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Gene network transitions in embryos and other fate-changing contexts involve combinations of transcription factors. A subset of fate-changing transcription factors act as pioneers; they scan and target nucleosomal DNA and initiate cooperative events that can open the local chromatin. However, a gap has remained in understanding how molecular interactions with the nucleosome contribute to the chromatin-opening phenomenon. Here we identified a short α-helical region, conserved among FOXA pioneer factors, that interacts with core histones and contributes to chromatin opening in vitro. The same domain is involved in chromatin opening in early mouse embryos for normal development. Thus, local opening of chromatin by interactions between pioneer factors and core histones promotes genetic programming.
The XPA protein functions together with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein RPA as the central scaffold to ensure proper positioning of repair factors in multi-protein nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery. We previously determined the structure of a short motif in the disordered XPA N-terminus bound to the RPA32C domain. However, a second contact between the XPA DNA-binding domain (XPA DBD) and the RPA70AB tandem ssDNA-binding domains, which is likely to influence the orientation of XPA and RPA on the damaged DNA substrate, remains poorly characterized. NMR was used to map the binding interfaces of XPA DBD and RPA70AB. Combining NMR and X-ray scattering data with comprehensive docking and refinement revealed how XPA DBD and RPA70AB orient on model NER DNA substrates. The structural model enabled design of XPA mutations that inhibit the interaction with RPA70AB. These mutations decreased activity in cell-based NER assays, demonstrating the functional importance of XPA DBD-RPA70AB interaction. Our results inform ongoing controversy about where XPA is bound within the NER bubble, provide structural insights into the molecular basis for malfunction of disease-associated XPA missense mutations, and contribute to understanding of the structure and mechanical action of the NER machinery.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
The opening session of Second International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology addressed two areas of vital interest. The first reviewed new thoughts related to established agents. While anthracycline cardiotoxicity has been studied and reviewed extensively, ongoing research attempting to understand why it appears the mechanism(s) of toxicity differs from that of oncologic efficacy continue to evoke comment and intriguing speculation. Better understanding of the role of β-topoisomerase II in toxicity has advanced our understanding of the cascade of events that lead to heart failure. Additionally, the cardioprotective role of dexrazoxane fits well with our new understanding of how β-topoisomerase II works. Beyond the anthracyclines, new insight is providing us insight to better understand the impact on cardiac function seen with other agents including those targeting HER2 and several tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. Unlike the anthracyclines, these agents affect cardiac function in ways that are less direct, and therefore have different characteristics and should be thought of in alternate ways. This new knowledge regarding established agents furthers our understanding of the spectrum of cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction in the cancer patient. The session also addressed cardiovascular toxicities of newer and established agents beyond myocardial dysfunction including effects on the vasculature. These agents cause changes that may be temporary or permanent, and that range from subclinical to life-threatening. The session ended with a discussion of the cardiac effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors. These agents can cause rare and sometimes fatal cardiac inflammation, for which long-term follow up may be required.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
colonizes the stomach in about half of the world's population. strains containing the pathogenicity island ( PAI) are associated with a higher risk of gastric adenocarcinoma or peptic ulcer disease than PAI-negative strains. The PAI encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that mediates delivery of the CagA effector protein as well as nonprotein bacterial constituents into gastric epithelial cells. -induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion are attributed to T4SS-dependent delivery of lipopolysaccharide metabolites and peptidoglycan into host cells, and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation is attributed to delivery of bacterial DNA. In this study, we analyzed the bacterial energetic requirements associated with these cellular alterations. Mutant strains lacking Cagα, Cagβ, or CagE (putative ATPases corresponding to VirB11, VirD4, and VirB4 in prototypical T4SSs) were capable of T4SS core complex assembly but defective in CagA translocation into host cells. Thus, the three Cag ATPases are not functionally redundant. Cagα and CagE were required for -induced NF-κB activation, IL-8 secretion, and TLR9 activation, but Cagβ was dispensable for these responses. We identified putative ATP-binding motifs (Walker-A and Walker-B) in each of the ATPases and generated mutant strains in which these motifs were altered. Each of the Walker box mutant strains exhibited properties identical to those of the corresponding deletion mutant strains. These data suggest that Cag T4SS-dependent delivery of nonprotein bacterial constituents into host cells occurs through mechanisms different from those used for recruitment and delivery of CagA into host cells.
Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.
Maladaptive proximal tubule (PT) repair has been implicated in kidney fibrosis through induction of cell-cycle arrest at G2/M. We explored the relative importance of the PT DNA damage response (DDR) in kidney fibrosis by genetically inactivating ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), which is a sensor and upstream initiator of the DDR. In human chronic kidney disease, ATR expression inversely correlates with DNA damage. ATR was upregulated in approximately 70% of Lotus tetragonolobus lectin-positive (LTL+) PT cells in cisplatin-exposed human kidney organoids. Inhibition of ATR resulted in greater PT cell injury in organoids and cultured PT cells. PT-specific Atr-knockout (ATRRPTC-/-) mice exhibited greater kidney function impairment, DNA damage, and fibrosis than did WT mice in response to kidney injury induced by either cisplatin, bilateral ischemia-reperfusion, or unilateral ureteral obstruction. ATRRPTC-/- mice had more cells in the G2/M phase after injury than did WT mice after similar treatments. In conclusion, PT ATR activation is a key component of the DDR, which confers a protective effect mitigating the maladaptive repair and consequent fibrosis that follow kidney injury.
