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Recently, zebrafish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 27C1 enzymes have been shown to be retinoid 3,4-desaturases. The enzyme is unusual among mammalian P450s in that the predominant oxidation is a desaturation and in that hydroxylation represents only a minor pathway. We show by proteomic analysis that P450 27C1 is localized to human skin, with two proteins of different sizes present, one being a cleavage product of the full-length form. P450 27C1 oxidized all--retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol, 4-hydroxy (OH) retinol, and 3-OH retinol in a 100:3:2 ratio. Neither 3-OH nor 4-OH retinol was an intermediate in desaturation. No kinetic burst was observed in the steady state; neither the rate of substrate binding nor product release was rate-limiting. Ferric P450 27C1 reduction by adrenodoxin was 3-fold faster in the presence of the substrate and was ∼5-fold faster than the overall turnover. Kinetic isotope effects of 1.5-2.3 (on / ) were observed with 3,3-, 4,4-, and 3,3,4,4-deuterated retinol. Deuteration at C-4 produced a 4-fold increase in 3-hydroxylation due to metabolic switching, with no observable effect on 4-hydroxylation. Deuteration at C-3 produced a strong kinetic isotope effect for 3-hydroxylation but not 4-hydroxylation. Analysis of the products of deuterated retinol showed a lack of scrambling of a putative allylic radical at C-3 and C-4. We conclude that the most likely catalytic mechanism begins with abstraction of a hydrogen atom from C-4 (or possibly C-3) initiating the desaturation pathway, followed by a sequential abstraction of a hydrogen atom or proton-coupled electron transfer. Adrenodoxin reduction and hydrogen abstraction both contribute to rate limitation.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non-histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects.
Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1(-/-) retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca(2+). These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress.
Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415369-13$15.00/0.
OBJECTIVE - To study molecular mechanisms involved in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization after liver resection and determine impacts on liver regeneration.
BACKGROUND - Extracellular nucleotide-mediated cell signaling has been shown to boost liver regeneration. Ectonucleotidases of the CD39 family are expressed by bone marrow-derived cells, and purinergic mechanisms might also impact mobilization and functions of HSC after liver injury.
METHODS - Partial hepatectomy was performed in C57BL/6 wild-type, Cd39 ectonucleotidase-null mice and in chimeric mice after transplantation of wild-type or Cd39-null bone marrow. Bone marrow-derived HSCs were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and administered after hepatectomy. Chemotactic studies were performed to examine effects of purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro. Mobilization of human HSCs and expression of CD39 were examined and linked to the extent of resection and liver tests.
RESULTS - Subsets of HSCs expressing Cd39 are preferentially mobilized after partial hepatectomy. Chemotactic responses of HSCs are increased by CD39-dependent adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis and adenosine signaling via A2A receptors in vitro. Mobilized Cd39 HSCs boost liver regeneration, potentially limiting interleukin 1β signaling. In clinical studies, mobilized human HSCs also express CD39 at high levels. Mobilization of HSCs correlates directly with the restoration of liver volume and function after partial hepatectomy.
CONCLUSIONS - We demonstrate CD39 to be a novel HSC marker that defines a functionally distinct stem cell subset in mice and humans. HSCs are mobilized after liver resection, limit inflammation, and boost regeneration in a CD39-dependent manner. These observations have implications for monitoring and indicate future therapeutic avenues.
PURPOSE - Elevated hydrostatic pressure induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in culture. The authors investigated whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, which contributes to pressure sensing and Ca(2+)-dependent cell death in other systems, also contributes to pressure-induced RGC death and whether this contribution involves Ca(2+).
METHODS - trpv1 mRNA expression in RGCs was probed with the use of PCR and TRPV1 protein localization through immunocytochemistry. Subunit-specific antagonism (iodo-resiniferatoxin) and agonism (capsaicin) were used to probe how TRPV1 activation affects the survival of isolated RGCs at ambient and elevated hydrostatic pressure (+70 mm Hg). Finally, for RGCs under pressure, the authors tested whether EGTA chelation of Ca(2+) improves survival and whether, with the Ca(2+) dye Fluo-4 AM, TRPV1 contributes to increased intracellular Ca(2+).
RESULTS - RGCs express trpv1 mRNA, with robust TRPV1 protein localization to the cell body and axon. For isolated RGCs under pressure, TRPV1 antagonism increased cell density and reduced apoptosis to ambient levels (P
CONCLUSIONS - RGC apoptosis induced by elevated hydrostatic pressure arises substantially through TRPV1, likely through the influx of extracellular Ca(2+).
Covalent modification of proteins is associated with the toxicity of many electrophiles, and the identification of relevant in vivo protein targets is a desirable but challenging goal. Here, we describe a strategy for the enrichment of adducted proteins utilizing single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) antibodies selected using phage-display technology. Teucrin A is a furan-containing diterpenoid found in the herb germander that is primarily responsible for the herb's hepatotoxicity in rodents and humans following metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Conjugates of the 1,4-enedial derivative of teucrin A, its presumed toxic metabolite, with lysine- and cysteine-containing peptides were synthesized and used to select ScFvs from a rodent phage-displayed library, which recognized the terpenoid moiety of the teucrin-derived adducts. Immunoaffinity isolation of adducted proteins from rat liver homogenates following administration of a toxic dose of teucrin A afforded a family of proteins that were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 46 proteins identified in this study, most were of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum origin. Several cytosolic proteins were found, as well as four peroxisomal and two secreted proteins. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, two significant networks involving the target genes were identified that had major functions in gene expression, small molecule biochemistry, and cellular function and maintenance. These included proteins involved in lipid, amino acid, and drug metabolism. This study illustrates the utility of chemically synthesized biological conjugates of reactive intermediates and the potential of the phage display technology for the generation of affinity reagents for the isolation of adducted proteins.
