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Peptides and biologics provide unique opportunities to modulate intracellular targets not druggable by conventional small molecules. Most peptides and biologics are fused with cationic uptake moieties or formulated into nanoparticles to facilitate delivery, but these systems typically lack potency due to low uptake and/or entrapment and degradation in endolysosomal compartments. Because most delivery reagents comprise cationic lipids or polymers, there is a lack of reagents specifically optimized to deliver cationic cargo. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of the cytocompatible polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) to potentiate intracellular delivery of cationic biomacromolecules and nano-formulations. This approach demonstrates superior efficacy over all marketed peptide delivery reagents and enhances delivery of nucleic acids and gene editing ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) formulated with both commercially-available and our own custom-synthesized cationic polymer delivery reagents. These results demonstrate the broad potential of PPAA to serve as a platform reagent for the intracellular delivery of cationic cargo.
Osteomyelitis (OM), or inflammation of bone tissue, occurs most frequently as a result of bacterial infection and severely perturbs bone structure. OM is predominantly caused by , and even with proper treatment, OM has a high rate of recurrence and chronicity. While has been shown to infect osteoblasts, it remains unclear whether osteoclasts (OCs) are also a target of intracellular infection. Here, we demonstrate the ability of to intracellularly infect and divide within OCs. OCs were differentiated from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) by exposure to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). By utilizing an intracellular survival assay and flow cytometry, we found that at 18 h postinfection the intracellular burden of increased dramatically in cells with at least 2 days of RANKL exposure, while the bacterial burden decreased in BMMs. To further explore the signals downstream of RANKL, we manipulated factors controlling OC differentiation, NFATc1 and alternative NF-κB, and found that intracellular bacterial growth correlates with NFATc1 levels in RANKL-treated cells. Confocal and time-lapse microscopy in mature OCs showed a range of intracellular infection that correlated inversely with -phagolysosome colocalization. The propensity of OCs to become infected, paired with their diminished bactericidal capacity compared to BMMs, could promote OM progression by allowing to evade initial immune regulation and proliferate at the periphery of lesions where OCs are most abundant. The inflammation of bone tissue is called osteomyelitis, and most cases are caused by an infection with the bacterium To date, the bone-building cells, osteoblasts, have been implicated in the progression of these infections, but not much is known about how the bone-resorbing cells, osteoclasts, participate. In this study, we show that can infect osteoclasts and proliferate inside these cells, whereas bone-residing macrophages, immune cells related to osteoclasts, destroy the bacteria. These findings elucidate a unique role for osteoclasts to harbor bacteria during infection, providing a possible mechanism by which bacteria could evade destruction by the immune system.
Copyright © 2019 Krauss et al.
-induced gastritis is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, a malignancy preceded by a series of well-defined histological stages, including metaplasia. One microbial constituent that augments cancer risk is the type 4 secretion system (T4SS), which translocates the oncoprotein CagA into host cells. Aberrant stem cell activation is linked to carcinogenesis, and Lrig1 (leucine-rich repeats and Ig-like domains 1) marks a distinct population of progenitor cells. We investigated whether microbial effectors with carcinogenic potential influence Lrig1 progenitor cells ex vivo and via lineage expansion within -infected gastric mucosa. Lineage tracing was induced in (Lrig1/YFP) mice that were uninfected or subsequently infected with or an isogenic mutant (nonfunctional T4SS). In contrast to infection with wild-type (WT) for 2 wk, infection for 8 wk resulted in significantly increased inflammation and proliferation in the corpus and antrum compared with uninfected or mice infected with the mutant. WT -infected mice harbored significantly higher numbers of Lrig1/YFP epithelial cells that coexpressed UEA1 (surface cell marker). The number of cells coexpressing intrinsic factor (chief cell marker), YFP (lineage marker), and GSII lectin (spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia marker) were increased only by WT In human samples, Lrig1 expression was significantly increased in lesions with premalignant potential compared with normal mucosa or nonatrophic gastritis. In conclusion, chronic infection stimulates Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells in a -dependent manner, and these reprogrammed cells give rise to a full spectrum of differentiated cells.