The stress response system is disrupted in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as in those at elevated risk for developing MDD. We examined whether DNA methylation (DNAm) levels of CpG sites within HPA-axis genes predict the onset of MDD. Seventy-seven girls, approximately half (n = 37) of whom were at familial risk for MDD, were followed longitudinally. Saliva samples were taken in adolescence (M age = 13.06 years [SD = 1.52]) when participants had no current or past MDD diagnosis. Diagnostic interviews were administered approximately every 18 months until the first onset of MDD or early adulthood (M age of last follow-up = 19.23 years [SD = 2.69]). We quantified DNAm in saliva samples using the Illumina EPIC chip and examined CpG sites within six key HPA-axis genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2, FKBP5) alongside 59 genotypes for tagging SNPs capturing cis genetic variability. DNAm levels within CpG sites in NR3C1, CRH, CRHR1, and CRHR2 were associated with risk for MDD across adolescence and young adulthood. To rule out the possibility that findings were merely due to the contribution of genetic variability, we re-analyzed the data controlling for cis genetic variation within these candidate genes. Importantly, methylation levels in these CpG sites continued to significantly predict the onset of MDD, suggesting that variation in the epigenome, independent of proximal genetic variants, prospectively predicts the onset of MDD. These findings suggest that variation in the HPA axis at the level of the methylome may predict the development of MDD.
The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the mammalian brain is a site of adult neurogenesis. Within the V-SVZ reside type B neural stem cells (NSCs) and type A neuroblasts. The V-SVZ is also a primary site for very aggressive glioblastoma (GBM). Standard-of-care therapy for GBM consists of safe maximum resection, concurrent temozolomide (TMZ), and X-irradiation (XRT), followed by adjuvant TMZ therapy. The question of how this therapy impacts neurogenesis is not well understood and is of fundamental importance as normal tissue tolerance is a limiting factor. Here, we studied the effects of concurrent TMZ/XRT followed by adjuvant TMZ on type B stem cells and type A neuroblasts of the V-SVZ in C57BL/6 mice. We found that chemoradiation induced an apoptotic response in type A neuroblasts, as marked by cleavage of caspase 3, but not in NSCs, and that A cells within the V-SVZ were repopulated given sufficient recovery time. 53BP1 foci formation and resolution was used to assess the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Remarkably, the repair was the same in type B and type A cells. While Bax expression was the same for type A or B cells, antiapoptotic Bcl2 and Mcl1 expression was significantly greater in NSCs. Thus, the resistance of type B NSCs to TMZ/XRT appears to be due, in part, to high basal expression of antiapoptotic proteins compared with type A cells. This preclinical research, demonstrating that murine NSCs residing in the V-SVZ are tolerant of standard chemoradiation therapy, supports a dose escalation strategy for treatment of GBM. Stem Cells 2019;37:1629-1639.
© 2019 The Authors. Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press 2019.
Intrinsic resistance of unknown mechanism impedes the clinical utility of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6i) in malignancies other than breast cancer. Here, we used melanoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to study the mechanisms for CDK4/6i resistance in preclinical settings. We observed that melanoma PDXs resistant to CDK4/6i frequently displayed activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway, and inhibition of this pathway improved CDK4/6i response in a p21-dependent manner. We showed that a target of p21, CDK2, was necessary for proliferation in CDK4/6i-treated cells. Upon treatment with CDK4/6i, melanoma cells up-regulated cyclin D1, which sequestered p21 and another CDK inhibitor, p27, leaving a shortage of p21 and p27 available to bind and inhibit CDK2. Therefore, we tested whether induction of p21 in resistant melanoma cells would render them responsive to CDK4/6i. Because p21 is transcriptionally driven by p53, we coadministered CDK4/6i with a murine double minute (MDM2) antagonist to stabilize p53, allowing p21 accumulation. This resulted in improved antitumor activity in PDXs and in murine melanoma. Furthermore, coadministration of CDK4/6 and MDM2 antagonists with standard of care therapy caused tumor regression. Notably, the molecular features associated with response to CDK4/6 and MDM2 inhibitors in PDXs were recapitulated by an ex vivo organotypic slice culture assay, which could potentially be adopted in the clinic for patient stratification. Our findings provide a rationale for cotargeting CDK4/6 and MDM2 in melanoma.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) is essential for DNA unwinding by the replisome during S phase. It is emerging as a promising anti-cancer target as MCM10 expression correlates with tumour progression and poor clinical outcomes. Here we used a competition-based fluorescence polarization (FP) high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy to identify compounds that inhibit Mcm10 from binding to DNA. Of the five active compounds identified, only the anti-parasitic agent suramin exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in replication products in an in vitro replication assay. Structure-activity relationship evaluation identified several suramin analogues that inhibited ssDNA binding by the human Mcm10 internal domain and full-length Xenopus Mcm10, including analogues that are selective for Mcm10 over human RPA. Binding of suramin analogues to Mcm10 was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR and FP affinity determinations were highly correlated, with a similar rank between affinity and potency for killing colon cancer cells. Suramin analogue NF157 had the highest human Mcm10 binding affinity (FP K 170 nM, SPR K 460 nM) and cell activity (IC 38 µM). Suramin and its analogues are the first identified inhibitors of Mcm10 and probably block DNA binding by mimicking the DNA sugar phosphate backbone due to their extended, polysulfated anionic structures.
One of the primary goals of genomic medicine is to improve diagnosis through identification of genomic conditions, which could improve clinical management, prevent complications, and promote health. We explore how genomic medicine is being used to obtain molecular diagnoses for patients with previously undiagnosed diseases in prenatal, paediatric, and adult clinical settings. We focus on the role of clinical genomic sequencing (exome and genome) in aiding patients with conditions that are undiagnosed even after extensive clinical evaluation and testing. In particular, we explore the impact of combining genomic and phenotypic data and integrating multiple data types to improve diagnoses for patients with undiagnosed diseases, and we discuss how these genomic sequencing diagnoses could change clinical management.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.