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BACKGROUND - Midurethral slings have become the preferred surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence. Midline transection of midurethral sling for dysfunctional voiding is an effective treatment and also has a low rate of recurrent stress incontinence. Recurrent stress incontinence after sling revision for pain and mesh exposure has not been well defined. It is therefore difficult to counsel patients on risk of recurrent stress incontinence when sling revision is performed for pain or mesh exposure.
OBJECTIVE - We examined the rate of postoperative stress incontinence after midurethral sling revision for the indication of mesh exposure or pain, as well as postoperative pain and urinary urgency.
STUDY DESIGN - This is a retrospective cohort of 245 patients undergoing a vaginal midurethral sling revision in a 10-year period for the indication of mesh exposure or pain. Preoperative indication for revision, baseline characteristics, and preoperative reports of stress incontinence, pain, and urgency were collected. The type of sling revision was then categorized into partial or complete removal. A partial removal of the sling was defined as removing only the portion of sling exposed or causing pain. A complete removal of the sling was defined as vaginal removal of sling laterally out to the pubic rami. Subjective reports of stress incontinence, pain, and urgency at short-term (16 weeks) and long-term (>16 weeks) follow-up visits were gathered. The primary outcome of the study was recurrent stress incontinence.
RESULTS - In our cohort of 245 women who underwent midurethral sling revision, 94 patients had removal for mesh exposure (36 partial and 58 complete) and 151 had removal for pain (25 partial and 126 complete). All patients had a short-term follow-up with a mean time of 5.9 ± 2.8 weeks and 69% patients had long-term follow-up with a mean time of 29.1 ± 17.7 weeks. No differences were seen in preoperative reports of stress incontinence, urgency, or pain in either group. In the patients with revision for mesh exposure with no preoperative stress incontinence, there was greater postoperative stress incontinence with complete vs partial removal of sling at short-term (14% vs 42%, P = .03) and long-term (7% vs 59%, P = .003) follow-up. In the patients with revision for pain with no preoperative stress incontinence, there was no statistically significant difference in recurrent stress incontinence with complete sling removal at long-term follow-up (22% vs 56%, P = .07). In the patients with midurethral sling revision for pain, 72% of partial and 76% of complete sling removal had resolution of pain postoperatively (P = .66). No difference was seen in postoperative reports of urgency or pain improvement in either group between partial or complete sling removal.
CONCLUSION - In women undergoing midurethral sling revision for mesh exposure, complete sling removal resulted in higher recurrent stress incontinence compared to partial sling removal. For the indication of pain, both partial and complete sling removal improved pain in the majority of patients, but there was no statistically significant difference in recurrent stress incontinence.
Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE - The ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus is a primary target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with essential tremor. Despite reliable control of contralateral tremor, there is sometimes a need for lead revision in cases of infection, hardware malfunction, or failure to relieve symptoms. Here, we present the case of a patient undergoing revision after ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) DBS failed to control his tremor. During the electrode removal, the distal portion of the lead was found to be tightly adherent to tissue within the deep brain. Partial removal of the electrode in turn caused weakness, paresthesias, and tremor control similar to the effects produced by thalamotomy or thalamic injury.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION - A 48-year-old man with essential tremor had bilateral Vim DBS leads implanted 10 years earlier but had poor control of his tremor and ultimately opted for surgical revision with lead placement in the zona incerta. During attempted removal of his right lead, the patient became somnolent with contralateral weakness and paresthesias. The procedure was aborted, and postoperative neuroimaging was immediately obtained, showing no signs of stroke or hemorrhage. The patient had almost complete control of his left arm tremor postoperatively, and his weakness soon resolved.
CONCLUSION - To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebral injury after DBS revision and offers insights into the mechanism of high-frequency electric stimulation compared with lesions. That is, although high-frequency stimulation failed to control this patient's tremor, thalamotomy-like injury was completely effective.
BACKGROUND - With the use of the framework advocated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, our aims were to perform a systematic review and to develop evidence-based recommendations that may be used to answer the following PICO [Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes] question:In the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient, should cervical collar removal be performed after a negative high-quality cervical spine (C-spine) computed tomography (CT) result alone or after a negative high-quality C-spine CT result combined with adjunct imaging, to reduce peri-clearance events, such as new neurologic change, unstable C-spine injury, stable C-spine injury, need for post-clearance imaging, false-negative CT imaging result on re-review, pressure ulcers, and time to cervical collar clearance?