Inositol-requiring enzyme 1[α] (IRE1[α])-X-box binding protein spliced (XBP1) signaling maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis while controlling immunometabolic processes. Yet, the physiological consequences of IRE1α-XBP1 activation in leukocytes remain unexplored. We found that induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (/Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase (/mPGES-1) was compromised in IRE1α-deficient myeloid cells undergoing ER stress or stimulated through pattern recognition receptors. Inducible biosynthesis of prostaglandins, including the pro-algesic mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE), was decreased in myeloid cells that lack IRE1α or XBP1 but not other ER stress sensors. Functional XBP1 transactivated the human and genes to enable optimal PGE production. Mice that lack IRE1α-XBP1 in leukocytes, or that were treated with IRE1α inhibitors, demonstrated reduced pain behaviors in PGE-dependent models of pain. Thus, IRE1α-XBP1 is a mediator of prostaglandin biosynthesis and a potential target to control pain.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Influenza viruses antagonize key immune defence mechanisms via the virulence factor non-structural protein 1 (NS1). A key mechanism of virulence by NS1 is blocking nuclear export of host messenger RNAs, including those encoding immune factors; however, the direct cellular target of NS1 and the mechanism of host mRNA export inhibition are not known. Here, we identify the target of NS1 as the mRNA export receptor complex, nuclear RNA export factor 1-nuclear transport factor 2-related export protein 1 (NXF1-NXT1), which is the principal receptor mediating docking and translocation of mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex via interactions with nucleoporins. We determined the crystal structure of NS1 in complex with NXF1-NXT1 at 3.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals that NS1 prevents binding of NXF1-NXT1 to nucleoporins, thereby inhibiting mRNA export through the nuclear pore complex into the cytoplasm for translation. We demonstrate that a mutant influenza virus deficient in binding NXF1-NXT1 does not block host mRNA export and is attenuated. This attenuation is marked by the release of mRNAs encoding immune factors from the nucleus. In sum, our study uncovers the molecular basis of a major nuclear function of influenza NS1 protein that causes potent blockage of host gene expression and contributes to inhibition of host immunity.
Unchecked collaboration between islet-reactive T and B lymphocytes drives type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the healthy setting, CD8 T regulatory cells (Tregs) terminate ongoing T-B interactions. We determined that specific CD8 Tregs from NOD mice lack suppressive function, representing a previously unreported regulatory cell deficit in this T1D-prone strain. NOD mice possess 11-fold fewer Ly-49 CD8 Tregs than nonautoimmune mice, a deficiency that worsens as NOD mice age toward diabetes and leaves them unable to regulate CD4 T follicular helper cells. As IL-15 is required for Ly-49 CD8 Treg development, we determined that NOD macrophages inadequately -present IL-15. Despite reduced IL-15 -presentation, NOD Ly-49 CD8 Tregs can effectively transduce IL-15-mediated survival signals when they are provided. Following stimulation with an IL-15/IL-15Ra superagonist complex, Ly-49 CD8 Tregs expanded robustly and became activated to suppress the Ag-specific Ab response. IL-15/IL-15Ra superagonist complex-activated CD8CD122 T cells also delayed diabetes transfer, indicating the presence of an underactivated CD8 T cell subset with regulatory capacity against late stage T1D. We identify a new cellular contribution to anti-islet autoimmunity and demonstrate the correction of this regulatory cell deficit. Infusion of IL-15-activated CD8 Tregs may serve as an innovative cellular therapy for the treatment of T1D.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major human disease associated with degeneration of the central nervous system. Evidence suggests that several endogenously formed 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mimicking chemicals that are metabolic conversion products, especially β-carbolines and isoquinolines, act as neurotoxins that induce PD or enhance progression of the disease. We have demonstrated previously that mitochondrially targeted human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), supported by mitochondrial adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, can efficiently catalyze the conversion of MPTP to the toxic 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion. In this study, we show that the mitochondrially targeted CYP2D6 can efficiently catalyze MPTP-mimicking compounds, 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, and 9-methyl-norharmon, suspected to induce PD in humans. Our results reveal that activity and respiration in mouse brain mitochondrial complex I are significantly affected by these toxins in WT mice but remain unchanged in Cyp2d6 locus knockout mice, indicating a possible role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of these compounds both and These metabolic effects were minimized in the presence of two CYP2D6 inhibitors, quinidine and ajmalicine. Neuro-2a cells stably expressing predominantly mitochondrially targeted CYP2D6 were more sensitive to toxin-mediated respiratory dysfunction and complex I inhibition than cells expressing predominantly endoplasmic reticulum-targeted CYP2D6. Exposure to these toxins also induced the autophagic marker Parkin and the mitochondrial fission marker Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in differentiated neurons expressing mitochondrial CYP2D6. Our results show that monomethylamines are converted to their toxic cationic form by mitochondrially directed CYP2D6 and result in neuronal degradation in mice.
