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Obliterative bronchiolitis is a potentially life-threatening noninfectious pulmonary complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the only pathognomonic manifestation of pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In the current study, we identified a novel effect of IL-26 on transplant-related obliterative bronchiolitis. Sublethally irradiated NOD/Shi-scidIL2rγ(null) mice transplanted with human umbilical cord blood (HuCB mice) gradually developed clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) such as loss of weight, ruffled fur, and alopecia. Histologically, lung of HuCB mice exhibited obliterative bronchiolitis with increased collagen deposition and predominant infiltration with human IL-26(+)CD26(+)CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, skin manifested fat loss and sclerosis of the reticular dermis in the presence of apoptosis of the basilar keratinocytes, whereas the liver exhibited portal fibrosis and cholestasis. Moreover, although IL-26 is absent from rodents, we showed that IL-26 increased collagen synthesis in fibroblasts and promoted lung fibrosis in a murine GVHD model using IL-26 transgenic mice. In vitro analysis demonstrated a significant increase in IL-26 production by HuCB CD4 T cells following CD26 costimulation, whereas Ig Fc domain fused with the N-terminal of caveolin-1 (Cav-Ig), the ligand for CD26, effectively inhibited production of IL-26. Administration of Cav-Ig before or after onset of GVHD impeded the development of clinical and histologic features of GVHD without interrupting engraftment of donor-derived human cells, with preservation of the graft-versus-leukemia effect. These results therefore provide proof of principle that cGVHD of the lungs is caused in part by IL-26(+)CD26(+)CD4 T cells, and that treatment with Cav-Ig could be beneficial for cGVHD prevention and therapy.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - We investigated whether KR-66195, a new synthetic dipeptidyl dipeptidase IV inhibitor, could prevent weight gain, as well as improving glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) and ob/ob mice.
MATERIALS/METHODS - Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: chow diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet with KR-66195. After KR-66195 treatment for eight weeks, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed. A pair-feeding study was performed to investigate the mechanisms of the anti-obesity effects of KR-66195 in DIO mice. Female ob/ob mice were treated with KR-66195 for three weeks and compared to the vehicle-treated group.
RESULTS - In DIO mice, KR-66195 treatment increased the plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 levels and improved glucose tolerance. This treatment also reduced body weight gain (5.38±0.94 g vs. 12.08±0.55 g, P<0.01) and food intake (2.41±0.09 g vs. 2.79±0.11 g, P<0.05). In ob/ob mice, KR-66195 treatment for three weeks resulted in comparable effects in DIO mice. In the pair-feeding study, KR-66195-treated mice exhibited a 16% increase in energy expenditure (kcal/h/kg lean body mass) without significant differences in body weight or activities compared with pair-fed mice. These results suggest that KR-66195 prevented weight gain in DIO mice by decreasing food intake, as well as increasing energy expenditure.
CONCLUSIONS - KR-66195 markedly increased plasma levels of GLP-1, resulting in the probable improvement in glucose tolerance and reduced body weight and food intake. Thus, KR-66195 might be further developed as a therapeutic drug to treat obesity, as well as diabetes.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
UNLABELLED - Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors prevent the degradation of incretin hormones and reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 degrades other peptides with a penultimate proline or alanine, including bradykinin and substance P, which are also substrates of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). During ACE inhibition, substance P is inactivated primarily by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, whereas bradykinin is first inactivated by aminopeptidase P. This study tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition potentiates vasodilator and fibrinolytic responses to substance P when ACE is inhibited. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. On each study day, subjects received sitagliptin 200 mg by mouth or placebo. Substance P and bradykinin were infused via brachial artery before and during intra-arterial enalaprilat. Sitagliptin and enalaprilat each reduced forearm vascular resistance and increased forearm blood flow without affecting mean arterial pressure, but there was no interactive effect of the inhibitors. Enalaprilat increased bradykinin-stimulated vasodilation and tissue plasminogen activator release; sitagliptin did not affect these responses to bradykinin. The vasodilator response to substance P was unaffected by sitagliptin and enalaprilat; however, substance P increased heart rate and vascular release of norepinephrine during combined ACE and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition. In women, sitagliptin diminished tissue plasminogen activator release in response to substance P both alone and during enalaprilat. Substance P increases sympathetic activity during combined ACE and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION - - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01413542.
