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Efficacy of Flecainide in the Treatment of Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Kannankeril PJ, Moore JP, Cerrone M, Priori SG, Kertesz NJ, Ro PS, Batra AS, Kaufman ES, Fairbrother DL, Saarel EV, Etheridge SP, Kanter RJ, Carboni MP, Dzurik MV, Fountain D, Chen H, Ely EW, Roden DM, Knollmann BC
(2017) JAMA Cardiol 2: 759-766
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Cross-Over Studies, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Defibrillators, Implantable, Drug Therapy, Combination, Exercise, Exercise Test, Female, Flecainide, Humans, Male, Maximum Tolerated Dose, Single-Blind Method, Tachycardia, Ventricular, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
Importance - Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a potentially lethal genetic arrhythmia syndrome characterized by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with physical or emotional stress, for which current therapy with β-blockers is incompletely effective. Flecainide acetate directly suppresses sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release-the cellular mechanism responsible for triggering ventricular arrhythmias in CPVT-but has never been assessed prospectively.
Objective - To determine whether flecainide dosed to therapeutic levels and added to β-blocker therapy is superior to β-blocker therapy alone for the prevention of exercise-induced arrhythmias in CPVT.
Design, Setting, and Participants - This investigator-initiated, multicenter, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted from December 19, 2011, through December 29, 2015, with a midtrial protocol change at 10 US sites. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of CPVT and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator underwent a baseline exercise test while receiving maximally tolerated β-blocker therapy that was continued throughout the trial. Patients were then randomized to treatment A (flecainide or placebo) for 3 months, followed by exercise testing. After a 1-week washout period, patients crossed over to treatment B (placebo or flecainide) for 3 months, followed by exercise testing.
Interventions - Patients received oral flecainide or placebo twice daily, with the dosage guided by trough serum levels.
Main Outcomes and Measures - The primary end point of ventricular arrhythmias during exercise was compared between the flecainide and placebo arms. Exercise tests were scored on an ordinal scale of worst ventricular arrhythmia observed (0 indicates no ectopy; 1, isolated premature ventricular beats; 2, bigeminy; 3, couplets; and 4, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia).
Results - Of 14 patients (7 males and 7 females; median age, 16 years [interquartile range, 15.0-22.5 years]) randomized, 13 completed the study. The median baseline exercise test score was 3.0 (range, 0-4), with no difference noted between the baseline and placebo (median, 2.5; range, 0-4) exercise scores. The median ventricular arrhythmia score during exercise was significantly reduced by flecainide (0 [range, 0-2] vs 2.5 [range, 0-4] for placebo; P < .01), with complete suppression observed in 11 of 13 patients (85%). Overall and serious adverse events did not differ between the flecainide and placebo arms.
Conclusions and Relevance - In this randomized clinical trial of patients with CPVT, flecainide plus β-blocker significantly reduced ventricular ectopy during exercise compared with placebo plus β-blocker and β-blocker alone.
Trial Registration - clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01117454.
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MeSH Terms
Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients taking ibrutinib.
Lampson BL, Yu L, Glynn RJ, Barrientos JC, Jacobsen ED, Banerji V, Jones JA, Walewska R, Savage KJ, Michaud GF, Moslehi JJ, Brown JR
(2017) Blood 129: 2581-2584
MeSH Terms: Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Humans, Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell, Male, Middle Aged, Pyrazoles, Pyrimidines
Added March 26, 2017
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8 MeSH Terms
Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.
