The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
On-demand postsynaptic synthesis and release of endocannabinoid lipids and subsequent binding to presynaptic CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) mediates short and long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory transmission in many brain regions. However, mechanisms involved in the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by diacylglycerol lipase α (DGLα) are poorly understood. Since Gq-coupled receptor activation can stimulate production of a major DGL substrate 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (SAG) by PLCβ, we sought to determine if 2-AG biosynthesis was limited only by a lack of substrate availability, or if other pathways, such as Ca(2+) signaling, also need to be simultaneously engaged. To address this question, we loaded medium spiny neurons of the dorsolateral striatum with SAG while monitoring excitatory synaptic inputs. SAG-loading had no significant effect on evoked excitatory synaptic currents when cells were voltage-clamped at -80 mV. However, depolarization of MSNs to -50 mV revealed a SAG-loading dependent decrease in the amplitude of excitatory currents that was accompanied by an increase in paired pulse ratio, consistent with decreased glutamate release. Both effects of loading SAG at -50 mV were blocked by chelation of postsynaptic Ca(2+) using BAPTA or by bath application of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a DGL inhibitor. Loading of SAG into glutamatergic pyramidal neurons of the amygdala similarly inhibited excitatory synaptic inputs and increased the PPR. SAG-induced depression was absent in both regions from mice lacking CB1Rs. These data show that increasing substrate availability alone is insufficient to drive 2-AG mobilization and that DGL-dependent synaptic depression via CB1R activation requires postsynaptic Ca(2+) signals.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid second messenger located at the intersection of several lipid metabolism and cell signaling events including membrane trafficking, survival, and proliferation. Generation of signaling PA has long been primarily attributed to the activation of phospholipase D (PLD). PLD catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into PA. A variety of both receptor-tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor stimulations have been shown to lead to PLD activation and PA generation. This study focuses on profiling the PA pool upon P2Y6 receptor signaling manipulation to determine the major PA producing enzymes. Here we show that PLD, although highly active, is not responsible for the majority of stable PA being produced upon UDP stimulation of the P2Y6 receptor and that PA levels are tightly regulated. By following PA flux in the cell we show that PLD is involved in an initial increase in PA upon receptor stimulation; however, when PLD is blocked, the cell compensates by increasing PA production from other sources. We further delineate the P2Y6 signaling pathway showing that phospholipase Cβ3 (PLCβ3), PLCδ1, DGKζ and PLD are all downstream of receptor activation. We also show that DGKζ is a novel negative regulator of PLD activity in this system that occurs through an inhibitory mechanism with PKCα. These results further define the downstream events resulting in PA production in the P2Y6 receptor signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and progression to cirrhosis. While differences in liver lipids between disease states have been reported, precise composition of phospholipids and diacylglycerols (DAG) at a lipid species level has not been previously described. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in lipid species through progression of human NAFLD using advanced lipidomic technology and compare this with a murine model of early and advanced NAFLD.
METHODS - Utilizing mass spectrometry lipidomics, over 250 phospholipid and diacylglycerol species (DAGs) were identified in normal and diseased human and murine liver extracts.
RESULTS - Significant differences between phospholipid composition of normal and diseased livers were demonstrated, notably among DAG species, consistent with previous reports that DAG transferases are involved in the progression of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. In addition, a novel phospholipid species (ether linked phosphatidylinositol) was identified in human cirrhotic liver extracts.
CONCLUSIONS - Using parallel lipidomics analysis of murine and human liver tissues it was determined that mice maintained on a high-fat diet provide a reproducible model of NAFLD in regards to specificity of lipid species in the liver. These studies demonstrated that novel lipid species may serve as markers of advanced liver disease and importantly, marked increases in DAG species are a hallmark of NAFLD. Elevated DAGs may contribute to altered triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) levels characteristic of the disease and specific DAG species might be important lipid signaling molecules in the progression of NAFLD.
