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Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of cardiac dysfunction, failure and sudden death. Post infarction cardiac remodeling presents a poor prognosis, with 30%-45% of patients developing heart failure, in a period of 5-25years. Oxidative stress has been labelled as the primary causative factor for cardiac damage during infarction, however, the impact it may have during the process of post infarction remodeling has not been well probed. In this study, we have implemented iTRAQ proteomics to catalogue proteins and functional processes, participating both temporally (early and late phases) and spatially (infarct and remote zones), during post myocardial infarction remodeling of the heart as functions of the differential oxidative stress manifest during the remodeling process. Cardiac metabolism was the dominant network to be affected during infarction and the remodeling time points considered in this study. A distinctive expression pattern of cytoskeletal proteins was also observed with increased remodeling time points. Further, it was found that the cytoskeletal protein Desmin, aggregated in the infarct zone during the remodeling process, mediated by the protease Calpain1. Taken together, all of these data in conjunction may lay the foundation to understand the effects of oxidative stress on the remodeling process and elaborate the mechanism behind the compromised cardiac function observed during post myocardial infarction remodeling.
SIGNIFICANCE - Oxidative stress is the major driving force for cardiac damage during myocardial infarction. However, the impact of oxidative stress on the process of post MI remodeling in conducting the heart towards functional failure has not been well explored. In this study, a spatial and temporal approach was taken to elaborate the major proteins and cellular processes involved in post MI remodeling. Based on level/ intensity of ROS, spatially, infarct and noninfarct zones were chosen for analysis while on the temporal scale, early (30days) and late time points (120days) post MI were included in the study. This design enabled us to delineate the differential protein expression on a spectrum of maximum oxidative stress at infarct zone during MI to minimum oxidative stress at noninfarct zone during late time point post MI. The proteome profiles for each of the study groups when comparatively analysed gave a holistic idea about the dominant cellular processes involved in post MI remodeling such as cardiac metabolism, both for short term and long term remodeling as well as unique processes such as Desmin mediated cytoskeletal remodeling of the infarcted myocardium that are involved in the compromise of cardiac function.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have beneficial effects on renal structure and function in models of diabetes and chronic kidney diseases. However, the increased incidence of weight gain and edema potentially limits their usefulness. We studied an acute minimal-change disease-like nephrotic syndrome model to assess effects of PPARγ agonist on acute podocyte injury and effects on fluid homeostasis.
METHODS - Acute podocyte injury and nephrotic syndrome were induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) injection in rats.
RESULTS - PPARγ agonist, given at the time or after, but not before PAN, reduced proteinuria, restored synaptopodin, decreased desmin and trended to improve foot process effacement. There was no significant difference in glomerular filtration, effective circulating volume, blood pressure or fractional sodium excretion. PAN-injured podocytes had decreased PPARγ, less nephrin and α-actinin-4, more apoptosis and reduced phosphorylated Akt. In PAN-injured cultured podocytes, PPARγ agonist also reversed abnormalities only when given simultaneously or after injury.
CONCLUSIONS - These results show that PPARγ agonist has protective effects on podocytes in acute nephrotic syndrome without deleterious effects on fluid homeostasis. PPARγ agonist-induced decrease in proteinuria in acute nephrotic syndrome is dependent at least partially on regulation of peroxisome proliferator-response element-sensitive gene expression such as α-actinin-4 and nephrin and the restoration of podocyte structure.
Our previous studies using puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) established that podocyte damage leads to glomerular growth arrest during development and glomerulosclerosis later in life. This study examined the potential benefit of maintaining podocyte-derived VEGF in podocyte defense and survival after PAN injury using conditional transgenic podocytes and mice, in which human VEGF-A (hVEGF) transgene expression is controlled by tetracycline responsive element (TRE) promoter and reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) in podocytes. In vitro experiments used primary cultured podocytes harvested from mice carrying podocin-rtTA and TRE-hVEGF transgenes, in which hVEGF can be induced selectively. Induction of VEGF in PAN-exposed podocytes resulted in preservation of intrinsic VEGF, α-actinin-4 and synaptopodin, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-xL/Bax, as well as attenuation in apoptotic marker cleaved/total caspase-3. In vivo, compared with genotype controls, PAN-sensitive neonatal mice with physiologically relevant levels of podocyte-derived VEGF showed significantly larger glomeruli. Furthermore, PAN-induced up-regulation of desmin, down-regulation of synaptopodin and nephrin, and disruption of glomerular morphology were significantly attenuated in VEGF-induced transgenic mice. Our data indicate that podocyte-derived VEGF provides self-preservation functions, which can rescue the cell after injury and preempt subsequent deterioration of the glomerulus in developing mice.
Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in transurethral resection specimens performed for bladder carcinoma. Moreover, bladder carcinoma can be associated with a proliferative/desmoplastic myofibroblastic response that can resemble smooth muscle and potentially lead to overdiagnosis of muscularis propria invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of immunohistochemistry in staging bladder carcinoma by evaluating the expression of different markers in myofibroblasts and nonvascular smooth muscle cells in 15 cases of invasive bladder carcinoma. Reactive myofibroblasts were consistently positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, consistently negative for caldesmon, desmin, and smoothelin, and had variable expression of actin and CD10. Nonvascular smooth muscle cells of the bladder were consistently positive for smooth muscle actin, actin, desmin, and caldesmon, and consistently negative for CD10. In contrast to smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria, which displayed strong smoothelin expression in all 15 cases, the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae displayed moderate smoothelin expression in only 1 (9%) of 11 cases (P=10(-7)). Surprisingly, although strongly highlighting endothelial and endomysial cells, the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria weakly expressed vimentin in only 1 (7%) of 15 cases, whereas smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae had moderate or strong expression in 9 (82%) of 11 cases (P=0.00016). The sensitivity and specificity of desmin or caldesmon expression for smooth muscle cells were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of strong smoothelin expression for muscularis propria were 100%, whereas those of absent vimentin expression were 93 and 82%, respectively. Although morphology remains the gold standard, the findings suggest that immunohistochemistry, using a panel composed of desmin, smoothelin, and vimentin, may be potentially useful for staging of bladder carcinoma. Confirmatory larger-scale studies, especially on transurethral resection specimens, are warranted.
The nuclear lamina is an approximately 10 nm thick proteinaceous layer underlying the inner nuclear membrane. The A-type lamins, nuclear intermediate filament proteins encoded by the LMNA gene, are basic components of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA are associated with the laminopathies, congenital diseases affecting tissue regeneration and homeostasis. One of these laminopathies associated with missense mutations in LMNA is dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction system disease (DCM-CD1). To understand how the laminopathies arise from different mutations in a single gene, we derived a mouse line by homologous recombination expressing the Lmna-N195K variant of the A-type lamins with an asparagine-to-lysine substitution at amino acid 195, which causes DCM in humans. This mouse line shows characteristics consistent with DCM-CD1. Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring of cardiac activity demonstrated that LmnaN195K/N195K mice die at an early age due to arrhythmia. By immunofluorescence and western analysis, the transcription factor Hf1b/Sp4 and the gap junction proteins connexin 40 and connexin 43 were misexpressed and/or mislocalized in LmnaN195K/N195K hearts. Desmin staining revealed a loss of organization at sarcomeres and intercalated disks. Mutations within the LMNA gene may therefore cause cardiomyopathy by disrupting the internal organization of the cardiomyocyte and/or altering the expression of transcription factors essential to normal cardiac development, aging or function.
It is not uniformly agreed whether gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are phenotypical variants of leiomyomas (cellular leiomyomas) or whether they represent a separate, genotypically definable entity. In an attempt to solve this question, we examined immunohistochemically defined leiomyomas from the esophagus and uterus, gastric schwannomas, and benign gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). All 14 leiomyomas (nine esophageal, five uterine) were actin- and desmin-positive but negative for CD34 and S100-protein. Changes in DNA copy numbers were seen only in three esophageal leiomyomas. Gains were observed in chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 8, and 17, whereas losses were seen in 16p. All schwannomas were positive for S100-protein and negative for actin, desmin, and CD34. In schwannomas, the only change by CGH was a gain in 11q in one case. The benign GISTs, all from the stomach, were positive for CD34 but negative for desmin and S100-protein; two cases were positive for actin. The CGH findings in the GISTs differed markedly from those in leiomyomas and schwannomas. Ten of the 13 cases (77%) showed DNA copy number losses in 14q, and additional or other losses were found in eight cases, most often in chromosome 22 (seven cases), 15 (three cases), and 1p (two cases). Furthermore, two of the GISTs showed gains in 5q. These results indicate that phenotypically undifferentiated GISTs are also genetically different from leiomyomas and schwannomas and support their classification apart from leiomyomas.
The contractile cells of the primitive heart are derived from a subpopulation of the lateral plate splanchnic mesoderm. While the formation of the cardiac primordia has been studied in the avian embryo, little is known about this cell population in the mammal. To investigate the distribution and cellular differentiation of the myocardial precursors in the early mammalian embryo, we studied the sequential immunohistochemical appearance of desmin and myosin in whole mounts of rat embryos from the presomite (gestational day 9) through the 6-8 somite, straight heart tube (gestational day 10) stages of early cardiac morphogenesis. In contrast to the chicken, and previous reports in the mouse, our results show that myogenic differentiation of the muscle precursor cells of the heart begins in the presomite embryo prior to formation of the anterior intestinal portal or foregut. In addition, this cell population of the precardiac mesoderm appears as a single crescent-shaped population of cells in continuity across the midline which extends caudally during development and then fuses in the midline to form the primitive heart tube. Unlike skeletal myogenesis, desmin and myosin appear simultaneously and are codistributed throughout this initial period of heart development. These results suggest that myocardial differentiation in the rat is precocious when compared to the chicken and precedes the morphogenetic processes involved in formation of the primitive heart tube. Furthermore, this study provides the first description in the mammal of the spatial distribution of the myogenic precardiac mesoderm.