The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone that is also expressed in the pancreatic islet, where it is highly up-regulated with obesity. Loss of CCK results in increased β-cell apoptosis in obese mice. Similarly, islet α-cells produce increased amounts of another gut peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in response to cytokine and nutrient stimulation. GLP-1 also protects β-cells from apoptosis via cAMP-mediated mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that the activation of islet-derived CCK and GLP-1 may be linked. We show here that both human and mouse islets secrete active GLP-1 as a function of body mass index/obesity. Furthermore, GLP-1 can rapidly stimulate β-cell CCK production and secretion through direct targeting by the cAMP-modulated transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). We find that cAMP-mediated signaling is required for Cck expression, but CCK regulation by cAMP does not require stimulatory levels of glucose or insulin secretion. We also show that CREB directly targets the Cck promoter in islets from obese (Leptin(ob/ob)) mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1 to protect β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis is partially dependent on CCK receptor signaling. Taken together, our work suggests that in obesity, active GLP-1 produced in the islet stimulates CCK production and secretion in a paracrine manner via cAMP and CREB. This intraislet incretin loop may be one mechanism whereby GLP-1 protects β-cells from apoptosis.
NRG-1β (neuregulin-1β) serves multiple functions during embryonic heart development by signalling through ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4). Previous studies reported that NRG-1β induces cardiomyogenesis of mESCs (mouse embryonic stem cells) at the later stages of differen-tiation through ErbB4 receptor activation. In the present study we systematically examined NRG-1β induction of cardiac myocytes in mESCs and identified a novel time window, the first 48 h, for NRG-1β-based cardiomyogenesis. At this time point ErbB3, but not ErbB4, is expressed. In contrast with the later differentiation of mESCs in which NRG-1β induces cardiomyogenesis via the ErbB4 receptor, we found that knocking down ErbB3 or ErbB2 with siRNA during the early differentiation inhibited NRG-1β-induced cardiomyogenesis in mESCs. Microarray analysis of RNA expression at this early time point indicated that NRG-1β treatment in mESCs resulted in gene expression changes important to differentiation including up-regulation of components of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), a known mediator of the NRG-1β/ErbB signalling pathway, as well as activation of CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein). Further study demonstrated that the NRG-1β-induced phosphorylation of CREB was required for cardiomyogenesis of mESCs. In summary, we report a previously unrecognized role for NRG-1β/ErbB3/CREB signalling at the pre-mesoderm stage for stem cell cardiac differentiation.
The physiological role of multidrug resistance protein 4 (Mrp4, Abcc4) in the testes is unknown. We found that Mrp4 is expressed primarily in mouse and human Leydig cells; however, there is no current evidence that Mrp4 regulates testosterone production. We investigated its role in Leydig cells, where testosterone production is regulated by cAMP, an intracellular messenger formed when the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor is activated. Because Mrp4 regulates cAMP, we compared testosterone levels in Mrp4(-/-) and Mrp4(+/+) mice. Young Mrp4(-/-) mice had significantly impaired gametogenesis, reduced testicular testosterone, and disruption of Leydig cell cAMP homeostasis. Both young and adult mice had impaired testosterone production. In Mrp4(-/-) primary Leydig cells treated with LH, intracellular cAMP production was impaired and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation was strongly attenuated. Notably, expression of CREB target genes that regulate testosterone biosynthesis was reduced in Mrp4(-/-) Leydig cells in vivo. Therefore, Mrp4 is required for normal Leydig cell testosterone production. However, adult Mrp4(-/-) mice are fertile, with a normal circulating testosterone concentration. The difference is that in 3-week-old Mrp4(-/-) mice, disruption of gonadal testosterone production up-regulates hepatic Cyp2b10, a known testosterone-metabolizing enzyme. Therefore, defective testicular testosterone production de-regulates hepatic Cyp-mediated testosterone metabolism to disrupt gametogenesis. These findings have important implications for understanding the side effects of therapeutics that disrupt Mrp4 function and are reported to alter androgen production.