The key host cellular pathway(s) necessary to control the infection caused by inhalation of the environmental fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans are still largely unknown. Here we have identified that the sphingolipid pathway in neutrophils is required for them to exert their killing activity on the fungus. In particular, using both pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that inhibition of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) activity profoundly impairs the killing ability of neutrophils by preventing the extracellular release of an antifungal factor(s). We next found that inhibition of protein kinase D (PKD), which controls vesicular sorting and secretion and is regulated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced by SMS, totally blocks the extracellular killing activity of neutrophils against C. neoformans. The expression of SMS genes, SMS activity and the levels of the lipids regulated by SMS (namely sphingomyelin (SM) and DAG) are up-regulated during neutrophil differentiation. Finally, tissue imaging of lungs infected with C. neoformans using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), revealed that specific SM species are associated with neutrophil infiltration at the site of the infection. This study establishes a key role for SMS in the regulation of the killing activity of neutrophils against C. neoformans through a DAG-PKD dependent mechanism, and provides, for the first time, new insights into the protective role of host sphingolipids against a fungal infection.
The phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycle mediates many cellular events by controlling the metabolism of many lipid second messengers. Diacylglycerol kinase epsilon (DGK epsilon) has an important role in this cycle. DGK epsilon is the only DGK isoform to show inhibition by its product phosphatidic acid (PA) as well as substrate specificity for sn-2 arachidonoyl-diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we show that this inhibition and substrate specificity are both determined by selectivity for a combination of the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains of PA or DAG, respectively, preferring the most prevalent acyl chain composition of lipids involved specifically in the PI cycle, 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl. Although the difference in rate for closely related lipid species is small, there is a significant enrichment of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl PI because of the cyclical nature of PI turnover. We also show that the inhibition of DGK epsilon by PA is competitive and that the deletion of the hydrophobic segment and cationic cluster of DGK epsilon does not affect its selectivity for the acyl chains of PA or DAG. Thus, this active site not only recognizes the lipid headgroup but also a combination of the two acyl chains in PA or DAG. We propose a mechanism of DGK epsilon regulation where its dual acyl chain selectivity is used to negatively regulate its enzymatic activity in a manner that ensures DGK epsilon remains committed to the PI turnover cycle. This novel mechanism of enzyme regulation within a signaling pathway could serve as a template for the regulation of enzymes in other pathways in the cell.
Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for development and exacerbation of neuropsychiatric illness. Repeated stress causes biochemical adaptations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling that contribute to stress-response habituation, however, the synaptic correlates of these adaptations have not been examined. Here, we show that the synthetic enzyme for the eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase alpha, is heterogeneously expressed in the amygdala, and that levels of 2-AG and precursor DAGs are increased in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) after 10 days, but not 1 day, of restraint stress. In contrast, arachidonic acid was decreased after both 1 and 10 days of restraint stress. To examine the synaptic correlates of these alterations in 2-AG metabolism, we used whole-cell electrophysiology to determine the effects of restraint stress on depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in the BLA. A single restraint stress exposure did not alter DSI compared with control mice. However, after 10 days of restraint stress, DSI duration, but not magnitude, was significantly prolonged. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation with MAFP also prolonged DSI duration; the effects of repeated restraint stress and MAFP were mutually occlusive. These data indicate that exposure to repeated, but not acute, stress produces neuroadaptations that confer BLA neurons with an enhanced capacity to elevate 2-AG content and engage in 2-AG-mediated short-term retrograde synaptic signaling. We suggest stress-induced enhancement of eCB-mediated suppression of inhibitory transmission in the BLA could contribute to affective dysregulation associated with chronic stress.
Choline cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that CCT alpha-mediated phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required to maintain normal Golgi structure and function as well as cytokine secretion from the Golgi complex. CCT alpha is localized to the trans-Golgi region and its expression is increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated wild-type macrophages. Although LPS triggers transient reorganization of Golgi morphology in wild-type macrophages, similar structural alterations persist in CCT alpha-deficient cells. Pro-tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 remain lodged in the secretory compartment of CCT alpha-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. However, the lysosomal-mediated secretion pathways for interleukin-1 beta secretion and constitutive apolipoprotein E secretion are unaltered. Exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine restores LPS-stimulated secretion from CCT alpha-deficient cells, and elevated diacylglycerol levels alone do not impede secretion of pro-tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-6. These results identify CCT alpha as a key component in membrane biogenesis during LPS-stimulated cytokine secretion from the Golgi complex.
