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OBJECTIVE - In the randomised scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplantation (SCOT trial) (NCT00114530), myeloablation, followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), led to improved clinical outcomes compared with monthly cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Herein, the study aimed to determine global molecular changes at the whole blood transcript and serum protein levels ensuing from HSCT in comparison to intravenous monthly CYC in 62 participants enrolled in the SCOT study.
METHODS - Global transcript studies were performed at pretreatment baseline, 8 months and 26 months postrandomisation using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Levels of 102 proteins were measured in the concomitantly collected serum samples.
RESULTS - At the baseline visit, interferon (IFN) and neutrophil transcript modules were upregulated and the cytotoxic/NK module was downregulated in SSc compared with unaffected controls. A paired comparison of the 26 months to the baseline samples revealed a significant decrease of the IFN and neutrophil modules and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module in the HSCT arm while there was no significant change in the CYC control arm. Also, a composite score of correlating serum proteins with IFN and neutrophil transcript modules, as well as a multilevel analysis showed significant changes in SSc molecular signatures after HSCT while similar changes were not observed in the CYC arm. Lastly, a decline in the IFN and neutrophil modules was associated with an improvement in pulmonary forced vital capacity and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module correlated with improvement in skin score.
CONCLUSION - HSCT contrary to conventional treatment leads to a significant 'correction' in disease-related molecular signatures.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
Systemic sclerosis is a progressive inflammatory disease that is frequently fatal and has limited treatment options. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) has been evaluated as treatment for this disease in observational studies, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials, and meta-analyses. On behalf of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), a panel of experts in transplantation and rheumatology was convened to review available evidence and make a recommendation on AHCT as an indication for systemic sclerosis. Three randomized trials have compared the efficacy of AHCT with cyclophosphamide only, and all demonstrated benefit for the AHCT arm for their primary endpoint (improvement in the American Scleroderma Stem Cell versus Immune Suppression Trial, event-free survival in Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Scleroderma trial, and change in global rank composite score in Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide or Transplantation trial). AHCT recipients also had better overall survival and a lower rate of disease progression. These findings have been confirmed in subsequent meta-analyses. Based on this high-quality evidence, the ASBMT recommends systemic sclerosis should be considered as a "standard of care" indication for AHCT. Close collaboration between rheumatologists and transplant clinicians is critical for optimizing patient selection and patient outcomes. Transplant centers in the United States are strongly encouraged to report patient and outcomes data to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research on their patients receiving AHCT for this indication.
Copyright © 2018 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Despite current therapies, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) often has a devastating outcome. We compared myeloablative CD34+ selected autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with immunosuppression by means of 12 monthly infusions of cyclophosphamide in patients with scleroderma.
METHODS - We randomly assigned adults (18 to 69 years of age) with severe scleroderma to undergo myeloablative autologous stem-cell transplantation (36 participants) or to receive cyclophosphamide (39 participants). The primary end point was a global rank composite score comparing participants with each other on the basis of a hierarchy of disease features assessed at 54 months: death, event-free survival (survival without respiratory, renal, or cardiac failure), forced vital capacity, the score on the Disability Index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire, and the modified Rodnan skin score.
RESULTS - In the intention-to-treat population, global rank composite scores at 54 months showed the superiority of transplantation (67% of 1404 pairwise comparisons favored transplantation and 33% favored cyclophosphamide, P=0.01). In the per-protocol population (participants who received a transplant or completed ≥9 doses of cyclophosphamide), the rate of event-free survival at 54 months was 79% in the transplantation group and 50% in the cyclophosphamide group (P=0.02). At 72 months, Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival (74% vs. 47%) and overall survival (86% vs. 51%) also favored transplantation (P=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). A total of 9% of the participants in the transplantation group had initiated disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) by 54 months, as compared with 44% of those in the cyclophosphamide group (P=0.001). Treatment-related mortality in the transplantation group was 3% at 54 months and 6% at 72 months, as compared with 0% in the cyclophosphamide group.
CONCLUSIONS - Myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation achieved long-term benefits in patients with scleroderma, including improved event-free and overall survival, at a cost of increased expected toxicity. Rates of treatment-related death and post-transplantation use of DMARDs were lower than those in previous reports of nonmyeloablative transplantation. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00114530 .).
Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) has been used increasingly for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to minimize transplant-related mortality while maintaining the graft-versus-tumor effect. In B cell lymphoid malignancies, reduced-intensity regimens containing rituximab, an antiCD20 antibody, have been associated with favorable survival; however, the long-term outcomes of rituximab-containing versus nonrituximab-containing regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in B cell lymphoid malignancies remain to be determined. We retrospectively analyzed 94 patients who received an allogeneic transplant for a B cell lymphoid malignancy. Of these, 33 received RIC with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mini-methotrexate, and 61 received RIC with fludarabine and busulfan (FluBu) and GVHD prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. The 2-year overall survival was superior in patients who received FCR versus FluBu (72.7% versus 54.1%, P = .031), and in multivariable analysis adjusted for Disease Risk Index and donor type, only the conditioning regimen (FluBu versus FCR: HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.08; P = .037) and Disease Risk Index (low versus intermediate/high: HR, .38; 95% CI, .17 to .86; P = .02) were independent predictors of overall survival. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was lower in patients who received FCR versus FluBu (24.2% versus 51.7%, P = .01). There was no difference in rate of relapse/progression or acute GVHD. Our results demonstrate that the use of RIC with FCR and GVHD prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mini-methotrexate is associated with decreased chronic GVHD and improved overall survival.
Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High-risk neuroblastoma is an aggressive malignancy, with high rates of treatment failure. We evaluated genetic variants associated with in vitro sensitivity to two derivatives of cyclophosphamide for association with clinical response in a separate replication cohort of neuroblastoma patients (n = 2,709). To determine sensitivity, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were exposed to increasing concentrations of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC; n = 422) and phosphoramide mustard (PM; n = 428). Genome-wide association studies were performed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with sensitivity to 4HC and PM. SNPs consistently associated with LCL sensitivity were analyzed for associations with event-free survival (EFS) in patients. Two linked SNPs, rs9908694 and rs1453560, were found to be associated with (i) sensitivity to PM in LCLs across populations and (ii) EFS in all patients (P = 0.01) and within the high-risk subset (P = 0.05). Our study highlights the value of cell-based models to identify candidate variants that may predict response to treatment in patients with cancer.
Busulfan (BU) has a narrow therapeutic window and the average concentration of BU at steady state (Css) is critical for successful engraftment in children receiving BU as part of the preparative regimen for allogeneic transplants. Sixteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from HLA-identical siblings. The preparative regimen consisted of intravenous BU 0.8-1 mg/kg/dose for 16 doses, cytoxan (CY) of 50 mg/kg daily for four doses and equine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) 30 mg/kg daily for three doses. BU levels were adjusted to provide a total exposure Css of 600-700 ng/mL. The median age at the time of transplant was 6.2 years (range 1.2-19.3). Fourteen (87%) patients required adjustment of the BU dose to achieve a median Css of 652 ng/mL (range 607-700). All patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment without significant toxicity. Median donor engraftment at the last follow-up was 100% (range 80-100). None of the patients experienced sickle cell-related complications post transplant. With a median follow-up of 3 years (range 1.3-9), the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) are both 100%. We conclude that targeting of BU Css between 600 and 700 ng/mL in this regimen can result in excellent and sustained engraftment in young patients with SCD.
IMF is a rare disease in children that can present during infancy and has a protracted course. The only known curative approach for this disease in adult patients is allogeneic HSCT. There are very few reports describing the long-term outcome of young children following stem cell transplantation for IMF. We report on eight patients less than two yr of age with IMF that did not resolve with supportive care measures. All patients underwent myeloablative conditioning regimen with busulfan and cyclophosphamide ± ATG followed by HSCT from matched related (n = 6) or unrelated donor (n = 2). All patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Four patients had grade II-III acute GVHD, and chronic GVHD developed in five patients (three mild and two severe). At a median follow-up of eight and a half yr (0.7-9), all patients are alive with complete resolution of their hematologic manifestations. At the last follow-up, all patients had normal endocrine function except for one patient who developed hypothyroidism. To date, this is the largest cohort of young children with IMF treated successfully with HSCT, with the longest duration of follow-up. In conclusion, our study showed that HSCT is a curative option for infants with IMF.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
BACKGROUND - Patients with thalassemia in developing countries have limited access to safe transfusions, regular medical care and chelation therapy. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can offer a curative approach, there are limited data on the use of this procedure in developing countries.
PROCEDURE - Forty-four patients underwent a risk adopted HSCT from matched related family donor in Jordan. Thirty-one patients (7 Class 1 and 24 Class 2) underwent myeloablative conditioning (MAC) with busulfan (16 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Thirteen patients all with Class 3, seven with hepatitis C received reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan (8 mg/kg), fludarabine (175 mg/m(2)), total lymphoid irradiation (500 cGy) and ATG.
RESULTS - All patients had initial neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Secondary graft failure was observed in 2 (6%) patients receiving myeloablative HSCT and 3 (23%) patients receiving RIC. At a median follow up of 64 months (13-108), 43 of 44 patients are alive. The 5-year probability of overall survival (OS) was 97.8% for all patients, 96.8% for patients received MAC and 100% for patients received RIC. The 5-year probability of thalassemia-free survival was 86.4% for all patients, 90.3% and 77% for patients who received MAC and RIC, respectively.
CONCLUSION - Implementing a risk-adopted therapy in patient with thalassemia in Jordan can result in an excellent thalassemia free and OS, especially in those at highest risk.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A number of cancers predominantly metastasize to bone, due to its complex microenvironment and multiple types of constitutive cells. Prostate cancer especially has been shown to localize preferentially to bones with higher marrow cellularity. Using an experimental prostate cancer metastasis model, we investigated the effects of cyclophosphamide, a bone marrow-suppressive chemotherapeutic drug, on the development and growth of metastatic tumors in bone. Priming the murine host with cyclophosphamide before intracardiac tumor cell inoculation was found to significantly promote tumor localization and subsequent growth in bone. Shortly after cyclophosphamide treatment, there was an abrupt expansion of myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood, associated with increases in cytokines with myelogenic potential such as C-C chemokine ligand (CCL)2, interleukin (IL)-6, and VEGF-A. More importantly, neutralizing host-derived murine CCL2, but not IL-6, in the premetastatic murine host significantly reduced the prometastatic effects of cyclophosphamide. Together, our findings suggest that bone marrow perturbation by cytotoxic chemotherapy can contribute to bone metastasis via a transient increase in bone marrow myeloid cells and myelogenic cytokines. These changes can be reversed by inhibition of CCL2.