Arking DE, Pulit SL, Crotti L, van der Harst P, Munroe PB, Koopmann TT, Sotoodehnia N, Rossin EJ, Morley M, Wang X, Johnson AD, Lundby A, Gudbjartsson DF, Noseworthy PA, Eijgelsheim M, Bradford Y, Tarasov KV, Dörr M, Müller-Nurasyid M, Lahtinen AM, Nolte IM, Smith AV, Bis JC, Isaacs A, Newhouse SJ, Evans DS, Post WS, Waggott D, Lyytikäinen LP, Hicks AA, Eisele L, Ellinghaus D, Hayward C, Navarro P, Ulivi S, Tanaka T, Tester DJ, Chatel S, Gustafsson S, Kumari M, Morris RW, Naluai ÅT, Padmanabhan S, Kluttig A, Strohmer B, Panayiotou AG, Torres M, Knoflach M, Hubacek JA, Slowikowski K, Raychaudhuri S, Kumar RD, Harris TB, Launer LJ, Shuldiner AR, Alonso A, Bader JS, Ehret G, Huang H, Kao WH, Strait JB, Macfarlane PW, Brown M, Caulfield MJ, Samani NJ, Kronenberg F, Willeit J, CARe Consortium, COGENT Consortium, Smith JG, Greiser KH, Meyer Zu Schwabedissen H, Werdan K, Carella M, Zelante L, Heckbert SR, Psaty BM, Rotter JI, Kolcic I, Polašek O, Wright AF, Griffin M, Daly MJ, DCCT/EDIC, Arnar DO, Hólm H, Thorsteinsdottir U, eMERGE Consortium, Denny JC, Roden DM, Zuvich RL, Emilsson V, Plump AS, Larson MG, O'Donnell CJ, Yin X, Bobbo M, D'Adamo AP, Iorio A, Sinagra G, Carracedo A, Cummings SR, Nalls MA, Jula A, Kontula KK, Marjamaa A, Oikarinen L, Perola M, Porthan K, Erbel R, Hoffmann P, Jöckel KH, Kälsch H, Nöthen MM, HRGEN Consortium, den Hoed M, Loos RJ, Thelle DS, Gieger C, Meitinger T, Perz S, Peters A, Prucha H, Sinner MF, Waldenberger M, de Boer RA, Franke L, van der Vleuten PA, Beckmann BM, Martens E, Bardai A, Hofman N, Wilde AA, Behr ER, Dalageorgou C, Giudicessi JR, Medeiros-Domingo A, Barc J, Kyndt F, Probst V, Ghidoni A, Insolia R, Hamilton RM, Scherer SW, Brandimarto J, Margulies K, Moravec CE, del Greco M F, Fuchsberger C, O'Connell JR, Lee WK, Watt GC, Campbell H, Wild SH, El Mokhtari NE, Frey N, Asselbergs FW, Mateo Leach I, Navis G, van den Berg MP, van Veldhuisen DJ, Kellis M, Krijthe BP, Franco OH, Hofman A, Kors JA, Uitterlinden AG, Witteman JC, Kedenko L, Lamina C, Oostra BA, Abecasis GR, Lakatta EG, Mulas A, Orrú M, Schlessinger D, Uda M, Markus MR, Völker U, Snieder H, Spector TD, Ärnlöv J, Lind L, Sundström J, Syvänen AC, Kivimaki M, Kähönen M, Mononen N, Raitakari OT, Viikari JS, Adamkova V, Kiechl S, Brion M, Nicolaides AN, Paulweber B, Haerting J, Dominiczak AF, Nyberg F, Whincup PH, Hingorani AD, Schott JJ, Bezzina CR, Ingelsson E, Ferrucci L, Gasparini P, Wilson JF, Rudan I, Franke A, Mühleisen TW, Pramstaller PP, Lehtimäki TJ, Paterson AD, Parsa A, Liu Y, van Duijn CM, Siscovick DS, Gudnason V, Jamshidi Y, Salomaa V, Felix SB, Sanna S, Ritchie MD, Stricker BH, Stefansson K, Boyer LA, Cappola TP, Olsen JV, Lage K, Schwartz PJ, Kääb S, Chakravarti A, Ackerman MJ, Pfeufer A, de Bakker PI, Newton-Cheh C
(2014) Nat Genet 46: 826-36
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Calcium Signaling, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Electrocardiography, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Heart Ventricles, Humans, Long QT Syndrome, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardium, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Show Abstract · Added June 26, 2014
The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
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17 MeSH Terms
Common variants at SCN5A-SCN10A and HEY2 are associated with Brugada syndrome, a rare disease with high risk of sudden cardiac death.