Maintenance of optimal steriodogenic capacity in the adrenal cortex requires the action of the peptide hormone ACTH. Upon binding to its cell surface receptor ACTH activates adenylate cyclase leading to elevated levels of intracellular cAMP which in turn enhances transcription of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to the steroid hormones. By deletion analysis of their upstream regions, the genes encoding the steroid hydroxylases P450c17, P450c21 and P450scc (CYP17, CYP21B and CYP11A, respectively) were found to contain unique cAMP-responsive sequences (CRSs). These sequences are unique in the sense that they have not previously been described to be associated with other genes whose transcription is regulated by cAMP. Furthermore they appear to bind unique nuclear proteins or transcription factors not previously associated with cAMP-dependent transcription. This review summarizes the relatedness of these CRSs in the bovine CYP17 and CYP11A genes and the human CYP12B gene and provides an up-to-date summary of the properties of their nuclear DNA-binding proteins.
Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a deadly disease characterized by progressive remodeling and persistent vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arterial system. Remodeling of the pulmonary artery (PA) involves smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, hypertrophy, migration, and elevated extracellular matrix (ECM) production elicited by mitogens and oxidants produced in response to hypoxic insult. We previously reported that the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is depleted in medial PA SMCs in remodeled, hypertensive vessels in rats or calves exposed to chronic hypoxia. In culture, CREB loss can be induced in PA SMCs by exogenous oxidants or platelet-derived growth factor. Forced depletion of CREB with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in PA SMCs is sufficient to induce their proliferation, hypertrophy, migration, dedifferentiation, and ECM production. This suggests that oxidant and/or mitogen-induced loss of CREB in medial SMCs is, in part, responsible for PA thickening. Here, we tested whether oxidant scavengers could prevent the loss of CREB in PA SMCs and inhibit SMC proliferation, migration, and ECM production using in vitro and in vivo models. Exposure of PA SMCs to hypoxia induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and loss of CREB. Treatment of SMCs with exogenous H2O2 or a second oxidant, Sin-1, elicited CREB depletion under normoxic conditions. Exogenous H2O2 also induced SMC proliferation, migration, and increased elastin levels as did forced depletion of CREB. In vivo, hypoxia-induced thickening of the PA wall was suppressed by the superoxide dismutase mimetic, Tempol, which also prevented the loss of CREB in medial SMCs. Tempol also reduced hypoxia-induced SMC proliferation and elastin deposition in the PA. The data indicate that CREB levels in the arterial wall are regulated in part by oxidants produced in response to hypoxia and that CREB plays a crucial role in regulating SMC phenotype and PA remodeling.
We employed the Cre recombinase/loxP system to create a mouse line in which PKA activity can be inhibited in any cell-type that expresses Cre recombinase. The mouse line carries a mutant Prkar1a allele encoding a glycine to aspartate substitution at position 324 in the carboxy-terminal cAMP-binding domain (site B). This mutation produces a dominant negative RIα regulatory subunit (RIαB) and leads to inhibition of PKA activity. Insertion of a loxP-flanked neomycin cassette in the intron preceding the site B mutation prevents expression of the mutant RIαB allele until Cre-mediated excision of the cassette occurs. Embryonic stem cells expressing RIαB demonstrated a reduction in PKA activity and inhibition of cAMP-responsive gene expression. Mice expressing RIαB in hepatocytes exhibited reduced PKA activity, normal fasting induced gene expression, and enhanced glucose disposal. Activation of the RIαB allele in vivo provides a novel system for the analysis of PKA function in physiology.
Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS) has previously been shown to be a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor in astrocytes with a mechanism of activation that is similar to ATF6. In this study we investigated the expression and activation of endogenous and overexpressed OASIS in pancreatic beta-cells. OASIS mRNA expression was detected in pancreatic beta-cell lines and rodent islets, and the expression level was up-regulated by ER stress-inducing compounds. Endogenous OASIS protein, however, is expressed at low levels in pancreatic beta-cell lines and rodent islets, possibly due to abundant levels of the micro-RNA miR-140 present in these cells. In contrast, expression of both full-length and cleaved (active) OASIS was readily detectable in the developing mouse pancreas (embryonic d 15.5). Microarray analysis after expression of an active nuclear-localized version of OASIS in an inducible INS-1 beta-cell line resulted in the up-regulation of many genes implicated in extracellular matrix production and protein transport but not classical ER stress response genes. Consistent with this, expression of active OASIS failed to induce glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa promoter activity in pancreatic beta-cells. These results suggest that the repertoire of genes induced by OASIS is cell type-dependent and that the OASIS protein may have a role in pancreas development.
