The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
PURPOSE - Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a vasculopathy caused by β-amyloid deposition in cerebral arterioles and capillaries. It is closely linked to Alzheimer's disease and predisposes elderly patients to intracerebral hemorrhage, transient focal neurological episodes, and cognitive impairment. Because of a predilection for symptomatic hemorrhage, particularly in the frontal lobes, cerebral amyloid angiopathy may also cause a dysexecutive syndrome.
RECENT FINDINGS - In this case series, we describe presentations of classic clinical dementia syndromes which are not are widely thought to be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, namely logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (n = 3), normal pressure hydrocephalus (n = 3), and Lewy body dementia (n = 2). In every case, after a clinical diagnosis was established, neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and/or autopsy confirmed the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy has significant clinical implications, and its ability to mimic and/or contribute to other clinical dementia syndromes can complicate its diagnosis. This series of cases broadens the range of clinical scenarios associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
PURPOSE - Malignant effusions challenge diagnostic accuracy due to cytomorphologic overlaps between various malignant primaries. Workup of this material to establish a correct diagnosis is time consuming and limited by the sparsity of material. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, the use of MALDI imaging MS (IMS) as a diagnostic platform has been explored.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Cytology cell blocks from malignant effusions (serous ovarian carcinoma and several non-ovarian carcinomas including gastric adenocarcinoma) containing at least 30% neoplastic cells are selected for generation of cytology microarrays (CMA). CMA sections are transferred to conductive glass slides, subjected to on-tissue tryptic digestion, and matrix application for MALDI-IMS analysis.
RESULTS - Supervised classification analysis identifies serous ovarian carcinomas as the source of malignant effusions with a sensitivity of 85.7% when compared to samples from all other included primary sites. When compared to gastric adenocarcinoma, serous ovarian carcinoma samples can be delineated with a sensitivity of 97.3%.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE - These preliminary results highlight that MALDI-IMS allows subtyping of malignant effusions to identify the precise origin of neoplastic cells. While achieving similar results compared to classical approaches such as immunocytology, more material is conserved that will be available for further tests.
© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BACKGROUND - The cytologic qualities of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features mimic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) on fine-needle aspiration, leading to difficulty in distinguishing the 2 preoperatively. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of reclassification of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features at our practice.
METHODS - We searched 1,046 patient charts for those cases with preoperative cytology and subsequent follicular-variant papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis on resection. Endocrine pathologists reviewed the cases to determine the reclassification of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features.
RESULTS - Sixty (6%) follicular-variant papillary thyroid carcinomas were identified, 4% (44) in the index nodule. Of the 44 patients, 84% (37) met the criteria for evaluation. Of these, 46% (17) were noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. After reclassification of noninvasive follicular-variant papillary thyroid carcinoma to noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, the overall cancer rate changed from 31% to 29%. Malignancy rates across Bethesda cytologic categories changed as follows: benign (n = 419) from 3.5% to 3.3%; atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (n = 240) from 17% to 15%; suspicious for follicular neoplasm (n = 104) from 23% to 21%; suspicious for malignancy (n = 85) from 68% to 60%, and malignant (n = 198) from 93% to 92%.