Tools permitting the isolation of live pancreatic cell subsets for culture and/or molecular analysis are limited. To address this, we developed a collection of monoclonal antibodies with selective surface labeling of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic cell types. Cell type labeling specificity and cell surface reactivity were validated on mouse pancreatic sections and by gene expression analysis of cells isolated using FACS. Five antibodies which marked populations of particular interest were used to isolate and study viable populations of purified pancreatic ducts, acinar cells, and subsets of acinar cells from whole pancreatic tissue or of alpha or beta cells from isolated mouse islets. Gene expression analysis showed the presence of known endocrine markers in alpha and beta cell populations and revealed that TTR and DPPIV are primarily expressed in alpha cells whereas DGKB and GPM6A have a beta cell specific expression profile.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Immunosuppressants decrease circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity in transplant patients, and decreased DPPIV activity has been associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema. One study has reported an increased incidence of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema among transplant patients compared to published rates, while several case series report angioedema in patients taking specific immunosuppressant agents.
OBJECTIVE - To test the hypothesis that transplant patients are at increased risk of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema.
METHODS - We assessed the proportion of transplant patients in 145 cases with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema and 280 ACE inhibitor-exposed controls. We measured the relationship between case-control status, transplant status, and immunosuppressant use and circulating DPPIV activity. We also assessed the incidence of angioedema among consecutive patients who underwent renal or cardiac transplant and were treated with an ACE inhibitor.
RESULTS - Transplant patients were significantly overrepresented among ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema cases compared to controls (odds ratio 18.5, 95% CI 2.3-147.2, P = 0.0004). Immunosuppressant use, chronic renal failure, seasonal allergies and smoking were also associated with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema in univariate analysis. The association of transplant status with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema was no longer significant after inclusion of immunosuppressant therapy in a multivariate analysis. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was significantly decreased in sera from cases compared to ACE inhibitor-exposed controls, as well as in individuals taking immunosuppressants. Two of 47 ACE inhibitor-treated renal transplant patients and one of 36 ACE inhibitor-treated cardiac transplant patients developed angioedema.
CONCLUSION - Transplant patients are at increased risk of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema possibly because of the effects of immunosuppressants on the activity of DPPIV.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors decrease degradation of the incretins. DPP-IV inhibitors also decrease degradation of peptides, such as substance P, that may be involved in the pathogenesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema. This study tested the hypothesis that DPP-IV inhibition affects risk of clinical angioedema, by comparing the incidence of angioedema in patients treated with the DPP-IV inhibitor vildagliptin versus those treated with comparator in Phase III randomized clinical trials. Prospectively defined angioedema-related events were adjudicated in a blinded fashion by an internal medicine adjudication committee and expert reviewer. Concurrent ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker exposure was ascertained from case report forms. Study drug exposure was ascertained from unblinded data from phase III studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing angioedema risk in vildagliptin-treated and comparator-treated patients were calculated for the overall population and for patients taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, using both an analysis of pooled data and a meta-analysis (Peto method). Overall, there was no association between vildagliptin use and angioedema. Among individuals taking an ACE inhibitor, however, vildagliptin use was associated with an increased risk of angioedema (14 confirmed cases among 2754 vildagliptin users versus 1 case among 1819 comparator users: odds ratio 4.57 [95% confidence interval 1.57 to 13.28]) in the meta-analysis. Vildagliptin use may be associated with increased risk of angioedema among patients taking ACE inhibitors, although absolute risk is small. Physicians confronted with angioedema in a patient taking an ACE inhibitor and DPP-IV inhibitor should consider this possible drug-drug interaction.
OBJECTIVE - This study investigated the acute effects of treatment with vildagliptin on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentration, pancreatic hormone levels, and glucose metabolism. The primary aims were to determine the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on GLP-1 clearance and on hepatic glucose uptake.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasted conscious dogs were studied in the presence (n = 6) or absence (control, n = 6) of oral vildagliptin (1 mg/kg). In both groups, GLP-1 was infused into the portal vein (1 pmol . kg(-1) . min(-1)) for 240 min. During the same time, glucose was delivered into the portal vein at 4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) and into a peripheral vein at a variable rate to maintain the arterial plasma glucose level at 160 mg/dl.
RESULTS - Vildagliptin fully inhibited DPP-4 over the 4-h experimental period. GLP-1 concentrations were increased in the vildagliptin-treated group (50 +/- 3 vs. 85 +/- 7 pmol/l in the portal vein in control and vildagliptin-treated dogs, respectively; P < 0.05) as a result of a 40% decrease in GLP-1 clearance (38 +/- 5 and 22 +/- 2 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Although hepatic insulin and glucagon levels were not significantly altered, there was a tendency for plasma insulin to be greater (hepatic levels were 73 +/- 10 vs. 88 +/- 15 microU/ml, respectively). During vildagliptin treatment, net hepatic glucose uptake was threefold greater than in the control group. This effect was greater than that predicted by the change in insulin.
CONCLUSIONS - Vildagliptin fully inhibited DPP-4 activity, reduced GLP-1 clearance by 40%, and increased hepatic glucose disposal by means beyond the effects of GLP-1 on insulin and glucagon secretion.
