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BACKGROUND - Whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in populations with a high burden of risk factors for kidney disease is unknown. We sought to determine whether PUFA intake is associated with ESRD.
METHODS - We conducted a nested case-control study of ESRD within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective cohort of low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Through 2012, 1,074 incident ESRD cases were identified by linkage with the United States Renal Data System and matched to 3,230 controls by age, sex and race. Dietary intake of total, n-3 or n-6 PUFA was assessed from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models that included matching variables, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, education, income, total energy intake and percent energy from protein and saturated fat.
RESULTS - The mean (SD) age of participants was 55 (9) years. Most participants were women (55 %), black (87 %), with hypertension (67 %) and on average obtained 8 % of their energy from PUFA. Higher PUFA intake was marginally associated with a lower risk of ESRD in adjusted analyses. The adjusted odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for ESRD for the 5 vs. 1 quintile of PUFA were 0.79 (0.60-1.05; P = 0.06) for total PUFA, 0.81 (0.61-1.06; P = 0.04) for n-6 PUFA and 0.93 (0.71-1.21; P = 0.45) for n-3 PUFA.
CONCLUSIONS - We observed a marginally significant inverse trend between dietary PUFA intake and ESRD incidence, mainly driven by n-6 fatty acid intake. Our findings require replication but suggest that a diet rich in n-6 PUFA may prevent ESRD development in a population with a high burden of kidney disease risk factors.
Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT). In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1) in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HI)CD11b(HI) macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.
OBJECTIVE - To examine whether dietary fish oil supplementation reduces development of spontaneous endometriosis-associated adhesions using an established model.
DESIGN - Laboratory-based study.
SETTING - Medical center research laboratory. PATIENT(S)/ANIMAL(S): Disease-free women of reproductive age and nude mice.
INTERVENTION(S) - Women were not provided any intervention. Mice were randomized to receive fish oil supplementation or control diet.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) - Experimental endometriosis was established in mice via injection of human endometrial tissue within 16 hours of ovariectomy. Mice were provided standard or menhaden fish oil-supplemented diets for ≥ 2 weeks before initiation of experimental endometriosis and until killing them 1 week later. At necropsy, mice were examined for the presence and extent of adhesions and endometriotic-like lesions. Tissues were excised and morphologically characterized.
RESULT(S) - Adhesions/lesions were reduced in mice provided with dietary fish oil compared with control animals. Leukocytes were more numerous within the adhesions/lesions of the mice maintained on the standard diet compared with animals provided with fish oil. As indicated by staining intensity, collagen deposition was greater at adhesion sites within control mice compared with fish oil-supplemented animals.
CONCLUSION(S) - Wound-healing associated with surgery created an inflammatory peritoneal microenvironment that promoted the development of both experimental endometriosis and adhesions in a murine model. Targeting excessive inflammation with fish oil may be an effective adjuvant therapy to reduce the development of postsurgical adhesions related to endometriosis.
Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fish oil improves several features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Fish oil may mediate some of its beneficial effects by modulating the storage and/or secretory functions of adipose tissue (AT). The storage of triglycerides in AT is regulated by the availability of free fatty acids and the degree of lipolysis in AT. Fish oil has been shown to reduce lipolysis in several studies, indicating improved triglyceride storage. Importantly, AT secretes a variety of adipokines and fish oil feeding is associated with remarkable changes in the plasma levels of two key adipokines, adiponectin and leptin. Much attention has been focused on the contribution of adiponectin in fish oil-mediated improvements in MetS. However, emerging evidence also indicates a role of leptin in modulating the components of the MetS upon fish oil feeding. In addition to improving the storage and secretory functions of AT, fish oil, and the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, has been shown to reduce inflammation in AT. These effects may be in part a result of activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ or inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4. Thus, there is compelling evidence that fish oil mediates its beneficial effects on MetS by improving AT storage and secretory functions and by reducing inflammation.
Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Controversy exists regarding the role of dietary fat in breast cancer etiology. We investigated the association of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the ratio of n-6 PUFAs to marine-derived n-3 PUFAs with breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study including 72,571 cancer-free participants at baseline. Dietary fatty acid intake was determined using food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of breast cancer risk with dietary fatty acids consumption. In 583,998 person-years of follow-up, we identified 712 breast cancer cases. We found no association of breast cancer risk to dietary intake of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid or marine-derived n-3 PUFA. We found a statistically significant interaction between n-6 PUFA intake, marine-derived n-3 PUFA intake and breast cancer risk (p = 0.008). Women with lower intake (the lowest tertile) of marine-derived n-3 PUFA and higher intake (the highest tertile) of n-6 PUFA had an increase risk for breast cancer (RR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.27-3.34) compared to women with higher intake (the highest tertile) of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs and lower intake (the lowest tertile) of n-6 PUFAs after adjusting for potential confounders. The relative amounts of n-6 PUFA to marine-derived n-3 PUFAs may be more important for breast cancer risk than individual dietary amounts of these fatty acids.
Copyright © 2010 UICC.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17, also known as tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme, is expressed in adipocytes. Importantly, elevated levels of ADAM17 expression have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of six ADAM17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (m1254A>G, i14121C>A, i33708A>G, i48827A>C, i53440C>T, and i62781G>T) with insulin-resistance phenotypes and obesity risk, and their potential interactions with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).
METHODS AND RESULTS - ADAM17 SNPs were genotyped in 936 subjects (448 men/488 women) who participated in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. Anthropometrical and biochemical measurements were determined by standard procedures. PUFA intake was estimated using a validated questionnaire. G allele carriers at the ADAM17_m1254A>G polymorphism exhibited significantly higher risk of obesity (P=0.003), were shorter (P=0.017), had higher insulin (P=0.016), and lower HDL-C concentrations (P=0.027) than AA subjects. For the ADAM17_i33708A>G SNP, homozygotes for the A allele displayed higher risk of obesity (P=0.001), were heavier (P=0.011), had higher BMI (P=0.005), and higher waist measurements (P=0.023) than GG subjects. A significant gene-diet interaction was found (P=0.030), in which the deleterious association of the i33708A allele with obesity was observed in subjects with low intakes from (n-6) PUFA (P<0.001), whereas no differences in obesity risk were seen among subjects with high (n-6) PUFA intake (P>0.5)
CONCLUSION - These findings support that ADAM17 (m1254A>G and i33708A>G) SNPs may contribute to obesity risk. For the ADAM17_i33708A>G SNP, this risk may be further modulated by (n-6) PUFA intake.
Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adipose (adp) is an obesity gene in Drosophila and mice with crucial functions in fat metabolism. We investigated the correlation between genetic variation of the WDTC1 locus, the ortholog of adp, and human obesity. Five WDTC1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 935 and 1,115 adults of two ethnically diverse US populations. In the Boston Puerto Rican population, we demonstrated that two WDTC1 SNPs strongly associated with obesity. Homozygote and heterozygote carriers of the major allele i22835A, representing approximately 96% of the population, had significantly higher mean BMI (31.5 and 31.0 kg/m(2), respectively) than noncarriers (28.6 kg/m(2)). Conversely, homozygotes of the minor allele i22835G were leaner and were 74% less likely to be overweight or obese (odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P = 0.003) compared to homozygote carriers of the major allele. Haplotype analyses based on two SNPs further supported these findings. In addition, we found a strong interaction of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake by genotype in this population. As dietary MUFA intake increased, minor allele carriers of SNP i22835A>G had higher BMIs, whereas major allele carriers had lower BMIs. A white population also exhibited a pattern of association between WDTC1 genotypes and obesity although of a different nature. Those WDTC1 variants which associated with obesity likely have experienced strong positive selection in human history, when food supply was unpredictable. Given the high frequency of the major alleles in both populations, we suggest that WDTC1 variation may be an important risk factor contributing to obesity in these populations.
