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Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 17A1 plays a critical role in steroid metabolism, catalyzing both the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent 17α,20-lyase reactions to form dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (Andro), respectively, critical for generating glucocorticoids and androgens. Human P450 17A1 reaction rates examined are enhanced by the accessory protein cytochrome (), but the exact role of in P450 17A1-catalyzed reactions is unclear as are several details of these reactions. Here, we examined in detail the processivity of the 17α-hydroxylation and lyase steps. did not enhance reaction rates by decreasing the rates of any of the steroids. Steroid binding to P450 17A1 was more complex than a simple two-state system. Pre-steady-state experiments indicated lag phases for Andro production from progesterone and for DHEA from pregnenolone, indicating a distributive character of the enzyme. However, we observed processivity in pregnenolone/DHEA pulse-chase experiments. ()-Orteronel was three times more inhibitory toward the conversion of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA than toward the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone. IC values for ()-orteronel were identical for blocking DHEA formation from pregnenolone and for 17α-hydroxylation, suggestive of processivity. Global kinetic modeling helped assign sets of rate constants for individual or groups of reactions, indicating that human P450 17A1 is an inherently distributive enzyme but that some processivity is present, some of the 17α-OH pregnenolone formed from pregnenolone did not dissociate from P450 17A1 before conversion to DHEA. Our results also suggest multiple conformations of P450 17A1, as previously proposed on the basis of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OH-progesterone) to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of WT human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH-progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH-progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions. Twelve P450 21A2 variants associated with either salt-wasting or nonclassical forms of CAH were expressed, purified, and analyzed. The catalytic activities of these 12 variants ranged from 0.00009% to 30% of WT P450 21A2 and the extent of heme incorporation from 10% to 95% of the WT. Substrate dissociation constants () for four variants were 37-13,000-fold higher than for WT P450 21A2. Cytochrome , which augments several P450 activities, inhibited P450 21A2 activity. Similar to the WT enzyme, high noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic deuterium isotope effects (≥ 5.5) were observed for all six P450 21A2 variants examined for 21-hydroxylation of 21--progesterone, indicating that C-H bond breaking is a rate-limiting step over a 10-fold range of catalytic efficiency. Using UV-visible and CD spectroscopy, we found that P450 21A2 thermal stability assessed in bacterial cells and with purified enzymes differed among salt-wasting- and nonclassical-associated variants, but these differences did not correlate with catalytic activity. Our in-depth investigation of CAH-associated P450 21A2 variants reveals critical insight into the effects of disease-causing mutations on this important enzyme.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Global or local ischemia contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Currently there are no specific therapies to prevent AKI. Potentiation of glycolytic metabolism and attenuation of mitochondrial respiration may decrease cell injury and reduce reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria. Meclizine, an over-the-counter anti-nausea and -dizziness drug, was identified in a 'nutrient-sensitized' chemical screen. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of meclizine, 17 h prior to ischemia protected mice from IRI. Serum creatinine levels at 24 h after IRI were 0.13 ± 0.06 mg/dl (sham, n = 3), 1.59 ± 0.10 mg/dl (vehicle, n = 8) and 0.89 ± 0.11 mg/dl (meclizine, n = 8). Kidney injury was significantly decreased in meclizine treated mice compared with vehicle group (p < 0.001). Protection was also seen when meclizine was administered 24 h prior to ischemia. Meclizine reduced inflammation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and tubular injury. Meclizine preconditioned kidney tubular epithelial cells, exposed to blockade of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose and NaCN, had reduced LDH and cytochrome c release. Meclizine upregulated glycolysis in glucose-containing media and reduced cellular ATP levels in galactose-containing media. Meclizine inhibited the Kennedy pathway and caused rapid accumulation of phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine recapitulated meclizine-induced protection both in vitro and in vivo.
