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Loss of MYO5B Leads to Reductions in Na Absorption With Maintenance of CFTR-Dependent Cl Secretion in Enterocytes.
Engevik AC, Kaji I, Engevik MA, Meyer AR, Weis VG, Goldstein A, Hess MW, Müller T, Koepsell H, Dudeja PK, Tyska M, Huber LA, Shub MD, Ameen N, Goldenring JR
(2018) Gastroenterology 155: 1883-1897.e10
MeSH Terms: Animals, Aquaporins, Chlorides, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, Duodenum, Enterocytes, Gene Silencing, Humans, Intestinal Mucosa, Intestines, Malabsorption Syndromes, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Microvilli, Mucolipidoses, Myosin Type V, Protein Transport, Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1, Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3, Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers, Sucrase-Isomaltase Complex, Tamoxifen
Show Abstract · Added February 7, 2019
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Inactivating mutations in MYO5B cause microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), but the physiological cause of the diarrhea associated with this disease is unclear. We investigated whether loss of MYO5B results in aberrant expression of apical enterocyte transporters.
METHODS - We studied alterations in apical membrane transporters in MYO5B-knockout mice, as well as mice with tamoxifen-inducible, intestine-specific disruption of Myo5b (VilCre;Myo5b mice) or those not given tamoxifen (controls). Intestinal tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by immunostaining, immunoelectron microscopy, or cultured enteroids were derived. Functions of brush border transporters in intestinal mucosa were measured in Ussing chambers. We obtained duodenal biopsy specimens from individuals with MVID and individuals without MVID (controls) and compared transporter distribution by immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS - Compared to intestinal tissues from littermate controls, intestinal tissues from MYO5B-knockout mice had decreased apical localization of SLC9A3 (also called NHE3), SLC5A1 (also called SGLT1), aquaporin (AQP) 7, and sucrase isomaltase, and subapical localization of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and CDC42. However, CFTR was present on apical membranes of enterocytes from MYO5B knockout and control mice. Intestinal biopsies from patients with MVID had subapical localization of NHE3, SGLT1, and AQP7, but maintained apical CFTR. After tamoxifen administration, VilCre;Myo5b mice lost apical NHE3, SGLT1, DRA, and AQP7, similar to germline MYO5B knockout mice. Intestinal tissues from VilCre;Myo5b mice had increased CFTR in crypts and CFTR localized to the apical membranes of enterocytes. Intestinal mucosa from VilCre;Myo5b mice given tamoxifen did not have an intestinal barrier defect, based on Ussing chamber analysis, but did have decreased SGLT1 activity and increased CFTR activity.
CONCLUSIONS - Although trafficking of many apical transporters is regulated by MYO5B, trafficking of CFTR is largely independent of MYO5B. Decreased apical localization of NHE3, SGLT1, DRA, and AQP7 might be responsible for dysfunctional water absorption in enterocytes of patients with MVID. Maintenance of apical CFTR might exacerbate water loss by active secretion of chloride into the intestinal lumen.
Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Pharmacological targeting of SPAK kinase in disorders of impaired epithelial transport.
Zhang J, Karimy JK, Delpire E, Kahle KT
(2017) Expert Opin Ther Targets 21: 795-804
MeSH Terms: Animals, Colitis, Cystic Fibrosis, Drug Design, Epithelial Cells, Essential Hypertension, Humans, Hypertension, Ion Transport, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
INTRODUCTION - The mammalian SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich serine-threonine kinase SPAK (STK39) modulates ion transport across and between epithelial cells in response to environmental stimuli such osmotic stress and inflammation. Research over the last decade has established a central role for SPAK in the regulation of ion and water transport in the distal nephron, colonic crypts, and pancreatic ducts, and has implicated deregulated SPAK signaling in NaCl-sensitive hypertension, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and cystic fibrosis. Areas covered: We review recent advances in our understanding of the role of SPAK kinase in the regulation of epithelial transport. We highlight how SPAK signaling - including its upstream Cl sensitive activators, the WNK kinases, and its downstream ion transport targets, the cation- Cl cotransporters contribute to human disease. We discuss prospects for the pharmacotherapeutic targeting of SPAK kinase in specific human disorders that feature impaired epithelial homeostasis. Expert opinion: The development of novel drugs that antagonize the SPAK-WNK interaction, inhibit SPAK kinase activity, or disrupt SPAK kinase activation by interfering with its binding to MO25α/β could be useful adjuncts in essential hypertension, inflammatory colitis, and cystic fibrosis.
