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F-BAR proteins link cellular membranes to the actin cytoskeleton in many biological processes. Here we investigated the function of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Imp2 F-BAR domain in cytokinesis and find that it is critical for Imp2's role in contractile ring constriction and disassembly. To understand mechanistically how the F-BAR domain functions, we determined its structure, elucidated how it interacts with membranes, and identified an interaction between dimers that allows helical oligomerization and membrane tubulation. Using mutations that block either membrane binding or tubulation, we find that membrane binding is required for Imp2's cytokinetic function but that oligomerization and tubulation, activities often deemed central to F-BAR protein function, are dispensable. Accordingly, F-BARs that do not have the capacity to tubulate membranes functionally substitute for the Imp2 F-BAR, establishing that its major role is as a cell-cycle-regulated bridge between the membrane and Imp2 protein partners, rather than as a driver of membrane curvature.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The initiation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase activity proceeds via an asymmetric dimerization mechanism in which a "donor" tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) contacts an "acceptor" TKD, leading to its activation. In the context of a ligand-induced dimer, identical wild-type EGFR TKDs are thought to assume the donor or acceptor roles in a random manner. Here, we present biochemical reconstitution data demonstrating that activated EGFR mutants found in lung cancer preferentially assume the acceptor role when coexpressed with WT EGFR. Mutated EGFRs show enhanced association with WT EGFR, leading to hyperphosphorylation of the WT counterpart. Mutated EGFRs also hyperphosphorylate the related erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene (ErbB) family member, ErbB-2, in a similar manner. This directional "superacceptor activity" is particularly pronounced in the drug-resistant L834R/T766M mutant. A 4-Å crystal structure of this mutant in the active conformation reveals an asymmetric dimer interface that is essentially the same as that in WT EGFR. Asymmetric dimer formation induces an allosteric conformational change in the acceptor subunit. Thus, superacceptor activity likely arises simply from a lower energetic cost associated with this conformational change in the mutant EGFR compared with WT, rather than from any structural alteration that impairs the donor role of the mutant. Collectively, these findings define a previously unrecognized mode of mutant-specific intermolecular regulation for ErbB receptors, knowledge of which could potentially be exploited for therapeutic benefit.
RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products) has emerged as a major receptor that mediates vascular inflammation. Signaling through RAGE by damage-associated molecular pattern molecules often leads to uncontrolled inflammation that exacerbates the impact of the underlying disease. Oligomerization of RAGE is believed to play an essential role in signal transduction, but the molecular mechanism of oligomerization remains elusive. Here we report that RAGE activation of Erk1/2 phosphorylation on endothelial cells in response to a number of ligands depends on a mechanism that involves heparan sulfate-induced hexamerization of the RAGE extracellular domain. Structural studies of the extracellular V-C1 domain-dodecasaccharide complex by X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the hexamer consists of a trimer of dimers, with a stoichiometry of 2:1 RAGE:dodecasaccharide. Mutagenesis studies mapped the heparan sulfate binding site and the interfacial surface between the monomers and demonstrated that electrostatic interactions with heparan sulfate and intermonomer hydrophobic interactions work in concert to stabilize the dimer. The importance of oligomerization was demonstrated by inhibition of signaling with a new epitope-defined monoclonal antibody that specifically targets oligomerization. These findings indicate that RAGE-heparan sulfate oligomeric complexes are essential for signaling and that interfering with RAGE oligomerization might be of therapeutic value.
Type IIA topoisomerases control DNA supercoiling and disentangle chromosomes through a complex ATP-dependent strand-passage mechanism. Although a general framework exists for type IIA topoisomerase function, the architecture of the full-length enzyme has remained undefined. Here we present the structure of a fully catalytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II homodimer complexed with DNA and a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog. The enzyme adopts a domain-swapped configuration wherein the ATPase domain of one protomer sits atop the nucleolytic region of its partner subunit. This organization produces an unexpected interaction between bound DNA and a conformational transducing element in the ATPase domain, which we show is critical for both DNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis and global topoisomerase activity. Our data indicate that the ATPase domains pivot about each other to ensure unidirectional strand passage and that this state senses bound DNA to promote ATP turnover and enzyme reset.
KaiA protein that stimulates KaiC phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock was recently shown to be destabilized by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB), thus revealing KaiA as a sensor of the plastoquinone (PQ) redox state and suggesting an indirect control of the clock by light through PQ redox changes. Here we show using X-ray crystallography that several DBMIBs are bound to KaiA dimer. Some binding modes are consistent with oligomerization of N-terminal KaiA pseudoreceiver domains and/or reduced interdomain flexibility. DBMIB bound to the C-terminal KaiA (C-KaiA) domain and limited stimulation of KaiC kinase activity by C-KaiA in the presence of DBMIB demonstrate that the cofactor may weakly inhibit KaiA-KaiC binding.