Bezzina CR, Barc J, Mizusawa Y, Remme CA, Gourraud JB, Simonet F, Verkerk AO, Schwartz PJ, Crotti L, Dagradi F, Guicheney P, Fressart V, Leenhardt A, Antzelevitch C, Bartkowiak S, Borggrefe M, Schimpf R, Schulze-Bahr E, Zumhagen S, Behr ER, Bastiaenen R, Tfelt-Hansen J, Olesen MS, Kääb S, Beckmann BM, Weeke P, Watanabe H, Endo N, Minamino T, Horie M, Ohno S, Hasegawa K, Makita N, Nogami A, Shimizu W, Aiba T, Froguel P, Balkau B, Lantieri O, Torchio M, Wiese C, Weber D, Wolswinkel R, Coronel R, Boukens BJ, Bézieau S, Charpentier E, Chatel S, Despres A, Gros F, Kyndt F, Lecointe S, Lindenbaum P, Portero V, Violleau J, Gessler M, Tan HL, Roden DM, Christoffels VM, Le Marec H, Wilde AA, Probst V, Schott JJ, Dina C, Redon R
(2013) Nat Genet 45: 1044-9
MeSH Terms: Alleles, Animals, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Brugada Syndrome, Case-Control Studies, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, Odds Ratio, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Repressor Proteins, Sodium Channels
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
Brugada syndrome is a rare cardiac arrhythmia disorder, causally related to SCN5A mutations in around 20% of cases. Through a genome-wide association study of 312 individuals with Brugada syndrome and 1,115 controls, we detected 2 significant association signals at the SCN10A locus (rs10428132) and near the HEY2 gene (rs9388451). Independent replication confirmed both signals (meta-analyses: rs10428132, P = 1.0 × 10(-68); rs9388451, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)) and identified one additional signal in SCN5A (at 3p21; rs11708996, P = 1.0 × 10(-14)). The cumulative effect of the three loci on disease susceptibility was unexpectedly large (Ptrend = 6.1 × 10(-81)). The association signals at SCN5A-SCN10A demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms modulating cardiac conduction can also influence susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. The implication of association with HEY2, supported by new evidence that Hey2 regulates cardiac electrical activity, shows that Brugada syndrome may originate from altered transcriptional programming during cardiac development. Altogether, our findings indicate that common genetic variation can have a strong impact on the predisposition to rare diseases.
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22 MeSH Terms
Cardiovascular imaging in clinical practice: what does late gadolinium enhance?
Gupta DK, Kwong RY, Pfeffer MA
(2013) JAMA 309: 929-30
MeSH Terms: Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, Cicatrix, Coronary Artery Disease, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Female, Heart Ventricles, Humans, Male, Myocardial Contraction, Myocardial Revascularization, Myocardium, Ventricular Function, Left
Added February 28, 2014
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12 MeSH Terms
Propoxyphene and the risk of out-of-hospital death.
Ray WA, Murray KT, Kawai V, Graham DJ, Cooper WO, Hall K, Stein CM
(2013) Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 22: 403-12
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Analgesics, Opioid, Cohort Studies, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Dextropropoxyphene, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Retrospective Studies, Risk
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
PURPOSE - The opioid analgesic propoxyphene was withdrawn from the US market in 2010, motivated by concerns regarding fatality in overdose and adverse cardiac effects, including prolongation of the QT interval. These concerns were based on case reports, summary vital statistics, and surrogate endpoint studies.