METHODS - Our protocol was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews on August 23, 2013 (REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013005461). Eligibility criteria consisted of adult blunt trauma patients 16 years or older, who underwent C-spine CT with axial thickness of less than 3 mm and who were obtunded using any definition.Quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis was not possible because of pre-post, partial-cohort, quasi-experimental study design limitations and the consequential incomplete diagnostic accuracy data.
RESULTS - Of five articles with a total follow-up of 1,017 included subjects, none reported new neurologic changes (paraplegia or quadriplegia) after cervical collar removal. There is a worst-case 9% (161 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of stable injuries and a 91% negative predictive value of no injury, after coupling a negative high-quality C-spine CT result with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging, upright x-rays, flexion-extension CT, and/or clinical follow-up. Similarly, there is a best-case 0% (0 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of unstable injuries after negative initial imaging result with a high-quality C-spine CT.
CONCLUSION - In obtunded adult blunt trauma patients, we conditionally recommend cervical collar removal after a negative high-quality C-spine CT scan result alone.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - Systematic review, level III.
BACKGROUND - There are increasing numbers of patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) explantation (LVAD explant-OHT). We hypothesized that LVAD explant-OHT is a more challenging surgical procedure compared to OHT without LVAD explantation and that institutional LVAD explant-OHT procedural volume would be associated with post-transplant graft survival. We sought to assess the impact of institutional volume of LVAD explant-OHT on post-transplant graft survival.
METHODS - This is a retrospective analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for adult OHTs with long-term LVAD explantation. LVAD explant-OHT volume was characterized on the basis of the center's year-specific total OHT volume (OHTvol) and year-specific LVAD explant-OHT volume quartile (LVADvolQ). The effect of LVADvolQ on graft survival (death or re-transplantation) was analyzed.
RESULTS - From 2004 to 2011, 2,681 patients underwent OHT with LVAD explantation (740 with HeartMate XVE, 1,877 with HeartMate II and 64 with HeartWare devices). LVAD explant-OHT at centers falling in the lowest LVADvolQ was associated with reduced post-transplant graft survival (p = 0.022). After adjusting for annualized OHTvol (HR = 0.998, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.003, p = 0.515 and pulsatile XVE (HR = 0.842, 95% CI 0.688 to 1.032, p = 0.098), multivariate analysis confirmed a significantly (approximately 37%) increased risk of post-transplant graft failure among explant-OHT procedures occurring at centers in the lowest volume quartile (HR = 1.371, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.825, p = 0.030).
CONCLUSION - Graft survival is decreased when performed at centers falling in the lowest quartile of LVAD explant-OHT for a given year. This volume-survival relationship should be considered in the context of limited donor organ availability and the rapidly growing number of LVAD centers.
Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - Catheter-associated bloodstream infections are a significant source of morbidity and healthcare cost in the neonatal ICU. Previous studies examining the prevalence of bloodstream infections after removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in neonates are equivocal.
DESIGN - A retrospective cohort study.
PATIENTS - All infants with peripherally inserted central venous catheters treated at the Vanderbilt neonatal ICU between 2007 and 2009.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We evaluated the following outcomes: 1) bloodstream infections, 2) culture-negative sepsis, 3) number of sepsis evaluations, and 4) number of significant apnea/bradycardia events comparing odds ratios between 72 hours before and 72 hours after peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal. We analyzed a total of 1,002 peripherally inserted central venous catheters in 856 individual infants with a median (interquartile range) gestational age of 31 weeks (28-37 wk) and a median birth weight of 1,469 g (960-2,690 g). Comparing 72 hours before with 72 hours after peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal did not show a difference in the prevalence of bloodstream infections (9 vs 3, p = 0.08), prevalence of culture-negative sepsis (37 vs 40, p = 0.73), number of sepsis evaluations (p = 0.42), or number of apnea/bradycardia events (p = 0.32). However, in peripherally inserted central venous catheter not used for delivery of antibiotics, there was a 3.83-fold increase in odds for culture-negative sepsis following peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal (95% confidence interval, 1.48-10.5; p = 0.001). For infants less than 1,500 g birth weight (very low birth weight), odds for culture-negative sepsis increased to 6.3-fold following removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters not used for antibiotic delivery (95% confidence interval, 1.78-26.86; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS - Although these data do not support the routine use of antibiotics for sepsis prophylaxis prior to peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal, they suggests that very low birth weight infants not recently exposed to antibiotics are at increased odds for associated adverse events following discontinuation of their peripherally inserted central venous catheter.