Serum adiponectin levels have been positively associated with insulin sensitivity and are decreased in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Genetic and environmental factors influence serum adiponectin and may contribute to risk of metabolic syndrome and T2D. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ADIPOQ single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), -11377C>G and -11391G>A, on metabolic-related traits, and their modulation by dietary fat in white Americans. Data were collected from 1,083 subjects participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Mean serum adiponectin concentration was higher for carriers of the -11391A allele (P = 0.001) but lower for the -11377G allele carriers (P = 0.017). Moreover, we found a significant association with obesity traits for the -11391G>A SNP. Carriers of the -11391A allele had significantly lower weight (P = 0.029), BMI (P = 0.019), waist (P = 0.003), and hip circumferences (P = 0.004) compared to noncarriers. Interestingly, the associations of the -11391G>A with BMI and obesity risk were modified by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) intake (P-interaction = 0.021 and 0.034 for BMI and obesity risk, respectively). In subjects with MUFA intake above the median (> or =13% of energy intake), -11391A carriers had lower BMI (27.1 kg/m(2) for GA+AA vs. 29.1 kg/m(2) for GG, P = 0.002) and decreased obesity risk (odds ratio for -11391A = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.28-0.96; P = 0.031). However, we did not detect genotype-related differences for BMI or obesity in subjects with MUFA intake <13%. Our findings support a significant association between the -11391G>A SNPs and obesity-related traits and the potential to moderate such effects using dietary modification.
The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) has been recently associated with diabetes risk, and it may exert its effect through metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related traits and be subjected to modification by environmental factors. We investigated the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs7903146 and rs12255372, within the TCF7L2 locus on postprandial lipemia and other MetS-related traits and their modulation by dietary fat. Data were collected from 1083 European Americans participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study. Carriers of the minor T allele at the C/T rs7903146 SNP had higher fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.012), lower homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function (P = 0.041), higher plasma VLDL (P = 0.035), and lower large LDL particle (P = 0.007) concentrations and higher risk of MetS (P = 0.011) than CC individuals. Moreover, we identified significant interactions between this SNP and PUFA intake modulating fasting VLDL particle concentrations (P = 0.016) and postprandial triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.028), chylomicrons (P = 0.025), total VLDL (P = 0.026), and large VLDL (P = 0.018) concentrations. Thus, only T allele carriers with a PUFA intake > or = 7.36% of energy had elevated fasting plasma VLDL concentrations and postprandial TG-rich lipoproteins. These variables did not differ in T allele carriers and noncarriers in the low-PUFA intake group. Moreover, these significant interactions were due exclusively to (n-6) PUFA intake. In summary, high (n-6) PUFA intakes (> or = 6.62% of energy intake) were associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia in carriers of the minor T allele at the TCF7L2 rs7903146 SNP and may predispose them to MetS, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, environmental and genetic factors contributing to the variation of inflammatory responses could affect individuals' susceptibility to MetS. We investigated the association between common IL1beta genetic polymorphisms, inflammation, and the MetS, and the modulation of diet-related variables (i.e., erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition) in a white U.S. population. IL1beta single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (-1473G > C, -511G > A, -31T > C, 3966C > T, 6054G > A), clinical and biochemical measurements were characterized in a total of 1120 subjects (540 males and 580 females) participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. The 6054 G > A SNP was significantly associated with plasma C-reactive protein (P = 0.054), adiponectin (P = 0.021), and the prevalence of MetS (P = 0.004). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the 6054G > A SNP and erythrocyte membrane (n-3) PUFA (P = 0.019). Among subjects with low (n-3) PUFA content (below the median), the 6054 G allele was associated with increased risk of the MetS (OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 1.49-7.26 for GG and OR = 1.95, 95%CI = 0.85-4.46 for GA, P < 0.001) compared with the AA genotype, but there were no significant genotype associations among subjects with high (n-3) PUFA content (above the median). Further analyses supported a significant haplotype global effect on the MetS (P = 0.017) among subjects with low (n-3) PUFA content. These results suggested that IL1beta genetic variants were associated with measures of chronic inflammation and the MetS risk, and that genetic influences were more evident among subjects with low (n-3) PUFA intake.