The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in regulating mood. In rodents, increased CREB activity within the NAc produces depression-like signs including anhedonia, whereas disruption of CREB activity by expression of a dominant-negative CREB (mCREB, which acts as a CREB antagonist) has antidepressant-like effects. We examined how disruption of CREB activity affects brain reward processes using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and inducible bitransgenic mice with enriched expression of mCREB in forebrain regions including the NAc. Mutant mice or littermate controls were prepared with lateral hypothalamic stimulating electrodes, and trained in the ICSS procedure to determine the frequency at which the stimulation becomes rewarding (threshold). Inducible expression of mCREB did not affect baseline sensitivity to brain stimulation itself. However, mCREB-expressing mice were more sensitive to the rewarding (threshold-lowering) effects of cocaine. Interestingly, mCREB mice were insensitive to the depressive-like (threshold-elevating) effects of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U50,488. These behavioral differences were accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of G-protein receptor kinase-3 (GRK3), a protein involved in opioid receptor desensitization, within the NAc of mCREB mice. Disruption of CREB or GRK3 activity within the NAc specifically by viral-mediated gene transfer enhanced the rewarding impact of brain stimulation in rats, establishing the contribution of functional changes within this region. Together with previous findings, these studies raise the possibility that disruption of CREB in the NAc influences motivation by simultaneously facilitating reward and reducing depressive-like states such as anhedonia and dysphoria.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain area for reward and motivated behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that altered function of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) within the NAc is involved in depressive behavior. In rats, stress activates CREB within the NAc, and elevation of CREB expression in this region produces depressive-like behaviors that are accompanied by activation of CREB-regulated target genes. The depressive-like behaviors seem to be due, at least in part, to CREB-mediated increases in dynorphin function, because they are mimicked by kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists and attenuated by KOR antagonists. We hypothesized that if CREB-mediated dynorphin expression in the NAc contributes to depressive behavior, then antidepressants might reduce dynorphin function in this region. Here, we demonstrate that desipramine (DMI), a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has been used for decades to treat clinical depression, blocks swim stress-induced activation of prodynorphin (encodes dynorphin) in the NAc. In primary cultures of NAc and striatum, DMI decreases basal and stimulated CREB phosphorylation by causing reductions in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) availability that are independent of norepinephrine or other monoaminergic inputs, identifying a potential mechanism for alterations in CREB-mediated gene expression. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has similar effects in culture, suggesting a common intracellular effect of these antidepressants. These findings raise the possibility that a therapeutically relevant mechanism of action of DMI occurs through attenuation of CREB-mediated gene transcription, which is mediated via previously uncharacterized mechanisms that occur directly within the NAc.
Expression of all of the isoforms of the subunits of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK activity is increased in skeletal muscle of hyperthyroid rats. Activity of AMPK in skeletal muscle is regulated principally by the upstream kinase, LKB1. This experiment was designed to determine whether the increase in AMPK activity is accompanied by increased expression of the LKB1, along with binding partner proteins. LKB1, MO25, and downstream targets were determined in muscle extracts in control rats, in rats given 3 mg of thyroxine and 1 mg of triiodothyronine per kilogram chow for 4 wk, and in rats given 0.01% propylthiouracil (PTU; an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis) in drinking water for 4 wk (hypothyroid group). LKB1 and MO25 increased in the soleus of thyroid hormone-treated rats vs. the controls. In other muscle types, LKB1 responses were variable, but MO25 increased in all. In soleus, MO25 mRNA increased with thyroid hormone treatment, and STRAD mRNA increased with PTU treatment. Phospho-AMPK and phospho-ACC were elevated in soleus and gastrocnemius of hyperthyroid rats. Thyroid hormone treatment also increased the amount of phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the soleus, heart, and red quadriceps. Four proteins having CREB response elements (CRE) in promoter regions of their genes (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 3, cytochrome c, and hexokinase II) were all increased in soleus in response to thyroid hormones. These data provide evidence that thyroid hormones increase soleus muscle LKB1 and MO25 content with subsequent activation of AMPK, phosphorylation of CREB, and expression of mitochondrial protein genes having CRE in their promoters.