Mechanism of radiosensitivity of normal tissues, a key factor in determining the toxic side effects of cancer radiotherapy, is not fully understood. We recently demonstrated that deficiency of mitochondrial tumor suppressor, Fus1, increases radiosensitivity at the organismal, tissue and cellular levels. Since Fus1-deficient mice and cells exhibit high levels of oxidative stress, we hypothesized that dysregulation of cellular antioxidant defenses may contribute to the increased radiosensitivity. To address this potential mechanism, we treated the Fus1 KO mice with an inhibitor of pathogenic oxidative reactions, pyridoxamine (PM). Treatment with PM ameliorated IR-induced damage to GI epithelium of Fus1 KO mice and significantly increased the survival of irradiated mice. In cultured Fus1 KO epithelial cells, IR-induced oxidative stress was enhanced because of inadequate cellular antioxidant defenses, such as low levels and/or activities of cytochrome C, Sod 2 and STAT3. This resulted in dysregulation of IR-induced DNA-damage response and DNA synthesis. Treatment of Fus1 KO cells with PM or Sod 2 mimetic Tempol normalized the oxidative stress response, thus compensating to a significant degree for inadequate antioxidant response. Our findings using Fus1 KO radiosensitive mice suggest that radiosensitivity is mediated via dysregulation of antioxidant response and defective redox homeostasis.
Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4A11 is the only functionally active subfamily 4A P450 in humans. P450 4A11 catalyzes mainly ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids in liver and kidney; this process is not a major degradative pathway, but at least one product, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, has important signaling properties. We studied catalysis by P450 4A11 and the issue of rate-limiting steps using lauric acid ω-hydroxylation, a prototypic substrate for this enzyme. Some individual reaction steps were studied using pre-steady-state kinetic approaches. Substrate and product binding and release were much faster than overall rates of catalysis. Reduction of ferric P450 4A11 (to ferrous) was rapid and not rate-limiting. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments yielded low but reproducible values (1.2-2) for 12-hydroxylation with 12-(2)H-substituted lauric acid. However, considerable "metabolic switching" to 11-hydroxylation was observed with [12-(2)H3]lauric acid. Analysis of switching results [Jones, J. P., et al. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 7074-7078] and the use of tritium KIE analysis with [12-(3)H]lauric acid [Northrop, D. B. (1987) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607-625] both indicated a high intrinsic KIE (>10). Cytochrome b5 (b5) stimulated steady-state lauric acid ω-hydroxylation ∼2-fold; the apoprotein was ineffective, indicating that electron transfer is involved in the b5 enhancement. The rate of b5 reoxidation was increased in the presence of ferrous P450 mixed with O2. Collectively, the results indicate that both the transfer of an electron to the ferrous·O2 complex and C-H bond-breaking limit the rate of P450 4A11 ω-oxidation.
The ability to withstand mitochondrial damage is especially critical for the survival of postmitotic cells, such as neurons. Likewise, cancer cells can also survive mitochondrial stress. We found that cytochrome c (Cyt c), which induces apoptosis upon its release from damaged mitochondria, is targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation in mouse neurons, cardiomyocytes, and myotubes and in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells, but not in proliferating human fibroblasts. In mouse neurons, apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) prevented the proteasome-dependent degradation of Cyt c in response to induced mitochondrial stress. An RNA interference screen in U-87 MG glioma cells identified p53-associated Parkin-like cytoplasmic protein (PARC, also known as CUL9) as an E3 ligase that targets Cyt c for degradation. The abundance of PARC positively correlated with differentiation in mouse neurons, and overexpression of PARC reduced the abundance of mitochondrially-released cytosolic Cyt c in various cancer cell lines and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Conversely, neurons from Parc-deficient mice had increased sensitivity to mitochondrial damage, and neuroblastoma or glioma cells in which PARC or ubiquitin was knocked down had increased abundance of mitochondrially-released cytosolic Cyt c and decreased viability in response to stress. These findings suggest that PARC-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Cyt c is a strategy engaged by both neurons and cancer cells to prevent apoptosis during conditions of mitochondrial stress.
Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Apoptosis is programmed cell death triggered by activation of death receptors or cellular stress. Activation of caspases is the hallmark of apoptosis. Arrestins are best known for their role in homologous desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins quench G protein activation by binding to activated phosphorylated GPCRs. Recently, arrestins have been shown to regulate multiple signalling pathways in G protein-independent manner via scaffolding signalling proteins. Here we demonstrate that arrestin-2 isoform is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis induced via death receptor activation or by DNA damage at evolutionarily conserved sites in the C-terminus. Caspase-generated arrestin-2-(1-380) fragment translocates to mitochondria increasing cytochrome C release, which is the key checkpoint in cell death. Cells lacking arrestin-2 are significantly more resistant to apoptosis. The expression of wild-type arrestin-2 or its cleavage product arrestin-2-(1-380), but not of its caspase-resistant mutant, restores cell sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Arrestin-2-(1-380) action depends on tBID: at physiological concentrations, arrestin-2-(1-380) directly binds tBID and doubles tBID-induced cytochrome C release from isolated mitochondria. Arrestin-2-(1-380) does not facilitate apoptosis in BID knockout cells, whereas its ability to increase caspase-3 activity and facilitate cytochrome C release is rescued when BID expression is restored. Thus, arrestin-2-(1-380) cooperates with another product of caspase activity, tBID, and their concerted action significantly contributes to cell death.
Lipid modifications aid in regulating (and misregulating) protein function and localization. However, efficient methods to screen for a lipid's ability to modify proteins are not readily available. We present a strategy to identify protein-reactive lipids and apply it to a neurodevelopmental disorder, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). Alkynyl surrogates were synthesized for polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), and a 7-DHC-derived oxysterol. To probe for protein-reactive lipids, we used click chemistry to biotinylate the alkynyl tag and detected the lipid-adducted proteins with streptavidin Western blotting. In Neuro2a cells, the trend in amount of protein adduction followed known rates of lipid peroxidation (7-DHC > arachidonic acid > linoleic acid > cholesterol), with alkynyl-7-DHC producing the most adduction among alkynyl lipids. 7-DHC reductase-deficient cells, which cannot properly metabolize 7-DHC, exhibited significantly more alkynyl-7-DHC-protein adduction than control cells. Model studies demonstrated that a 7-DHC peroxidation product covalently modifies proteins. We hypothesize that 7-DHC generates electrophiles that can modify the proteome, contributing to SLOS's complex pathology. These probes and methods would allow for analysis of lipid-modified proteomes in SLOS and other disorders exhibiting 7-DHC accumulation. More broadly, the alkynyl lipid library would facilitate exploration of lipid peroxidation's role in specific biological processes in numerous diseases.
Cytochrome (cyt) c can uncouple from the respiratory chain following mitochondrial stress and catalyze lipid peroxidation. Accumulating evidence shows that this phenomenon impairs mitochondrial respiratory function and also initiates the apoptotic cascade. Therefore, under certain conditions a pharmacological approach that can inhibit cyt c catalyzed lipid peroxidation may be beneficial. We recently showed that acetaminophen (ApAP) at normal pharmacologic concentrations can prevent hemoprotein-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo by reducing ferryl heme to its ferric state. We report here, for the first time, that ApAP inhibits cytochrome c-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated free fatty acids and also the mitochondrial phospholipid, cardiolipin. Using isolated mitochondria, we also showed that ApAP inhibits cardiolipin oxidation induced by the pro-apoptotic protein, tBid. We found that the IC(50) of the inhibition of cardiolipin oxidation by ApAP is similar in both intact isolated mitochondria and cardiolipin liposomes, suggesting that ApAP penetrates well into the mitochondria. Together with our previous results, the findings presented herein suggest that ApAP is a pleiotropic inhibitor of peroxidase catalyzed lipid peroxidation. Our study also provides a potentially novel pharmacological approach for inhibiting the cascade of events that can result from redox cycling of cyt c.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.