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BACKGROUND - Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve vascular dysfunction in an experimental sepsis model, although whether DPP-4 affects EndMT and fibrosis initiation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-EndMT effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in pulmonary fibrosis after systemic endotoxemic injury.
METHODS - A septic lung injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in eight-week-old male mice (5 mg/kg for five consecutive days). The mice were then treated with vehicle or vildagliptin (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg, once daily for 14 consecutive days from 1 day before the first administration of LPS.). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to assess cell dynamics and EndMT function in lung samples from the mice.
RESULTS - Lung tissue samples from treated mice revealed obvious inflammatory reactions and typical interstitial fibrosis 2 days and 28 days after LPS challenge. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) increased 28 days after LPS challenge. Similar increases in expression were also confirmed by qPCR of mRNA from isolated PVECs. EndMT cells had higher proliferative activity and migration activity than mesenchymal cells. All of these changes were alleviated by intraperitoneal injection of vildagliptin. Interestingly, vildagliptin and linagliptin significantly attenuated EndMT in the absence of immune cells or GLP-1.
CONCLUSIONS - Inhibiting DPP-4 signaling by vildagliptin could ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis by downregulating EndMT in systemic LPS-induced lung injury.
BACKGROUND - Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus by preventing the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 causes vasodilation in animal models but also increases sympathetic activity; the effect of GLP-1 in the human vasculature and how it is altered by DPP4 inhibition is not known. DPP4 also degrades the vasodilator brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to a less potent metabolite. This study tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition potentiates the vasodilator responses to GLP-1 and BNP in the human forearm.
METHOD AND RESULTS - Seventeen healthy subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. On each study day, subjects received DPP4 inhibitor (sitagliptin 200 mg by mouth) or placebo. Sitagliptin increased forearm blood flow and decreased forearm vascular resistance without affecting mean arterial pressure and pulse. GLP-1 and BNP were infused in incremental doses via brachial artery. Venous GLP-1 concentrations were significantly higher during sitagliptin use, yet there was no effect of GLP-1 on forearm blood flow in the presence or absence of sitagliptin. BNP caused dose-dependent vasodilation; however, sitagliptin did not affect this response. GLP-1 and BNP had no effect on net norepinephrine release.
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that GLP-1 does not act as a direct vasodilator in humans and does not contribute to sympathetic activation. Sitagliptin does not regulate vascular function in healthy humans by affecting the degradation of GLP-1 and BNP.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL - www.clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier: NCT01413542.
© 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Accumulating evidence of the beyond-glucose lowering effects of a gut-released hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has been reported in the context of remote organ connections of the cardiovascular system. Specifically, GLP-1 appears to prevent apoptosis, and inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which cleaves GLP-1, is renoprotective in rodent ischemia-reperfusion injury models. Whether this renoprotection involves enhanced GLP-1 signaling is unclear, however, because DPP-4 cleaves other molecules as well. Thus, we investigated whether modulation of GLP-1 signaling attenuates cisplatin (CP)-induced AKI. Mice injected with 15 mg/kg CP had increased BUN and serum creatinine and CP caused remarkable pathologic renal injury, including tubular necrosis. Apoptosis was also detected in the tubular epithelial cells of CP-treated mice using immunoassays for single-stranded DNA and activated caspase-3. Treatment with a DPP-4 inhibitor, alogliptin (AG), significantly reduced CP-induced renal injury and reduced the renal mRNA expression ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 and Bim/Bcl-2. AG treatment increased the blood levels of GLP-1, but reversed the CP-induced increase in the levels of other DPP-4 substrates such as stromal cell-derived factor-1 and neuropeptide Y. Furthermore, the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 reduced CP-induced renal injury and apoptosis, and suppression of renal GLP-1 receptor expression in vivo by small interfering RNA reversed the renoprotective effects of AG. These data suggest that enhancing GLP-1 signaling ameliorates CP-induced AKI via antiapoptotic effects and that this gut-kidney axis could be a new therapeutic target in AKI.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors decrease degradation of the incretins. DPP-IV inhibitors also decrease degradation of peptides, such as substance P, that may be involved in the pathogenesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema. This study tested the hypothesis that DPP-IV inhibition affects risk of clinical angioedema, by comparing the incidence of angioedema in patients treated with the DPP-IV inhibitor vildagliptin versus those treated with comparator in Phase III randomized clinical trials. Prospectively defined angioedema-related events were adjudicated in a blinded fashion by an internal medicine adjudication committee and expert reviewer. Concurrent ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker exposure was ascertained from case report forms. Study drug exposure was ascertained from unblinded data from phase III studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing angioedema risk in vildagliptin-treated and comparator-treated patients were calculated for the overall population and for patients taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, using both an analysis of pooled data and a meta-analysis (Peto method). Overall, there was no association between vildagliptin use and angioedema. Among individuals taking an ACE inhibitor, however, vildagliptin use was associated with an increased risk of angioedema (14 confirmed cases among 2754 vildagliptin users versus 1 case among 1819 comparator users: odds ratio 4.57 [95% confidence interval 1.57 to 13.28]) in the meta-analysis. Vildagliptin use may be associated with increased risk of angioedema among patients taking ACE inhibitors, although absolute risk is small. Physicians confronted with angioedema in a patient taking an ACE inhibitor and DPP-IV inhibitor should consider this possible drug-drug interaction.
OBJECTIVE - This study investigated the acute effects of treatment with vildagliptin on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentration, pancreatic hormone levels, and glucose metabolism. The primary aims were to determine the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on GLP-1 clearance and on hepatic glucose uptake.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasted conscious dogs were studied in the presence (n = 6) or absence (control, n = 6) of oral vildagliptin (1 mg/kg). In both groups, GLP-1 was infused into the portal vein (1 pmol . kg(-1) . min(-1)) for 240 min. During the same time, glucose was delivered into the portal vein at 4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) and into a peripheral vein at a variable rate to maintain the arterial plasma glucose level at 160 mg/dl.
RESULTS - Vildagliptin fully inhibited DPP-4 over the 4-h experimental period. GLP-1 concentrations were increased in the vildagliptin-treated group (50 +/- 3 vs. 85 +/- 7 pmol/l in the portal vein in control and vildagliptin-treated dogs, respectively; P < 0.05) as a result of a 40% decrease in GLP-1 clearance (38 +/- 5 and 22 +/- 2 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Although hepatic insulin and glucagon levels were not significantly altered, there was a tendency for plasma insulin to be greater (hepatic levels were 73 +/- 10 vs. 88 +/- 15 microU/ml, respectively). During vildagliptin treatment, net hepatic glucose uptake was threefold greater than in the control group. This effect was greater than that predicted by the change in insulin.
CONCLUSIONS - Vildagliptin fully inhibited DPP-4 activity, reduced GLP-1 clearance by 40%, and increased hepatic glucose disposal by means beyond the effects of GLP-1 on insulin and glucagon secretion.