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Trafficking Ion Transporters to the Apical Membrane of Polarized Intestinal Enterocytes.
Engevik AC, Goldenring JR
(2018) Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 10:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Membrane, Cell Polarity, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, Cytoskeletal Proteins, Enterocytes, Humans, Ion Transport, Malabsorption Syndromes, Membrane Transport Proteins, Microvilli, Mucolipidoses, Myosin Heavy Chains, Myosin Type V, Protein Transport, Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling. Examination of altered apical trafficking in patients with Microvillus Inclusion disease caused by inactivating mutations in MYO5B has led to insights into the regulation of apical trafficking by elements of the apical recycling system. Modeling of MYO5B loss in cell culture and animal models has led to recognition of Rab11a and Rab8a as critical regulators of apical brush border function. All of these studies show the importance of apical membrane trafficking dynamics in maintenance of polarized epithelial cell function.
Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Structural basis for KCNE3 modulation of potassium recycling in epithelia.
Kroncke BM, Van Horn WD, Smith J, Kang C, Welch RC, Song Y, Nannemann DP, Taylor KC, Sisco NJ, George AL, Meiler J, Vanoye CG, Sanders CR
(2016) Sci Adv 2: e1501228
MeSH Terms: Animals, Chloride Channels, Computational Biology, Cystic Fibrosis, Electrophysiological Phenomena, Epithelial Cells, Humans, KCNQ1 Potassium Channel, Multiprotein Complexes, Potassium, Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated, Protein Domains
Show Abstract · Added April 7, 2017
The single-span membrane protein KCNE3 modulates a variety of voltage-gated ion channels in diverse biological contexts. In epithelial cells, KCNE3 regulates the function of the KCNQ1 potassium ion (K(+)) channel to enable K(+) recycling coupled to transepithelial chloride ion (Cl(-)) secretion, a physiologically critical cellular transport process in various organs and whose malfunction causes diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), cholera, and pulmonary edema. Structural, computational, biochemical, and electrophysiological studies lead to an atomically explicit integrative structural model of the KCNE3-KCNQ1 complex that explains how KCNE3 induces the constitutive activation of KCNQ1 channel activity, a crucial component in K(+) recycling. Central to this mechanism are direct interactions of KCNE3 residues at both ends of its transmembrane domain with residues on the intra- and extracellular ends of the KCNQ1 voltage-sensing domain S4 helix. These interactions appear to stabilize the activated "up" state configuration of S4, a prerequisite for full opening of the KCNQ1 channel gate. In addition, the integrative structural model was used to guide electrophysiological studies that illuminate the molecular basis for how estrogen exacerbates CF lung disease in female patients, a phenomenon known as the "CF gender gap."
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12 MeSH Terms
The innate immune protein calprotectin promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interaction.
Wakeman CA, Moore JL, Noto MJ, Zhang Y, Singleton MD, Prentice BM, Gilston BA, Doster RS, Gaddy JA, Chazin WJ, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP
(2016) Nat Commun 7: 11951
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bacterial Proteins, Biofilms, Biosynthetic Pathways, Coinfection, Cystic Fibrosis, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex, Manganese, Mice, Microbial Interactions, Proteomics, Pseudomonas Infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization, Staphylococcal Infections, Staphylococcus aureus, Zinc
Show Abstract · Added August 17, 2016
Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we herein visualize protein and metal distributions within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using imaging mass spectrometry. These in vitro experiments reveal correlations between differential protein distribution and metal abundance. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections.
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19 MeSH Terms
Metabolomics analysis identifies novel plasma biomarkers of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation.