PURPOSE - Evolving techniques and materials for pelvic reconstruction have resulted in corresponding increases in the risk of iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lower urinary tract and vagina. We review the presentation, management and outcomes of iatrogenic foreign bodies in the female lower urinary tract and vagina.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We performed a retrospective review of the records of all women undergoing removal of lower urinary tract foreign bodies during a 9-year period. All patients underwent a structured evaluation including history, physical examination, ancillary testing as indicated and subjective symptom appraisal.
RESULTS - A total of 85 women were identified, of whom 48 had vaginal, 40 had lower urinary tract, and 3 had concomitant vaginal and lower urinary tract excision of foreign material. Of the lower urinary tract cases the foreign body was located in the urethra in 12, bladder neck in 10, bladder wall in 18 and trigone in 3, while the remainder of the cases was vaginal in location. Aggressive surgical management aimed at removal or debulking of the exposed foreign body necessitated cystorrhaphy/partial cystectomy (20), urethroplasty (18) and fistula repair (3). Of the patients with vaginal excision 36 (75%) reported cure (of presenting symptoms), 10 (20.8%) reported improvement and 2 were unavailable for followup. Of the patients with lower urinary tract excision 21 (52.5%) reported cure, 14 (35%) indicated improvement and 5 were unavailable for followup.
CONCLUSIONS - In a complex group of women with vaginal or lower urinary tract foreign body extrusion, aggressive operative management resulted in high rates of subjective patient cure. Adequate assessment of newer reconstructive technologies is critical to assess the full impact of these complications.
Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Groin pain after transobturator synthetic mesh placement can be recalcitrant to conservative therapy and ultimately requires surgical excision. We describe our experiences with and technique of obturator foramen dissection for mesh excision.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - The records of 8 patients treated from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. Obturator dissection was performed via a lateral groin incision over the inferior pubic ramus at the level of the obturator foramen, typically in conjunction with orthopedic surgery.
RESULTS - Five patients had transobturator mid urethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2 had mid urethral sling and trocar based anterior vaginal wall mesh kits with transobturator passage of mesh arms for stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, and 1 had an anterior vaginal wall mesh kit for pelvic organ prolapse. Patients had 0 to 2 prior transvaginal mesh excisions before obturator surgery. All patients presented with intractable pain in the area of the obturator foramen and/or medial groin for which conservative treatment measures had failed. Six patients underwent concurrent vaginal and obturator dissection and 2 underwent obturator dissection alone. In all cases residual mesh (3 to 11 cm) was identified and excised from the obturator foramen. Mesh was closely associated to or traversing the adductor longus muscle and tendon with significant fibrous reaction in all cases. Postoperatively 5 patients were cured of pain and/or infection, and 3 reported no or some improvement at a mean followup of 6 months (range 1 to 12).
CONCLUSIONS - Our experience suggests that surgical excision of residual mesh can alleviate many of the symptoms in many patients. In all cases mesh remnants were identified and removed, and typically involved neuromuscular structures adjacent to the obturator foramen.
Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Information is needed about patient-initiated device removal to guide quality initiatives addressing regulations aimed at minimizing physical restraint use. Research objectives were to determine the prevalence of device removal, describe patient contexts, examine unit-level adjusted risk factors, and describe consequences.
DESIGN - Prospective prevalence.
SETTING - Total of 49 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from a random sample of 39 hospitals in five states.
METHODS - Data were collected daily for 49,482 patient-days by trained nurses and included unit census, ventilator days, restraint days, and days accounted for by men and by elderly. For each device removal episode, data were collected on demographic and clinical variables.
RESULTS - Patients removed 1,623 devices on 1,097 occasions: overall rate, 22.1 episodes/1000 patient-days; range, 0-102.4. Surgical ICUs had lower rates (16.1 episodes) than general (23.6 episodes) and medical (23.4 episodes) ICUs. ICUs with fewer resources had fewer all-type device removal relative to ICUs with greater resources (relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.87) but higher self-extubation rates (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.52). Men accounted for 57% of the episodes, 44% were restrained at the time, and 30% had not received any sedation, narcotic, or psychotropic drug in the previous 24 hrs. There was no association between rates of device removal with restraint rates, proportion of men, or elderly. Self-extubation rates were inversely associated with ventilator days (rs = -0.31, p = .03). Patient harm occurred in 250 (23%) episodes; ten incurred major harm. No deaths occurred. Reinsertion rates varied by device: 23.5% of surgical drains to 88.9% of monitor leads. Additional resources (e.g., radiography) were used in 58% of the episodes.
CONCLUSION - Device removal by ICU patients is common, resulting in harm in one fourth of patients and significant resource expenditure. Further examination of patient-, unit-, and practitioner-level variables may help explain variation in rates and provide direction for further targeted interventions.