Apolipoproteins are key structural elements of lipoproteins and critical mediators of lipid metabolism. Their detergent-like properties allow them to emulsify lipid or exist in a soluble lipid-free form in various states of self-association. Unfortunately, these traits have hampered high-resolution structural studies needed to understand the biogenesis of cardioprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). We derived a crystal structure of the core domain of human apolipoprotein (apo)A-IV, an HDL component and important mediator of lipid absorption. The structure at 2.4 Å depicts two linearly connected 4-helix bundles participating in a helix swapping arrangement that offers a clear explanation for how the protein self-associates as well as clues to the structure of its monomeric form. This also provides a logical basis for antiparallel arrangements recently described for lipid-containing particles. Furthermore, we propose a "swinging door" model for apoA-IV lipid association.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
All enzymatic activities required for genomic replication and transcription of nonsegmented negative strand RNA viruses (or Mononegavirales) are believed to be concentrated in the viral polymerase (L) protein. However, our insight into the organization of these different enzymatic activities into a bioactive tertiary structure remains rudimentary. Fragments of Mononegavirales polymerases analyzed to date cannot restore bioactivity through trans-complementation, unlike the related L proteins of segmented NSVs. We investigated the domain organization of phylogenetically diverse Paramyxovirus L proteins derived from measles virus (MeV), Nipah virus (NiV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Through a comprehensive in silico and experimental analysis of domain intersections, we defined MeV L position 615 as an interdomain candidate in addition to the previously reported residue 1708. Only position 1708 of MeV and the homologous positions in NiV and RSV L also tolerated the insertion of epitope tags. Splitting of MeV L at residue 1708 created fragments that were unable to physically interact and trans-complement, but strikingly, these activities were reconstituted by the addition of dimerization tags to the fragments. Equivalently split fragments of NiV, RSV, and MeV L oligomerized with comparable efficiency in all homo- and heterotypic combinations, but only the homotypic pairs were able to trans-complement. These results demonstrate that synthesis as a single polypeptide is not required for the Mononegavirales polymerases to adopt a proper tertiary conformation. Paramyxovirus polymerases are composed of at least two truly independent folding domains that lack a traditional interface but require molecular compatibility for bioactivity. The functional probing of the L domain architecture through trans-complementation is anticipated to be applicable to all Mononegavirales polymerases.
Solution NMR provides a powerful approach for detecting complex formation involving weak to moderate intermolecular affinity. However, solution NMR has only rarely been used to detect complex formation between two membrane proteins in model membranes. The impact of specific binding on the NMR spectrum of a membrane protein can be difficult to distinguish from spectral changes that are induced by nonspecific binding and/or by changes that arise from forced cohabitation of the two proteins in a single model membrane assembly. This is particularly the case when solubility limits make it impossible to complete a titration to the point of near saturation of complex formation. In this work experiments are presented that provide the basis for establishing whether specific complex formation occurs between two membrane proteins under conditions where binding is not of high avidity. Application of these methods led to the conclusion that the membrane protein CD147 (also known as EMMPRIN or basigin) forms a specific heterodimeric complex in the membrane with the 99-residue transmembrane C-terminal fragment of the amyloid precursor protein (C99 or APP-βCTF), the latter being the immediate precursor of the amyloid-β polypeptides that are closely linked to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease.
© 2011 American Chemical Society
Binding of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug pioglitazone led to the discovery of a novel outer mitochondrial membrane protein of unknown function called mitoNEET. The protein is homodimeric and contains a uniquely ligated two iron-two sulfur cluster in each of its two cytosolic domains. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was employed to characterize solutions of the soluble cytosolic domain (amino acids 32--108) of the protein. Ions characteristic of dimers containing the cofactors were readily detected under native conditions. mitoNEET responded to exposure to solutions at low pH by dissociation to give monomers that retained the cofactor, followed by dissociation of the cofactor in a concerted fashion. mitoNEET formed complexes with resveratrol-3-sulfate, one of the primary metabolites of the natural product resveratrol. Resveratrol itself showed no tendency to interact with mitoNEET. The formation of complexes was evident in both electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Up to eight molecules of the compound associated with the dimeric form of the protein in a sequential fashion. Dissociation constants determined by micorcalorimetry were in the range 5-16 μM for the various binding sites. The only other known naturally occurring binding partner for mitoNEET at present is NADPH. It is very interesting that the iron-sulfur cluster containing protein interacts with two potentially redox active substances at the surface of mitochondria. These findings provide a new direction for research into two poorly understood, yet biomedically relevant, species.
The mechanism of chain selection and trimerization of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACITs) differs from that of fibrillar collagens that have special C-propeptides. We recently showed that the second carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous domain (NC2) of homotrimeric collagen XIX forms a stable trimer and substantially stabilizes a collagen triple helix attached to either end. We then hypothesized a general trimerizing role for the NC2 domain in other FACITs. Here we analyzed the NC2 domain of human heterotrimeric collagen IX, the only member of FACITs with all three chains encoded by distinct genes. Upon oxidative folding of equimolar amounts of the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 chains of NC2, a stable heterotrimer with a disulfide bridge between alpha1 and alpha3 chains is formed. Our experiments show that this heterotrimerization domain can stabilize a short triple helix attached at the carboxyl-terminal end and allows for the proper oxidation of the cystine knot of type III collagen after the short triple helix.