Laguna TA, Reilly CS, Williams CB, Welchlin C, Wendt CH
(2015) Pediatr Pulmonol 50: 869-77
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Biomarkers, Cohort Studies, Cystic Fibrosis, Cytidine, Female, Humans, Hydrocortisone, Hypoxanthine, Male, Mannose, Matched-Pair Analysis, Metabolome, Metabolomics, Methionine, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added July 31, 2015
BACKGROUND - Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by infection, inflammation, lung function decline, and intermittent pulmonary exacerbations. However, the link between pulmonary exacerbation and lung disease progression remains unclear. Global metabolomic profiling can provide novel mechanistic insight into a disease process in addition to putative biomarkers for future study. Our objective was to investigate how the plasma metabolomic profile changes between CF pulmonary exacerbation and a clinically well state.
METHODS - Plasma samples and lung function data were collected from 25 CF patients during hospitalization for a pulmonary exacerbation and during quarterly outpatient clinic visits. In collaboration with Metabolon, Inc., the metabolomic profiles of matched pair plasma samples, one during exacerbation and one at a clinic visit, were analyzed using gas and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Compounds were identified by comparison to a library of standards. Mixed effects models that controlled for nutritional status and lung function were used to test for differences and principal components analysis was performed.
RESULTS - Our population had a median age of 27 years (14-39) and had a median FEV1 % predicted of 65% (23-105%). 398 total metabolites were identified and after adjustment for confounders, five metabolites signifying perturbations in nucleotide (hypoxanthine), nucleoside (N4-acetylcytidine), amino acid (N-acetylmethionine), carbohydrate (mannose), and steroid (cortisol) metabolism were identified. Principal components analysis provided good separation between the two clinical phenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings provide putative metabolite biomarkers for future study and allow for hypothesis generation about the pathophysiology of CF pulmonary exacerbation.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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17 MeSH Terms
Influence of Pathogenic Mutations on the Energetics of Translocon-Mediated Bilayer Integration of Transmembrane Helices.
Schlebach JP, Sanders CR
(2015) J Membr Biol 248: 371-81
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Cattle, Conserved Sequence, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, Humans, KCNQ1 Potassium Channel, Lipid Bilayers, Mutation, Mutation, Missense, Myelin Proteins, Protein Structure, Secondary, Protein Transport, Receptors, Vasopressin, Rhodopsin, Thermodynamics
Show Abstract · Added November 21, 2018
Aberrant protein folding and assembly contribute to a number of diseases, and efforts to rationalize how pathogenic mutations cause this phenomenon represent an important imperative in biochemical research. However, for α-helical membrane proteins, this task is complicated by the fact that membrane proteins require intricate machinery to achieve structural and functional maturity under cellular conditions. In this work, we utilized the ΔG predictor algorithm ( www.dgpred.cbr.su.se ) to survey 470 known pathogenic mutations occurring in five misfolding-prone α-helical membrane proteins for their predicted effects on the translocon-mediated membrane integration of transmembrane helices, a critical step in biosynthesis and folding of nascent membrane proteins. The results suggest that about 10 % of these mutations are likely to have adverse effects on the topogenesis of nascent membrane proteins. These results suggest that the misfolding of a modest but nonetheless significant subset of pathogenic variants may begin at the translocon. Potential implications for therapeutic design and personalized medicine are discussed.
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Macrophages promote progression of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia after acute loss of parietal cells.
Petersen CP, Weis VG, Nam KT, Sousa JF, Fingleton B, Goldenring JR
(2014) Gastroenterology 146: 1727-38.e8
MeSH Terms: Adaptive Immunity, Animals, Atrophy, Cell Proliferation, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, Disease Models, Animal, Gastritis, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Glutathione Peroxidase, Homeodomain Proteins, Immunity, Innate, Inflammation Mediators, Interferon-gamma, Macrophages, Male, Metaplasia, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mucins, Neutrophils, Parietal Cells, Gastric, Peptides, Phenotype, RNA, Messenger, Stomach Neoplasms, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added March 10, 2014
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Loss of parietal cells causes the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) through transdifferentiation of chief cells. In the presence of inflammation, SPEM can advance into a more proliferative metaplasia with increased expression of intestine-specific transcripts. We used L635 to induce acute SPEM with inflammation in mice and investigated the roles of inflammatory cells in the development of SPEM.
METHODS - To study the adaptive immune system, Rag1 knockout, interferon-γ-deficient, and wild-type (control) mice received L635 for 3 days. To study the innate immune system, macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Neutrophils were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against Ly6G 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Pathology and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine depletion efficiency, metaplasia, and proliferation. To characterize SPEM in each model, gastric tissues were collected and levels of Cftr, Dmbt1, and Gpx2 mRNAs were measured. Markers of macrophage polarization were used to identify subpopulations of macrophages recruited to the gastric mucosa.
