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SETTING - A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label clinical trial that enrolled 8053 participants from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain.
OBJECTIVE - To assess factors associated with non-completion of study follow-up (NCF) in a 33-month latent tuberculous infection treatment trial, PREVENT TB.
DESIGN - Participants were randomized to receive 3 months of weekly directly observed therapy vs. 9 months of daily self-administered therapy. NCF was defined as failing to be followed for at least 993 days (33 months) from enrollment. Possible factors associated with NCF were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression via Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS - Of 7061 adults selected for analysis, 841 (11.9%) did not complete study follow-up. Homelessness, young age, low education, history of incarceration, smoking, missing an early clinic visit, receiving isoniazid only, and male sex were significantly associated with NCF. Similar results were found in the North American region (United States and Canada) only. In Brazil and Spain, the only significant factor was missing an early clinic visit.
CONCLUSIONS - Study subjects at higher risk for NCF were identified by characteristics known at enrollment or in early follow-up. Evaluation of follow-up in other trials might help determine whether the identified factors consistently correlate with retention.
SETTING - Drug resistance threatens tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons.
OBJECTIVE - To describe practices in the prevention and management of drug-resistant TB under antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in lower-income countries.
DESIGN - We used online questionnaires to collect program-level data on 47 ART programs in Southern Africa (n = 14), East Africa (n = 8), West Africa (n = 7), Central Africa (n = 5), Latin America (n = 7) and the Asia-Pacific (n = 6 programs) in 2012. Patient-level data were collected on 1002 adult TB patients seen at 40 of the participating ART programs.
RESULTS - Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was available in 36 (77%) ART programs, but was only used for 22% of all TB patients. Molecular DST was available in 33 (70%) programs and was used in 23% of all TB patients. Twenty ART programs (43%) provided directly observed therapy (DOT) during the entire course of treatment, 16 (34%) during the intensive phase only, and 11 (23%) did not follow DOT. Fourteen (30%) ART programs reported no access to second-line anti-tuberculosis regimens; 18 (38%) reported TB drug shortages.
CONCLUSIONS - Capacity to diagnose and treat drug-resistant TB was limited across ART programs in lower-income countries. DOT was not always implemented and drug supplies were regularly interrupted, which may contribute to the global emergence of drug resistance.
SETTING - A large randomized controlled trial recently showed that for treating latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in persons at high risk of progression to tuberculosis (TB) disease, a 12-dose regimen of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) administered as directly observed treatment (DOT) can be as effective as 9 months of daily self-administered isoniazid (9H).
OBJECTIVES - To assess the cost-effectiveness of 3HP compared to 9H.
DESIGN - A computational model was designed to simulate individuals with LTBI treated with 9H or 3HP. Costs and health outcomes were estimated to determine the incremental costs per active TB case prevented and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by 3HP compared to 9H.
RESULTS - Over a 20-year period, treatment of LTBI with 3HP rather than 9H resulted in 5.2 fewer cases of TB and 25 fewer lost QALYs per 1000 individuals treated. From the health system and societal perspectives, 3HP would cost respectively US$21,525 and $4294 more per TB case prevented, and respectively $4565 and $911 more per QALY gained.
CONCLUSIONS - 3HP may be a cost-effective alternative to 9H, particularly if the cost of rifapentine decreases, the effectiveness of 3HP can be maintained without DOT, and 3HP treatment is limited to those with a high risk of progression to TB disease.
SETTING - A key program performance objective established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is that ≥93% of tuberculosis (TB) cases complete treatment within 12 months.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the rate of and risk factors for delay in anti-tuberculosis treatment completion.
DESIGN - Nested case-control study among TB cases reported to the Tennessee Department of Health between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. Time to complete treatment was calculated using treatment start and stop dates documented in the Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS).
RESULTS - Of 2627 cases, 261 (9.9%) required >12 months to complete treatment. In adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses, cavitary disease and positive cultures after 2 months of therapy (OR 5.85, 95%CI 1.98-17.32, P = 0.001), non-adherence (OR 4.13, 95%CI 1.76-9.72, P < 0.001), and interruptions in treatment due to drug-related issues (OR 6.91, 95%CI 3.76-12.70, P < 0.001) were independently associated with delay in completion of TB treatment.