Diacylglycerols (DAGs) play significant roles in both intermediate metabolism and signal transduction. These lipid species are second messengers involved in modulating a plethora of cellular processes. Evaluation of DAG species concentrations has been hampered by the lack of a reliable method for molecular species analysis within a complex mixture of cellular lipids. We describe a new method for quantitative analysis of DAG species from complex biological extracts based on positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry without prior derivatization. Quantification is achieved using internal standards and calibration curves constructed by spiking cell extracts with different concentrations of DAG species containing various acyl chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The new mass spectral data processing algorithm incorporates a multiple linear regression model including a factor accountable for possible interactions between experimental preparations and the slope of the curve for the standards, allowing the examinations of the effects of sample origin conditions (such as cell types, phenotypes, etc.) and instrument variability on this slope. Internal standards provide a basis for quantification of 28 DAG molecular species detected in RAW 264.7 cells after stimulation of a G-protein coupled receptor with platelet activating factor. This method displays excellent reproducibility over the established range of concentrations with variations of < or =10% and is highly sensitive with a detection limit of 0.1-0.4 pmol/microL depending upon acyl chain composition. We have shown differential effects on various DAGs in response to a ligand which illustrates the importance of examining lipids at the molecular species level rather than as a single homogeneous entity.
Functional peripheral mature follicular B (FoB) lymphocytes are thought to develop from immature transitional cells in a BCR-dependent manner. We have previously shown that BCR cross-linking in vitro results in death of early transitional (T1) B cells, whereas late transitional (T2) B cells survive and display phenotypic characteristics of mature FoB cells. We now demonstrate that diacylglycerol (DAG), a lipid second messenger implicated in cell survival and differentiation, is produced preferentially in T2 compared with T1 B cells upon BCR cross-linking. Consistently, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate is also produced preferentially in T2 compared with T1 B cells. Unexpectedly, the initial calcium peak appears similar in both T1 and T2 B cells, whereas sustained calcium levels are higher in T1 B cells. Pretreatment with 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate, an inhibitor of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-mediated calcium release, and verapamil, an inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, preferentially affects T1 B cells, suggesting that distinct mechanisms regulate calcium mobilization in each of the two transitional B cell subsets. Finally, BCR-mediated DAG production is dependent upon Bruton's tyrosine kinase and phospholipase C-gamma2, enzymes required for the development of FoB from T2 B cells. These results suggest that calcium signaling in the absence of DAG-mediated signals may lead to T1 B cell tolerance, whereas the combined action of DAG and calcium signaling is necessary for survival and differentiation of T2 into mature FoB lymphocytes.
In addition to its role as a CNS neurotransmitter, glutamate has been shown recently to be an important component of the peripheral inflammation response. We demonstrated previously that the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mGlu1 and mGlu5 are expressed in the peripheral terminals of sensory neurons and that activation of group I mGluRs in the skin increases thermal sensitivity. In the present study, we provide evidence suggesting that group I mGluRs increase thermal sensitivity by enhancing vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor function. We show that mGlu5 potentiates capsaicin responses in mouse sensory neurons by the phospholipase C pathway but not by activation of protein kinase C. Rather, the effects are mediated by the metabolism of diacylglycerol and the production of prostaglandins via the cyclooxygenase pathway, leading to activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase subsequent to prostanoid receptor activation. Behavioral thermal sensitization in mice induced by intraplantar injection of mGlu1/5 agonists was also blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase A and cyclooxygenase, suggesting that a similar signaling pathway operates in vivo. These results demonstrate a novel signaling pathway in sensory neurons and provide a plausible mechanism for the enhancement of thermal sensitivity that occurs with inflammation and after activation of mGluRs on peripheral sensory neuron terminals.