The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
RecG catalyzes reversal of stalled replication forks in response to replication stress in bacteria. The protein contains a fork recognition ("wedge") domain that binds branched DNA and a superfamily II (SF2) ATPase motor that drives translocation on double-stranded (ds)DNA. The mechanism by which the wedge and motor domains collaborate to catalyze fork reversal in RecG and analogous eukaryotic fork remodelers is unknown. Here, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to probe conformational changes between the wedge and ATPase domains in response to fork DNA binding by RecG. Upon binding DNA, the ATPase-C lobe moves away from both the wedge and ATPase-N domains. This conformational change is consistent with a model of RecG fully engaged with a DNA fork substrate constructed from a crystal structure of RecG bound to a DNA junction together with recent cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of chromatin remodelers in complex with dsDNA. We show by mutational analysis that a conserved loop within the translocation in RecG (TRG) motif that was unstructured in the RecG crystal structure is essential for fork reversal and DNA-dependent conformational changes. Together, this work helps provide a more coherent model of fork binding and remodeling by RecG and related eukaryotic enzymes.
Helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) is a central mediator of the DNA damage response and maintains genome stability by regressing stalled replication forks. The N-terminal HIRAN domain binds specifically to the 3'-end of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and disrupting this function interferes with fork regression as well as replication fork progression in cells under replication stress. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the HIRAN-ssDNA interaction facilitates fork remodeling. Our results indicated that HIRAN capture of a denatured nascent leading 3'-end directs specific binding of HLTF to forks. DNase footprinting revealed that HLTF binds to the parental duplex ahead of the fork and at the leading edge behind the fork. Moreover, we found that the HIRAN domain is important for initiating regression of forks when both nascent strands are at the junction, but is dispensable when forks contain ssDNA regions on either template strand. We also found that HLTF catalyzes fork restoration from a partially regressed structure in a HIRAN-dependent manner. Thus, HIRAN serves as a substrate-recognition domain to properly orient the ATPase motor domain at stalled and regressed forks and initiates fork remodeling by guiding formation of a four-way junction. We discuss how these activities compare with those of two related fork remodelers, SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1 (SMARCAL1) and zinc finger RANBP2 type-containing 3 (ZRANB3) to provide insight into their nonredundant roles in DNA damage tolerance.
© 2018 Chavez et al.
Antagonists of MDM2-p53 interaction are emerging anti-cancer drugs utilized in clinical trials for malignancies that rarely mutate p53, including melanoma. We discovered that MDM2-p53 antagonists protect DNA from drug-induced damage in melanoma cells and patient-derived xenografts. Among the tested DNA damaging drugs were various inhibitors of Aurora and Polo-like mitotic kinases, as well as traditional chemotherapy. Mitotic kinase inhibition causes mitotic slippage, DNA re-replication, and polyploidy. Here we show that re-replication of the polyploid genome generates replicative stress which leads to DNA damage. MDM2-p53 antagonists relieve replicative stress via the p53-dependent activation of p21 which inhibits DNA replication. Loss of p21 promoted drug-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells and enhanced anti-tumor activity of therapy combining MDM2 antagonist with mitotic kinase inhibitor in mice. In summary, MDM2 antagonists may reduce DNA damaging effects of anti-cancer drugs if they are administered together, while targeting p21 can improve the efficacy of such combinations.
Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ribonucleotides are the natural analogs of deoxyribonucleotides, which can be misinserted by DNA polymerases, leading to the most abundant DNA lesions in genomes. During replication, DNA polymerases tolerate patches of ribonucleotides on the parental strands to different extents. The majority of human DNA polymerases have been reported to misinsert ribonucleotides into genomes. However, only PrimPol, DNA polymerase α, telomerase, and the mitochondrial human DNA polymerase (hpol) γ have been shown to tolerate an entire RNA strand. Y-family hpol η is known for translesion synthesis opposite the UV-induced DNA lesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and was recently found to incorporate ribonucleotides into DNA. Here, we report that hpol η is able to bind DNA/DNA, RNA/DNA, and DNA/RNA duplexes with similar affinities. In addition, hpol η, as well as another Y-family DNA polymerase, hpol κ, accommodates RNA as one of the two strands during primer extension, mainly by inserting dNMPs opposite unmodified templates or DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, even in the presence of an equal amount of the DNA/DNA substrate. The discovery of this RNA-accommodating ability of hpol η redefines the traditional concept of human DNA polymerases and indicates potential new functions of hpol η .
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Replication of DNA in eukaryotes is primarily executed by the combined action of processive DNA polymerases δ and ɛ. These enzymes cannot initiate synthesis of new DNA without the presence of a primer on the template ssDNA. The primers on both the leading and lagging strands are generated by DNA polymerase α-primase (pol-prim). DNA primase is a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that synthesizes the first ~10 nucleotides and then transfers the substrate to polymerase α to complete primer synthesis. The mechanisms governing the coordination and handoff between primase and polymerase α are largely unknown. Isolated DNA primase contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster that has been shown to serve as a redox switch modulating DNA binding affinity. This discovery suggests a mechanism for modulating the priming activity of primase and handoff to polymerase α. In this chapter, we briefly discuss the current state of knowledge of primase structure and function, including the role of its iron-sulfur cluster. This is followed by providing the methods for expressing, purifying, and biophysically/structurally characterizing primase and its iron-sulfur cluster-containing domain, p58C.
