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ALDH3A1 is a corneal crystallin that protects ocular tissues from ultraviolet radiation through catalytic and non-catalytic functions. In addition, ALDH3A1 plays a functional role in corneal epithelial homeostasis by simultaneously modulating proliferation and differentiation. We have previously shown that Aldh3a1 knockout mice in a C57B6/129sV mixed genetic background develop lens cataracts. In the current study, we evaluated the corneal phenotype of Aldh3a1 knockout mice bred into a C57B/6J congenic background (KO). In vivo confocal microscopy examination of KO and wild-type (WT) corneas revealed KO mice to exhibit corneal haze, manifesting marked light scattering from corneal stroma. This corneal phenotype was further characterized by Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) with spatial resolution that revealed a trilayer structure based on differential lipid localization. In these preliminary studies, no differences were observed in lipid profiles from KO relative to WT mice; however, changes in protein profiles of acyl-CoA binding protein (m/z 9966) and histone H4.4 (m/z 11308) were found to be increased in the corneal epithelial layer of KO mice. This is the first study to use IMS to characterize endogenous proteins and lipids in corneal tissue and to molecularly explore the corneal haze phenotype. Taken together, the current study presents the first genetic animal model of cellular-induced corneal haze due to the loss of a corneal crystallin, and strongly supports the notion that ALDH3A1 is critical to cellular transparency. Finally, IMS represents a valuable new approach to reveal molecular changes underlying corneal disease.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurogenetic disorder, in which affected individuals develop tumors of the nervous system. Children with NF1 are particularly prone to brain tumors (gliomas) involving the optic pathway that can result in impaired vision. Since tumor formation and expansion requires a cooperative tumor microenvironment, it is important to identify the cellular and acellular components associated with glioma development and growth. In this study, we used 3-D matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) to measure the distributions of multiple molecular species throughout optic nerve tissue in mice with and without glioma, and to explore their spatial relationships within the 3-D volume of the optic nerve and chiasm. 3-D IMS studies often involve extensive workflows due to the high volume of sections required to generate high quality 3-D images. Herein, we present a workflow for 3-D data acquisition and volume reconstruction using mouse optic nerve tissue. The resulting 3-D IMS data yield both molecular similarities and differences between glioma-bearing and wild-type (WT) tissues, including protein distributions localizing to different anatomical subregions.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE - The current work addresses a number of challenges in 3-D MALDI IMS, driven by the small size of the mouse optic nerve and the need to maintain consistency across multiple 2-D IMS experiments. The 3-D IMS data yield both molecular similarities and differences between glioma-bearing and wild-type (WT) tissues, including protein distributions localizing to different anatomical subregions, which could then be targeted for identification and related back to the biology observed in gliomas of the optic nerve.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
We identified acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) as part of a proteomic signature predicting the risk of having lung cancer. Because ACBP is known to regulate β-oxidation, which in turn controls cellular proliferation, we hypothesized that ACBP contributes to regulation of cellular proliferation and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by modulating β-oxidation. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm the tissue localization of ABCP in pre-invasive and invasive NSCLCs. We correlated ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs with clinical outcomes. In loss-of-function studies, we tested the effect of the downregulation of ACBP on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in normal bronchial and NSCLC cell lines. Using tritiated-palmitate ((3)H-palmitate), we measured β-oxidation levels and tested the effect of etomoxir, a β-oxidation inhibitor, on proliferation and apoptosis. MALDI-IMS and IHC analysis confirmed that ACBP is overexpressed in pre-invasive and invasive lung cancers. High ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs correlated with worse survival (HR = 1.73). We observed a 40% decrease in β-oxidation and concordant decreases in proliferation and increases in apoptosis in ACBP-depleted NSCLC cells as compared with bronchial airway epithelial cells. Inhibition of β-oxidation by etomoxir in ACBP-overexpressing cells produced dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). These data suggest a role for ACBP in controlling lung cancer progression by regulating β-oxidation.
©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.