© 2019 Chattopadhyay et al.
Tau protein is found to be aggregated and hyperphosphorylated (p-tau) in many neurologic disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD) and related parkinsonisms, Alzheimer disease, traumatic brain injury, and even in normal aging. Although not known to produce autoimmune responses, we hypothesized that the appearance of aggregated tau and p-tau with disease could activate the immune system. We thus compared T cell responses to tau and p-tau-derived peptides between PD patients, age-matched healthy controls, and young healthy controls (<35 y old; who are less likely to have high levels of tau aggregates). All groups exhibited CD4 T cell responses to tau-derived peptides, which were associated with secretion of IFN-γ, IL-5, and/or IL-4. The PD and control participants exhibited a similar magnitude and breadth of responses. Some tau-derived epitopes, consisting of both unmodified and p-tau residues, were more highly represented in PD participants. These results were verified in an independent set of PD and control donors (either age-matched or young controls). Thus, T cells recognizing tau epitopes escape central and peripheral tolerance in relatively high numbers, and the magnitude and nature of these responses are not modulated by age or PD disease.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Vascular dysfunction is commonly seen during severe viral infections. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), has been postulated to play an important role in regulating vascular homeostasis as well as propagation of the inflammatory reaction. We hypothesized that the loss of eNOS would negatively impact toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling and worsen vascular function to viral challenge.
METHODS - Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were exposed to either control or eNOS siRNA and then treated with Poly I:C, a TLR3 agonist and mimicker of dsRNA viruses. Cells were assessed for protein-protein associations, cytokine and chemokine analysis as well as transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) as a surrogate of permeability.
RESULTS - HMVECs that had reduced eNOS expression had a significantly elevated increase in IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 production after Poly I:C. In addition, the knockdown of eNOS enhanced the change in TEER after Poly I:C stimulation. Western blot analysis showed enhanced phosphorylation of p38 in sieNOS treated cells with Poly I:C compared to siControl cells. Proximity ligation assays further demonstrated direct eNOS-p38 protein-protein interactions. The addition of the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, in eNOS knockdown cells reduced both cytokine production after Poly I:C, and as well as mitigated the reduction in TEER, suggesting a direct link between eNOS and p38 in TLR3 signaling.
CONCLUSIONS - These results suggest that reduction of eNOS increases TLR3-mediated inflammation in human endothelial cells in a p38-dependent manner. This finding has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of severe viral infections and the associated vascular dysfunction.
Staphylococcus aureus is able to infect virtually all organ systems and is a frequently isolated etiologic agent of osteomyelitis, a common and debilitating invasive infection of bone. Treatment of osteomyelitis requires invasive surgical procedures and prolonged antibiotic therapy, yet is frequently unsuccessful due to extensive pathogen-induced bone damage that can limit antibiotic penetration and immune cell influx to the infectious focus. We previously established that S. aureus triggers profound alterations in bone remodeling in a murine model of osteomyelitis, in part through the production of osteolytic toxins. However, staphylococcal strains lacking osteolytic toxins still incite significant bone destruction, suggesting that host immune responses are also major drivers of pathologic bone remodeling during osteomyelitis. The objective of this study was to identify host immune pathways that contribute to antibacterial immunity during S. aureus osteomyelitis, and to define how these immune responses alter bone homeostasis and contribute to bone destruction. We specifically focused on the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and downstream adapter protein MyD88 given the prominent role of this signaling pathway in both antibacterial immunity and osteo-immunologic crosstalk. We discovered that while IL-1R signaling is necessary for local control of bacterial replication during osteomyelitis, it also contributes to bone loss during infection. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that S. aureus enhances osteoclastogenesis of myeloid precursors in vitro, and increases the abundance of osteoclasts residing on bone surfaces in vivo. This enhanced osteoclast abundance translates to trabecular bone loss, and is dependent on intact IL-1R signaling. Collectively, these data define IL-1R signaling as a critical component of the host response to S. aureus osteomyelitis, but also demonstrate that IL-1R-dependent immune responses trigger collateral bone damage through activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.