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The regulation of replication is essential to preserve genome integrity. Mms1 is part of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is linked to replication fork progression. By identifying Mms1 binding sites genome-wide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we connected Mms1 function to genome integrity and replication fork progression at particular G-rich motifs. This motif can form G-quadruplex (G4) structures in vitro. G4 are stable DNA structures that are known to impede replication fork progression. In the absence of Mms1, genome stability is at risk at these G-rich/G4 regions as demonstrated by gross chromosomal rearrangement assays. Mms1 binds throughout the cell cycle to these G-rich/G4 regions and supports the binding of Pif1 DNA helicase. Based on these data we propose a mechanistic model in which Mms1 binds to specific G-rich/G4 motif located on the lagging strand template for DNA replication and supports Pif1 function, DNA replication and genome integrity.
© The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
DNA damage and secondary structures can stall the replication machinery. Cells possess numerous tolerance mechanisms to complete genome duplication in the presence of such impediments. In addition to translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases, most eukaryotic cells contain a multifunctional replicative enzyme called primase-polymerase (PrimPol) that is capable of directly bypassing DNA damage by TLS, as well as repriming replication downstream of impediments. Here, we report that PrimPol is recruited to reprime through its interaction with RPA. Using biophysical and crystallographic approaches, we identify that PrimPol possesses two RPA-binding motifs and ascertained the key residues required for these interactions. We demonstrate that one of these motifs is critical for PrimPol's recruitment to stalled replication forks in vivo. In addition, biochemical analysis reveals that RPA serves to stimulate the primase activity of PrimPol. Together, these findings provide significant molecular insights into PrimPol's mode of recruitment to stalled forks to facilitate repriming and restart.
1,2-Dibromoethane (DBE, ethylene dibromide) is a potent carcinogen due at least in part to its DNA cross-linking effects. DBE cross-links glutathione (GSH) to DNA, notably to sites on 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine ( Cmarik , J. L. , et al. ( 1991 ) J. Biol. Chem. 267 , 6672 - 6679 ). Adduction at the N6 position of 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) had not been detected, but this is a site for the linkage of O-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase ( Chowdhury , G. , et al. ( 2013 ) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 , 12879 - 12882 ). We identified and quantified a new adduct, S-[2-(N-deoxyadenosinyl)ethyl]GSH, in calf thymus DNA using LC-MS/MS. Replication studies were performed in duplex oligonucleotides containing this adduct with human DNA polymerases (hPols) η, ι, and κ, as well as with Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4, Escherichia coli polymerase I Klenow fragment, and bacteriophage T7 polymerase. hPols η and ι, Dpo4, and Klenow fragment were able to bypass the adduct with only slight impedance; hPol η and ι showed increased misincorporation opposite the adduct compared to that of unmodified 2'-deoxyadenosine. LC-MS/MS analysis of full-length primer extension products by hPol η confirmed the incorporation of dC opposite S-[2-(N-deoxyadenosinyl)ethyl]GSH and also showed the production of a -1 frameshift. These results reveal the significance of N-dA GSH-DBE adducts in blocking replication, as well as producing mutations, by human translesion synthesis DNA polymerases.
DNA charge transport chemistry offers a means of long-range, rapid redox signaling. We demonstrate that the [4Fe4S] cluster in human DNA primase can make use of this chemistry to coordinate the first steps of DNA synthesis. Using DNA electrochemistry, we found that a change in oxidation state of the [4Fe4S] cluster acts as a switch for DNA binding. Single-atom mutations that inhibit this charge transfer hinder primase initiation without affecting primase structure or polymerization. Generating a single base mismatch in the growing primer duplex, which attenuates DNA charge transport, inhibits primer truncation. Thus, redox signaling by [4Fe4S] clusters using DNA charge transport regulates primase binding to DNA and illustrates chemistry that may efficiently drive substrate handoff between polymerases during DNA replication.
Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The ATR checkpoint kinase coordinates cellular responses to DNA replication stress. Budding yeast contain three activators of Mec1 (the ATR orthologue); however, only TOPBP1 is known to activate ATR in vertebrates. We identified ETAA1 as a replication stress response protein in two proteomic screens. ETAA1-deficient cells accumulate double-strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges, and other hallmarks of genome instability. They are also hypersensitive to replication stress and have increased frequencies of replication fork collapse. ETAA1 contains two RPA-interaction motifs that localize ETAA1 to stalled replication forks. It also interacts with several DNA damage response proteins including the BLM/TOP3α/RMI1/RMI2 and ATR/ATRIP complexes. It binds ATR/ATRIP directly using a motif with sequence similarity to the TOPBP1 ATR-activation domain; and like TOPBP1, ETAA1 acts as a direct ATR activator. ETAA1 functions in parallel to the TOPBP1/RAD9/HUS1/RAD1 pathway to regulate ATR and maintain genome stability. Thus, vertebrate cells contain at least two ATR-activating proteins.