METHODS - Using the linked Tennessee Medicaid database (1992-2007), we conducted a retrospective cohort study that compared risk of sudden cardiac, medication toxicity, and total out-of-hospital death for propoxyphene users with that for comparable nonusers of any prescribed opioid analgesic and users of hydrocodone, an opioid with similar indications. Cohort members had 1,873,500 propoxyphene prescriptions, 1,873,500 matched nonuser control periods, and 936,750 matched hydrocodone prescriptions.
RESULTS - Current propoxyphene users had no increased risk for sudden cardiac death (versus nonusers: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.00 [0.81-1.23]; versus current hydrocodone users: HR = 0.91 [0.68-1.21]) but did have increased risk for medication toxicity deaths (versus nonusers: HR = 1.85 [1.07-3.19], p = 0.027; versus current hydrocodone users: HR = 2.10 [0.87-5.10], p = 0.100). Because toxicity deaths were a small proportion of study deaths, total out-of-hospital mortality differed by less than 10% between the study groups and was not significantly elevated for propoxyphene (versus nonusers: HR = 1.09 [0.95-1.25]; versus current hydrocodone users: HR = 1.06 [0.87-1.29] ).
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings support the concern that propoxyphene has greater toxicity in overdose but do not provide evidence that it increases the risk of sudden cardiac death.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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12 MeSH Terms
Systems biology and cardiac arrhythmias.
Grace AA, Roden DM
(2012) Lancet 380: 1498-508
MeSH Terms: Animals, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Atrial Fibrillation, Computational Biology, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Electrocardiography, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Heart Conduction System, Humans, Incidence, Long QT Syndrome, Male, Phenotype, Risk Factors, Systems Biology
Show Abstract · Added June 26, 2014
During the past few years, the development of effective, empirical technologies for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has exceeded the pace at which detailed knowledge of the underlying biology has accumulated. As a result, although some clinical arrhythmias can be cured with techniques such as catheter ablation, drug treatment and prediction of the risk of sudden death remain fairly primitive. The identification of key candidate genes for monogenic arrhythmia syndromes shows that to bring basic biology to the clinic is a powerful approach. Increasingly sophisticated experimental models and methods of measurement, including stem cell-based models of human cardiac arrhythmias, are being deployed to study how perturbations in several biologic pathways can result in an arrhythmia-prone heart. The biology of arrhythmia is largely quantifiable, which allows for systematic analysis that could transform treatment strategies that are often still empirical into management based on molecular evidence.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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17 MeSH Terms
Validation of a computer case definition for sudden cardiac death in opioid users.
Kawai VK, Murray KT, Stein CM, Cooper WO, Graham DJ, Hall K, Ray WA
(2012) BMC Res Notes 5: 473
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Analgesics, Opioid, Cohort Studies, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Dextropropoxyphene, Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted, Humans, Hydrocodone, Medical Records Systems, Computerized, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Reproducibility of Results
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
BACKGROUND - To facilitate the use of automated databases for studies of sudden cardiac death, we previously developed a computerized case definition that had a positive predictive value between 86% and 88%. However, the definition has not been specifically validated for prescription opioid users, for whom out-of-hospital overdose deaths may be difficult to distinguish from sudden cardiac death.
FINDINGS - We assembled a cohort of persons 30-74 years of age prescribed propoxyphene or hydrocodone who had no life-threatening non-cardiovascular illness, diagnosed drug abuse, residence in a nursing home in the past year, or hospital stay within the past 30 days. Medical records were sought for a sample of 140 cohort deaths within 30 days of a prescription fill meeting the computer case definition. Of the 140 sampled deaths, 81 were adjudicated; 73 (90%) were sudden cardiac deaths. Two deaths had possible opioid overdose; after removing these two the positive predictive value was 88%.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings are consistent with our previous validation studies and suggest the computer case definition of sudden cardiac death is a useful tool for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of opioid analgesics.
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13 MeSH Terms
Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death.
