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Advances in genomics are enhancing our understanding of the genetic basis of cardiovascular diseases, both congenital and acquired, and stroke. These advances include finding genes that cause or increase the risk for childhood and adult-onset diseases, finding genes that influence how patients respond to medications, and the development of genetics-guided therapies for diseases. However, the ability of cardiovascular and stroke clinicians to fully understand and apply this knowledge to the care of their patients has lagged. This statement addresses what the specialist caring for patients with cardiovascular diseases and stroke should know about genetics; how they can gain this knowledge; how they can keep up-to-date with advances in genetics, genomics, and pharmacogenetics; and how they can apply this knowledge to improve the care of patients and families with cardiovascular diseases and stroke.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic variants and diet in modulating cardiometabolic risk, as well as the effects of dietary components on multiple "omic" measures, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetic modifications, and the microbiome. Here, we describe the current state of the field of nutrigenomics with respect to cardiometabolic disease research and outline a direction for the integration of multiple omics techniques in future nutrigenomic studies aimed at understanding mechanisms and developing new therapeutic options for cardiometabolic disease treatment and prevention.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - To provide a survey of recent progress in the use of large-scale biologic data to impact clinical care, and the impact the reuse of electronic health record data has made in genomic discovery.
METHOD - Survey of key themes in translational bioinformatics, primarily from 2012 and 2013.
RESULT - This survey focuses on four major themes: the growing use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) as a source for genomic discovery, adoption of genomics and pharmacogenomics in clinical practice, the possible use of genomic technologies for drug repurposing, and the use of personal genomics to guide care.
CONCLUSION - Reuse of abundant clinical data for research is speeding discovery, and implementation of genomic data into clinical medicine is impacting care with new classes of data rarely used previously in medicine.
Despite increases in the scientific evidence for a variety of medical treatments, a gap remains in the adoption of best medical practices. This manuscript describes a process for adapting published summary guides from comparative effectiveness research to render them concise, targeted to audience, and easily actionable; and a strategy for disseminating such evidence to patients and their physicians through a web-based portal and linked electronic health record. This project adapted summary guides about oral medications for adults with type 2 diabetes to a fifth-grade literacy level and modified the resulting materials based on evaluations with the Suitability Assessment of Materials instrument. Focus groups and individual interviews with patients, diabetes providers, and health literacy experts were employed to evaluate and enhance the adapted summary guide. We present the lessons learned as general guidelines for the creation of concise, targeted, and actionable evidence and its delivery to both patients and providers through increasingly prevalent health information technologies.
BACKGROUND - Adverse drug events are a major safety issue in ambulatory care. Improving medication self-management could reduce these adverse events. Researchers have developed medication applications for tethered personal health records (PHRs), but little has been reported about medication applications for interoperable PHRs.
OBJECTIVE - Our objective was to develop two complementary personal health applications on a common PHR platform: one to assist children with complex health needs (MyMediHealth), and one to assist older adults in care transitions (Colorado Care Tablet).
METHODS - The applications were developed using a user-centered design approach. The two applications shared a common PHR platform based on a service-oriented architecture. MyMediHealth employed Web and mobile phone user interfaces. Colorado Care Tablet employed a Web interface customized for a tablet PC.
RESULTS - We created complementary medication management applications tailored to the needs of distinctly different user groups using common components. Challenges were addressed in multiple areas, including how to encode medication identities, how to incorporate knowledge bases for medication images and consumer health information, how to include supplementary dosing information, how to simplify user interfaces for older adults, and how to support mobile devices for children.
CONCLUSIONS - These prototypes demonstrate the utility of abstracting PHR data and services (the PHR platform) from applications that can be tailored to meet the needs of diverse patients. Based on the challenges we faced, we provide recommendations on the structure of publicly available knowledge resources and the use of mobile messaging systems for PHR applications.
BACKGROUND - Despite its expense and controversy surrounding its benefit, the surgical robot has been widely adopted for the treatment of prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVES - To determine the relationship between surgical robot acquisition and changes in volume of radical prostatectomy (RP) at the regional and hospital levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN - Retrospective cohort study.
SUBJECTS - Men undergoing RP for prostate cancer at nonfederal, community hospitals located in the states of Arizona, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Washington.
MEASURES - Change in number of RPs at the regional and hospital levels before (2001) and after (2005) dissemination of the surgical robot.
RESULTS - Combining data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases 2001 and 2005 with the 2005 American Hospital Association Survey and publicly available data on robot acquisition, we identified 554 hospitals in 71 hospital referral regions (HRR). The total RPs decreased from 14,801 to 14,420 during the study period. Thirty six (51%) HRRs had at least 1 hospital with a surgical robot by 2005; 67 (12%) hospitals acquired at least 1 surgical robot. Adjusted, clustered generalized estimating equations analysis demonstrated that HRRs with greater numbers of hospitals acquiring robots had higher increases in RPs than HRRs acquiring none (mean changes in RPs for HRRs with 9, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 are 414.9, 189.6, 106.6, 14.7, -11.3, and -41.2; P<0.0001). Hospitals acquiring surgical robots increased RPs by a mean of 29.1 per year, while those without robots experienced a mean change of -4.8, P<0.0001.
CONCLUSIONS - Surgical robot acquisition is associated with increased numbers of RPs at the regional and hospital levels. Policy makers must recognize the intimate association between technology diffusion and procedure utilization when approving costly new medical devices with unproven benefit.