CONCLUSION - From 2000 to 2010, the proportion of TB cases completing treatment within 12 months increased from 84.6% to 94.9%, and remained above the CDC target during 2009-2010. Efforts to improve patient adherence and reduce interruptions in treatment due to anti-tuberculosis drug-related issues could improve the proportion of TB cases completing treatment within 12 months.
BACKGROUND - Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatment completion.
METHODS - We conducted an open-label, randomized noninferiority trial comparing 3 months of directly observed once-weekly therapy with rifapentine (900 mg) plus isoniazid (900 mg) (combination-therapy group) with 9 months of self-administered daily isoniazid (300 mg) (isoniazid-only group) in subjects at high risk for tuberculosis. Subjects were enrolled from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain and followed for 33 months. The primary end point was confirmed tuberculosis, and the noninferiority margin was 0.75%.
RESULTS - In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, tuberculosis developed in 7 of 3986 subjects in the combination-therapy group (cumulative rate, 0.19%) and in 15 of 3745 subjects in the isoniazid-only group (cumulative rate, 0.43%), for a difference of 0.24 percentage points. Rates of treatment completion were 82.1% in the combination-therapy group and 69.0% in the isoniazid-only group (P<0.001). Rates of permanent drug discontinuation owing to an adverse event were 4.9% in the combination-therapy group and 3.7% in the isoniazid-only group (P=0.009). Rates of investigator-assessed drug-related hepatotoxicity were 0.4% and 2.7%, respectively (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - The use of rifapentine plus isoniazid for 3 months was as effective as 9 months of isoniazid alone in preventing tuberculosis and had a higher treatment-completion rate. Long-term safety monitoring will be important. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; PREVENT TB ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023452.).
SETTING - North America.
OBJECTIVES - Tuberculosis (TB) patients in North America often have characteristics that may increase overall mortality. Identifying modifiable risk factors would allow for improvements in outcome.
DESIGN - We evaluated mortality in a large TB treatment trial conducted in the United States and Canada. Persons with culture-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled after 2 months of treatment, treated for 4 more months under direct observation, and followed for 2 years (total observation: 28 months). Cause of death was determined by death certificate, autopsy, and/or clinical observation.
RESULTS - Of 1075 participants, 71 (6.6%) died: 15/71 (21.1%) HIV-infected persons, and 56/1004 (5.6%) non-HIV-infected persons (P < 0.001). Only one death was attributed to TB. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified four independent risk factors for death after controlling for age: malignancy (hazard ratio [HR] 5.28, P < 0.0001), HIV (HR 3.89, P < 0.0001), daily alcohol (HR 2.94, P < 0.0001), and being unemployed (HR 1.99, P = 0.01). The risk of death increased with the number of independent risk factors present (P < 0.0001). Extent of disease and treatment failure/relapse were not associated with an increased risk of death.
CONCLUSIONS - Death due to TB was rare. Interventions to treat malignancy, HIV, and alcohol use in TB patients are needed to reduce mortality in this patient population.
OBJECTIVE - To assess the uptake of and adherence to nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission among women of unknown HIV serostatus presenting in labor. We also assessed preliminary efficacy of the approach.
DESIGN - Women of unknown HIV serostatus presenting in labor were offered single-dose nevirapine in a prospective cohort study. Two additional contemporaneous comparison populations were also studied.
METHODS - We measured uptake by counting the number of women that accepted enrollment when offered. We measured adherence with cord blood nevirapine assay. We measured preliminary efficacy with HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction of infant blood spots at 4-6 weeks of life.
RESULTS - Of 1591 women approached in labor, 634 (40%) took up the intervention and received nevirapine, of whom 185 (29%) were HIV infected. Of 179 cord blood specimens from HIV-exposed infants that could be evaluated, 178 (99.4%) had nevirapine detected. This was higher than the 73 of 98 (74%) adherence rate observed in a comparison cohort in which women self-administered nevirapine before presenting to the labor ward (P < 0.001). Of 145 available infant specimens, 17 (11.7%) showed evidence of infection at 4-6 weeks, compared with 12 of 60 (20%) infants born immediately prior to study commencement whose HIV-infected mothers did not receive nevirapine (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - Nevirapine without HIV testing upon presentation in labor was accepted by two-fifths of women. Because therapy is directly observed, adherence is nearly perfect. Labor ward dosing to enhance nevirapine coverage should be considered as an adjunct to antenatal nevirapine administration for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.