CONCLUSION - Reclassification of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features led to a small decrease in the overall malignancy rate. The most affected Bethesda category was suspicious for malignancy. Because the majority of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features will be indeterminate lesions by cytology/molecular testing, thyroidectomy will remain a common treatment modality. Noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features classification will primarily affect decision making to avoid excessive treatment/monitoring.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Differentiating osteoclast-rich lesions of bone (giant cell tumor of bone [GCTB], chondroblastoma [CBA], and aneurysmal bone cyst [ABC]) can be challenging, especially in small biopsies or fine-needle aspirations. Mutations affecting codons 34 and 36 of either H3 Histone Family Member 3A (H3F3A) and/or 3B (H3F3B) are characteristically seen in GCTB and CBAs. We devised a simple assay to identify these mutations and evaluated its applicability for routine clinical diagnosis. One hundred twenty-four tissue specimens from 108 patients (43 GCTBs, 38 CBAs and 27 ABCs) were collected from the archives of the Calgary Laboratory Services/University of Calgary and Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Histology was reviewed by an expert orthopedic pathologist. A single base extension assay (SNaPshot) is used to interrogate each nucleotide in codons 34 and 36 of H3F3A and codon 36 of H3F3B. Final diagnoses were generated after re-reviewing cases and incorporating molecular findings. Of 43 GCTBs, 38 (88%) had an H3F3A G34W mutation; 35 of 38 CBAs (92%) had a K36M mutation in either H3F3B (N = 31; 82%) or H3F3A (N = 4; 11%); none of 27 ABCs had a tested mutation. Molecular findings changed the histomorphologic diagnosis in 5 cases (3 GCTB changed to ABC, and 2 ABC changed to GCTB). These findings support the diagnostic utility of mutational analysis for this differential diagnosis in certain challenging cases when clinicoradiologic and histomorphologic features are not definitive, particularly for distinguishing cellular ABC versus GCTB with secondary ABC.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inability to distinguish Crohn's colitis from ulcerative colitis leads to the diagnosis of indeterminate colitis. This greatly effects medical and surgical care of the patient because treatments for the two diseases vary. Approximately 30 percent of inflammatory bowel disease patients cannot be accurately diagnosed, increasing their risk of inappropriate treatment. We sought to determine whether transcriptomic patterns could be used to develop diagnostic biomarker(s) to delineate inflammatory bowel disease more accurately. Four patients groups were assessed via whole-transcriptome microarray, qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry for differential expression of Human α-Defensin-5. In addition, immunohistochemistry for Paneth cells and Lysozyme, a Paneth cell marker, was also performed. Aberrant expression of Human α-Defensin-5 levels using transcript, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry staining levels was significantly upregulated in Crohn's colitis, p< 0.0001. Among patients with indeterminate colitis, Human α-Defensin-5 is a reliable differentiator with a positive predictive value of 96 percent. We also observed abundant ectopic crypt Paneth cells in all colectomy tissue samples of Crohn's colitis patients. In a retrospective study, we show that Human α-Defensin-5 could be used in indeterminate colitis patients to determine if they have either ulcerative colitis (low levels of Human α-Defensin-5) or Crohn's colitis (high levels of Human α-Defensin-5). Twenty of 67 patients (30 percent) who underwent restorative proctocolectomy for definitive ulcerative colitis were clinically changed to de novo Crohn's disease. These patients were profiled by Human α-Defensin-5 immunohistochemistry. All patients tested strongly positive. In addition, we observed by both hematoxylin and eosin and Lysozyme staining, a large number of ectopic Paneth cells in the colonic crypt of Crohn's colitis patient samples. Our experiments are the first to show that Human α-Defensin-5 is a potential candidate biomarker to molecularly differentiate Crohn's colitis from ulcerative colitis, to our knowledge. These data give us both a potential diagnostic marker in Human α-Defensin-5 and insight to develop future mechanistic studies to better understand crypt biology in Crohn's colitis.
We hypothesized that distinct protein expression features of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules may reveal novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer. We performed proteome profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize 34 resected benign lung nodules, 24 untreated lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and biopsies of bronchial epithelium. Group comparisons identified 65 proteins that differentiate nodules from ADCs and normal bronchial epithelium and 66 proteins that differentiate ADCs from nodules and normal bronchial epithelium. We developed a multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay to quantify a subset of 43 of these candidate biomarkers in an independent cohort of 20 benign nodules, 21 ADCs, and 20 normal bronchial biopsies. PRM analyses confirmed significant nodule-specific abundance of 10 proteins including ALOX5, ALOX5AP, CCL19, CILP1, COL5A2, ITGB2, ITGAX, PTPRE, S100A12, and SLC2A3 and significant ADC-specific abundance of CEACAM6, CRABP2, LAD1, PLOD2, and TMEM110-MUSTN1. Immunohistochemistry analyses for seven selected proteins performed on an independent set of tissue microarrays confirmed nodule-specific expression of ALOX5, ALOX5AP, ITGAX, and SLC2A3 and cancer-specific expression of CEACAM6. These studies illustrate the value of global and targeted proteomics in a systematic process to identify and qualify candidate biomarkers for noninvasive molecular diagnosis of lung cancer.