RESULTS - Administration of L635 to Rag1 knockout, interferon-γ-deficient, and neutrophil-depleted mice led to development of proliferative SPEM and up-regulation of intestine-specific transcripts in SPEM cells, similar to controls. However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, and expression of intestine-specific transcripts, compared with control mice given L635. In mice given L635, as well as patients with intestinal metaplasia, M2 macrophages were the primary inflammatory component.
CONCLUSIONS - Results from studies of mouse models and human metaplastic tissues indicate that M2 macrophages promote the advancement of SPEM in the presence of inflammation.
Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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28 MeSH Terms
Quantification of major urinary metabolites of PGE2 and PGD2 in cystic fibrosis: correlation with disease severity.
Jabr S, Gartner S, Milne GL, Roca-Ferrer J, Casas J, Moreno A, Gelpí E, Picado C
(2013) Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 89: 121-6
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Child, Cystic Fibrosis, Dinoprostone, Female, Humans, Male, Prostaglandin D2
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2014
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) alterations are involved in the overproduction of prostaglandins (PG) in CF in vitro. We assessed the relationship between PGE-M and PGD-M urinary metabolites of PGE2 and PGD2 and CF severity. Twenty-four controls and 35 CF patients were recruited. PGE-M and PGD-M levels were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and results were expressed as median and 25th-75th interquartile of ng/mg creatinine (Cr). PGE-M (15.63; 9.07-43.35ng/mg Cr) and PGD-M (2.16; 1.43-3.53ng/mg Cr) concentrations were higher in CF than in controls: PGE-M, (6.63; 4.35-8.60ng/mg Cr); PGD-M (1.23; 0.96-1.54ng/mg Cr). There was no correlation between metabolite levels and spirometric values. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency (n=29) had higher PGE-M levels (19.09; 9.36-52.69ng/mg Cr) than those with conserved function (n=6) (9.61; 5.78-14.34ng/mg Cr). PGE-M levels were associated with genotype severity: mild (7.14; 5.76-8.76, n=8), moderate (16.67; 13.67-28.62ng/mg Cr, n=5) and severe (22.82; 10.67-84.13ng/mg Cr). Our study confirms the key role of CFTR in the regulation of the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism found in in vitro studies.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8 MeSH Terms
The mitochondrial complex I activity is reduced in cells with impaired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function.
Valdivieso AG, Clauzure M, Marín MC, Taminelli GL, Massip Copiz MM, Sánchez F, Schulman G, Teiber ML, Santa-Coloma TA
(2012) PLoS One 7: e48059
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cattle, Cell Line, Cystic Fibrosis, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, Electron Transport Complex I, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Mitochondria, Models, Biological, NADH Dehydrogenase, RNA Interference, RNA, Small Interfering
Show Abstract · Added February 26, 2014
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a frequent and lethal autosomal recessive disease. It results from different possible mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes the CFTR chloride channel. We have previously studied the differential expression of genes in CF and CF corrected cell lines, and found a reduced expression of MTND4 in CF cells. MTND4 is a mitochondrial gene encoding the MTND4 subunit of the mitochondrial Complex I (mCx-I). Since this subunit is essential for the assembly and activity of mCx-I, we have now studied whether the activity of this complex was also affected in CF cells. By using Blue Native-PAGE, the in-gel activity (IGA) of the mCx-I was found reduced in CFDE and IB3-1 cells (CF cell lines) compared with CFDE/6RepCFTR and S9 cells, respectively (CFDE and IB3-1 cells ectopically expressing wild-type CFTR). Moreover, colon carcinoma T84 and Caco-2 cells, which express wt-CFTR, either treated with CFTR inhibitors (glibenclamide, CFTR(inh)-172 or GlyH101) or transfected with a CFTR-specific shRNAi, showed a significant reduction on the IGA of mCx-I. The reduction of the mCx-I activity caused by CFTR inhibition under physiological or pathological conditions may have a profound impact on mitochondrial functions of CF and non-CF cells.
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13 MeSH Terms