The toxicity of germander, a herb used to treat obesity, is attributed to cytochrome P450 activation of the furan ring of its major diterpenoid component (teucrin A) into a reactive metabolite capable of adducting proteins. 1,4-Enedials have been proposed to be the reactive products of metabolism, possibly arising from a rearrangement of putative epoxide intermediates. We synthesized the enedial derivative of teucrin A as well as the enedial derived from a model furan, 3-(4-methoxy-benzyloxymethyl)-furan, by dimethyldioxirane oxidation and characterized the products of their reactions with amino acids and peptides. The reactions of the model enedial, 2-(4-methoxy-benzyloxymethyl)-but-2-enedial, with N-acetyl lysine (NAL) afforded regioisomeric N-alkyl-3-pyrrolin-2-ones, differing in the substitution on the double bond of the heterocyclic ring. Novel products formed in the reactions of the model enedial with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and both NAC/NAL uncovered the existence of tautomerization between the enedial and a hydroxyenal, which was manifest by the loss of 4-methoxybenzylalcohol and the incorporation of a second molecule of NAC. The reactions of teucrin A-enedial with NAC and NAL afforded analogues of the products observed with the model enedial, and the existence of the tautomeric equilibrium resulted in epimerization of the proton (H12) adjacent to the former furan ring. This work further illuminates the complex chemical behavior of unsaturated dialdehydes as an important class of toxic metabolites and lays the foundation for studies of the protein targets of teucrin A-enedial.
Unmitigated oxidative stress is deleterious, as epitomized by CCl4 intoxication. In this well-characterized model of free radical-initiated damage, liver metabolism of CCl4 to CCl3. causes lipid peroxidation, F-ring isoprostane formation, and pathologic leukocyte activation. The nature of the mediator that couples oxidation to the hepatotoxic inflammatory response is uncharacterized. We found that oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholines were present in the livers of CCl4-exposed rats and not in livers from control animals, that CCl4 metabolism generated lipids that activated 293 cells stably transfected with the human platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor, and that this PAF-like activity was formed as rapidly as isoprostane-containing phosphatidylcholine (iPC) during oxidation. iPC and the PAF-like activity also had similar chromatographic properties. The potential for iPC activation of the PAF receptor has been unexplored, but we conclude that iPC themselves did not activate the PAF receptor, as phospholipase A1 hydrolysis completely destroyed iPC, but none of the PAF-like bioactivity. Oxidatively fragmented phospholipids are potent agonists of the PAF receptor, but mass spectrometry characterized PAF as the major inflammatory component coeluting with iPC. Oxidatively fragmented phospholipids and iPC are markers of free radical generation in CCl4-intoxicated liver, but PAF generation by activated hepatic cells generated the inflammatory agent.
An iodinated photoaffinity label for the glucose transporter, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-O-succinyldeacetyl-forskolin (IAPS-forskolin), has been synthesized, purified, and characterized. The I50 for inhibition of 3-O-methylglucose transport in red blood cells by IAPS-forskolin was found to be 0.05 microM. The carrier free radioiodinated label is a highly specific photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. Photolysis of erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) and purified glucose transporter preparations with 1-2 nM [125I]IAPS-forskolin and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed specific derivatization of a broad band with an apparent molecular mass of 40-70 kDa. Photoincorporation into erythrocyte membranes using 2 nM [125I]IAPS-forskolin was protected with D-glucose (I50 400 mM), cytochalasin B (I50 0.5 microM), and forskolin (I50 10 microM). No protection was observed with L-glucose (600 mM). Endo-beta-galactosidase digestion of [125I] IAPS-forskolin-labeled ghosts and purified transporter resulted in a dramatic sharpening of the specifically radiolabeled transporter to 40 kDa. Trypsinization of [125I]IAPS-forskolin-labeled ghosts and purified transporter reduced the specifically radiolabeled transporter to a sharp peak at 18 kDa. [125I]IAPS-forskolin will be a useful tool to study the structural aspects of the glucose transporter.
The glucose transporter has been identified in a variety of mammalian cell membranes using a photoactivatable carrier-free radioiodinated derivative of forskolin, 3-[125I]iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-O-succinyldeacetylforskoli n ([125I]IAPS-forskolin) at 1-3 nM. The membranes that were photolabelled with [125I]IAPS-forskolin were human placental membranes, rat cortical and cerebellar synaptic membranes, rat cardiac sarcolemmal membranes, rat adipocyte plasma membranes, smooth-muscle membranes, and S49 wild-type (WT) lymphoma-cell membranes. The glucose transporter in plasma membranes prepared from the insulin-responsive rat cardiac sarcolemmal cells, rat adipocytes and smooth-muscle cells were determined to be approx. 45 kDa by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Photolysis of human placental membranes, rat cortical and cerebellar synaptic membranes, and WT lymphoma membranes with [125I]-IAPS-forskolin, followed by SDS/PAGE, indicated specific derivatization of a broad band (43-55 kDa) in placental membranes and a narrower band (approx. 45 kDa) in synaptic membranes and WT lymphoma membranes. Digestion of the [125I]IAPS-forskolin-labelled placental and WT lymphoma membranes with endo-beta-galactosidase showed a reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the radiolabelled band to approx. 40 kDa. The membranes that were photolabelled with [125I]IAPS-forskolin and trypsin-treated produced a radiolabelled proteolytic fragment with an apparent molecular mass of 18 kDa. [125I]IAPS-forskolin is a highly effective probe for identifying low levels of glucose transporters in mammalian tissues.