227-FIP2 at the appropriate time and location in polarizing cells is necessary for proper establishment of epithelial polarity.
© 2017 Lapierre et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
The organic anion-transporting polypeptides represent an important family of drug uptake transporters that mediate the cellular uptake of a broad range of substrates including numerous drugs. Doxorubicin is a highly efficacious and well-established anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Although doxorubicin is a known substrate for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1, ABCB1), significantly less is known regarding its interactions with drug uptake transporters. Here, we investigated the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters to the disposition of doxorubicin. A recombinant vaccinia-based method for expressing uptake transporters in HeLa cells revealed that OATP1A2, but not OATP1B1 or OATP1B3, and the rat ortholog Oatp1a4 were capable of significant doxorubicin uptake. Interestingly, transwell assays using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cell line cells stably expressing specific uptake and/or efflux transporters revealed that OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2, either alone or in combination with MDR1, significantly transported doxorubicin. An assessment of polymorphisms in SLCO1A2 revealed that four variants were associated with significantly impaired doxorubicin transport in vitro. In vivo doxorubicin disposition studies revealed that doxorubicin plasma area under the curve was significantly higher (1.7-fold) in Slco1a/1b versus wild-type mice. The liver-to-plasma ratio of doxorubicin was significantly decreased (2.3-fold) in Slco1a/1b2 mice and clearance was reduced by 40% compared with wild-type mice, suggesting Oatp1b transporters are important for doxorubicin hepatic uptake. In conclusion, we demonstrate important roles for OATP1A/1B in transporter-mediated uptake and disposition of doxorubicin.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
The geometry of the cleavage furrow during mitosis is often asymmetric in vivo and plays a critical role in stem cell differentiation and the relative positioning of daughter cells during development. Early observations of adhesive cell lines revealed asymmetry in the shape of the cleavage furrow, where the bottom (i.e., substrate attached side) of the cleavage furrow ingressed less than the top (i.e., unattached side). This data suggested substrate attachment could be regulating furrow ingression. Here we report a population of mitotic focal adhesions (FAs) controls the symmetry of the cleavage furrow. In single HeLa cells, stronger adhesion to the substrate directed less ingression from the bottom of the cell through a pathway including paxillin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vinculin. Cell-cell contacts also direct ingression of the cleavage furrow in coordination with FAs in epithelial cells-MDCK-within monolayers and polarized cysts. In addition, mitotic FAs established 3D orientation of the mitotic spindle and the relative positioning of mother and daughter centrosomes. Therefore, our data reveals mitotic FAs as a key link between mitotic cell shape and spindle orientation, and may have important implications in our understanding stem cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis.
Liver glycogen is important for the counterregulation of hypoglycemia and is reduced in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we examined the effect of varying hepatic glycogen content on the counterregulatory response to low blood sugar in dogs. During the first 4 hours of each study, hepatic glycogen was increased by augmenting hepatic glucose uptake using hyperglycemia and a low-dose intraportal fructose infusion. After hepatic glycogen levels were increased, animals underwent a 2-hour control period with no fructose infusion followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic/hypoglycemic clamp. Compared with control treatment, fructose infusion caused a large increase in liver glycogen that markedly elevated the response of epinephrine and glucagon to a given hypoglycemia and increased net hepatic glucose output (NHGO). Moreover, prior denervation of the liver abolished the improved counterregulatory responses that resulted from increased liver glycogen content. When hepatic glycogen content was lowered, glucagon and NHGO responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were reduced. We conclude that there is a liver-brain counterregulatory axis that is responsive to liver glycogen content. It remains to be determined whether the risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia in T1D humans could be lessened by targeting metabolic pathway(s) associated with hepatic glycogen repletion.