Angioedema is a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Bradykinin and substance P, substrates of angiotensin-converting enzyme, increase vascular permeability and cause tissue edema in animals. Studies indicate that amino-terminal degradation of these peptides, by aminopeptidase P and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, may be impaired in individuals with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. This case-control study tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and antigen are decreased in sera of patients with a history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. Fifty subjects with a history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema and 176 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-exposed control subjects were ascertained. Sera were assayed for angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, aminopeptidase P activity, aminopeptidase N activity, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, and antigen and the ex vivo degradation half-lives of bradykinin, des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, and substance P in a subset. The prevalence of smoking was increased and of diabetes decreased in case versus control subjects. Overall, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity (26.6+/-7.8 versus 29.6+/-7.3 nmol/mL per minute; P=0.026) and antigen (465.8+/-260.8 versus 563.1+/-208.6 ng/mL; P=0.017) were decreased in sera from individuals with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-exposed control subjects without angioedema. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity (21.5+/-4.9 versus 29.8+/-6.7 nmol/mL per minute; P=0.001) and antigen (354.4+/-124.7 versus 559.8+/-163.2 ng/mL; P=0.003) were decreased in sera from cases collected during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition but not in the absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. The degradation half-life of substance P correlated inversely with dipeptidyl peptidase IV antigen during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Environmental or genetic factors that reduce dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity may predispose individuals to angioedema.
BACKGROUND - Serum dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity is decreased in some individuals with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema. ACE and DPPIV degrade substance P, an edema-forming peptide. The contribution of impaired degradation of substance P by DPPIV to the pathogenesis of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema is unknown.
OBJECTIVES - We sought to determine whether DPPIV deficiency results in increased edema formation during ACE inhibition. We also sought to develop an animal model using magnetic resonance imaging to quantify ACE inhibitor-induced edema.
METHODS - The effect of genetic DPPIV deficiency on peritracheal edema was assessed in F344 rats after treatment with saline, captopril (2.5 mg/kg), or captopril plus the neurokinin receptor antagonist spantide (100 mug/kg) by using serial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
RESULTS - Serum dipeptidyl peptidase activity was dramatically decreased in DPPIV-deficient rats (P < .001). The volume of peritracheal edema was significantly greater in captopril-treated DPPIV-deficient rats than in saline-treated DPPIV-deficient rats (P = .001), saline-treated rats of the normal substrain (P < .001), or captopril-treated rats of the normal substrain (P = .001). Cotreatment with spantide attenuated peritracheal edema in captopril-treated DPPIV-deficient rats (P = .005 vs captopril-treated DPPIV-deficient rats and P = .57 vs saline-treated DPPIV-deficient rats).
CONCLUSIONS - DPPIV deficiency predisposes to peritracheal edema formation when ACE is inhibited through a neurokinin receptor-dependent mechanism. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for modeling ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema in rats.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS - Genetic or environmental factors that decrease DPPIV activity might increase the risk of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema.
Bradykinin and substance P have been implicated as mediators in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-associated angioedema. Studies investigating the metabolism of bradykinin in sera from patients with a history of ACEI-associated angioedema and controls suggest that there is a defect in a non-ACE, non-kininase I pathway of bradykinin degradation, such as the aminopeptidase P (APP)/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) pathway. This study tested the hypothesis that serum APP or DPPIV activity is decreased in patients with ACEI-associated angioedema. APP and DPPIV activity were measured in sera collected from patients during ACEI-associated angioedema, from patients with a remote history of ACEI-associated angioedema, and from normotensive and untreated hypertensive controls. The effects of acute and chronic ACEI and corticosteroid treatment on serum DPPIV activity were also assessed. DPPIV activity was similar in normotensive volunteers (37.8 +/- 6.3 nmol/mL per min), in untreated hypertensive subjects who had been exposed previously to ACEI without angioedema (36.2 +/- 4.3 nmol/mL per min), in hypertensive patients with a remote history of angioedema (35.1 +/-8.5 nmol/mL per min), and in chronically ACEI-treated hypertensive subjects (36.1 +/- 5.6 nmol/mL per min). DPPIV activity decreased with increasing age (R(2)=0.10, P=0.016). Subject group significantly affected DPPIV activity (F=6.208, P=0.016) such that DPPIV activity was significantly lower in patients with ACEI-associated angioedema (26.9 +/- 4.1 nmol/mL per min) than in normotensive controls, in previously ACEI-exposed untreated hypertensive volunteers, or in ACEI-treated hypertensive volunteers, even after controlling for age. There was no effect of acute ACE inhibition or corticosteroids on DPPIV activity. With respect to APP activity, there was no difference between groups. These results suggest that DPPIV activity is depressed in individuals with hypertension during acute ACEI-associated angioedema.