Ray WA, Murray KT, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Stein CM
(2012) N Engl J Med 366: 1881-90
MeSH Terms: Adult, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Azithromycin, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cohort Studies, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Female, Humans, Incidence, Male, Medicaid, Middle Aged, Retrospective Studies, Risk, United States
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
BACKGROUND - Although several macrolide antibiotics are proarrhythmic and associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, azithromycin is thought to have minimal cardiotoxicity. However, published reports of arrhythmias suggest that azithromycin may increase the risk of cardiovascular death.
METHODS - We studied a Tennessee Medicaid cohort designed to detect an increased risk of death related to short-term cardiac effects of medication, excluding patients with serious noncardiovascular illness and person-time during and shortly after hospitalization. The cohort included patients who took azithromycin (347,795 prescriptions), propensity-score-matched persons who took no antibiotics (1,391,180 control periods), and patients who took amoxicillin (1,348,672 prescriptions), ciprofloxacin (264,626 prescriptions), or levofloxacin (193,906 prescriptions).
RESULTS - During 5 days of therapy, patients taking azithromycin, as compared with those who took no antibiotics, had an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79 to 4.63; P<0.001) and death from any cause (hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.75; P=0.002). Patients who took amoxicillin had no increase in the risk of death during this period. Relative to amoxicillin, azithromycin was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.38 to 4.50; P=0.002) and death from any cause (hazard ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.30; P=0.005), with an estimated 47 additional cardiovascular deaths per 1 million courses; patients in the highest decile of risk for cardiovascular disease had an estimated 245 additional cardiovascular deaths per 1 million courses. The risk of cardiovascular death was significantly greater with azithromycin than with ciprofloxacin but did not differ significantly from that with levofloxacin.
CONCLUSIONS - During 5 days of azithromycin therapy, there was a small absolute increase in cardiovascular deaths, which was most pronounced among patients with a high baseline risk of cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics.).
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16 MeSH Terms
Cardiac arrest during long-distance running races.
Kim JH, Malhotra R, Chiampas G, d'Hemecourt P, Troyanos C, Cianca J, Smith RN, Wang TJ, Roberts WO, Thompson PD, Baggish AL, Race Associated Cardiac Arrest Event Registry (RACER) Study Group
(2012) N Engl J Med 366: 130-40
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Female, Heart Arrest, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Running, Sex Factors, United States, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added April 15, 2014
BACKGROUND - Approximately 2 million people participate in long-distance running races in the United States annually. Reports of race-related cardiac arrests have generated concern about the safety of this activity.
METHODS - We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest associated with marathon and half-marathon races in the United States from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2010. We determined the clinical characteristics of the arrests by interviewing survivors and the next of kin of nonsurvivors, reviewing medical records, and analyzing postmortem data.
RESULTS - Of 10.9 million runners, 59 (mean [±SD] age, 42-13 years; 51 men) had cardiac arrest (incidence rate, 0.54 per 100,000 participants; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.70). Cardiovascular disease accounted for the majority of cardiac arrests. The incidence rate was significantly higher during marathons (1.01 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.38) than during half-marathons (0.27; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43) and among men (0.90 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.18) than among women (0.16; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.31). Male marathon runners, the highest-risk group, had an increased incidence of cardiac arrest during the latter half of the study decade (2000-2004, 0.71 per 100,000 [95% CI, 0.31 to 1.40]; 2005-2010, 2.03 per 100,000 [95% CI, 1.33 to 2.98]; P=0.01). Of the 59 cases of cardiac arrest, 42 (71%) were fatal (incidence, 0.39 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.52). Among the 31 cases with complete clinical data, initiation of bystander-administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation and an underlying diagnosis other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were the strongest predictors of survival.
CONCLUSIONS - Marathons and half-marathons are associated with a low overall risk of cardiac arrest and sudden death. Cardiac arrest, most commonly attributable to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or atherosclerotic coronary disease, occurs primarily among male marathon participants; the incidence rate in this group increased during the past decade.
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15 MeSH Terms