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BACKGROUND - Prior retrospective cross-sectional work has associated antimicrobials with a non-specific phrase: encephalopathy without seizures. The purpose of this study is to determine whether different classes of antimicrobials have differential associations with the daily risk of delirium after critical illness is adjusted for.
METHODS - Our study was a nested cohort that enrolled non-neurological critically ill adults from a medical or surgical intensive care unit (ICU) with daily follow-up to 30 days. Our independent variable was exposure to previous-day antimicrobial class: beta-lactams (subclasses: penicillins, first- to third-generation cephalosporins, fourth-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems), macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and other. We adjusted for baseline covariates (age, comorbidities, cognition scores, sepsis, and mechanical ventilation), previous-day covariates (delirium, doses of analgesics/sedatives, and antipsychotic use), and same-day covariates (illness severity). Our primary outcome of delirium was measured by using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. A daily delirium logistic regression model was used with an ICU time-restricted sensitivity analysis including daily adjustment for sepsis and mechanical ventilation.
RESULTS - Of 418 ICU patients, delirium occurred in 308 (74%) with a median of 3 days (interquartile range 2-6) among those affected and 318 (76%) were exposed to antimicrobials. When covariates and ICU type were adjusted for, only first- to third-generation cephalosporins were associated with delirium (logistic regression model odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-3.79, P = 0.004; sensitivity analysis OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.10-4.10, P = 0.024).
CONCLUSIONS - First-, second-, and third-generation cephalosporins doubled the odds of delirium after baseline co-morbidities, ICU type, the course of critical care, and other competing antimicrobial and psychotropic medication risks were adjusted for. We did not find an association between delirium and cefepime, penicillins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, or macrolides.
BACKGROUND - There are conflicting data on the effects of antipsychotic medications on delirium in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
METHODS - In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium to receive intravenous boluses of haloperidol (maximum dose, 20 mg daily), ziprasidone (maximum dose, 40 mg daily), or placebo. The volume and dose of a trial drug or placebo was halved or doubled at 12-hour intervals on the basis of the presence or absence of delirium, as detected with the use of the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and of side effects of the intervention. The primary end point was the number of days alive without delirium or coma during the 14-day intervention period. Secondary end points included 30-day and 90-day survival, time to freedom from mechanical ventilation, and time to ICU and hospital discharge. Safety end points included extrapyramidal symptoms and excessive sedation.
RESULTS - Written informed consent was obtained from 1183 patients or their authorized representatives. Delirium developed in 566 patients (48%), of whom 89% had hypoactive delirium and 11% had hyperactive delirium. Of the 566 patients, 184 were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 192 to receive haloperidol, and 190 to receive ziprasidone. The median duration of exposure to a trial drug or placebo was 4 days (interquartile range, 3 to 7). The median number of days alive without delirium or coma was 8.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6 to 9.9) in the placebo group, 7.9 (95% CI, 4.4 to 9.6) in the haloperidol group, and 8.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 10.0) in the ziprasidone group (P=0.26 for overall effect across trial groups). The use of haloperidol or ziprasidone, as compared with placebo, had no significant effect on the primary end point (odds ratios, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.64 to 1.21] and 1.04 [95% CI, 0.73 to 1.48], respectively). There were no significant between-group differences with respect to the secondary end points or the frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS - The use of haloperidol or ziprasidone, as compared with placebo, in patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium in the ICU did not significantly alter the duration of delirium. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the VA Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center; MIND-USA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01211522 .).
RATIONALE - Intensive care unit (ICU) delirium is highly prevalent and a potentially avoidable hospital complication. The current cost of ICU delirium is unknown.
OBJECTIVES - To specify the association between the daily occurrence of delirium in the ICU with costs of ICU care accounting for time-varying illness severity and death.
RESEARCH DESIGN - We performed a prospective cohort study within medical and surgical ICUs in a large academic medical center.
SUBJECTS - We analyzed critically ill patients (N=479) with respiratory failure and/or shock.
MEASURES - Covariates included baseline factors (age, insurance, cognitive impairment, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score) and time-varying factors (sequential organ failure assessment score, mechanical ventilation, and severe sepsis). The primary analysis used a novel 3-stage regression method: first, estimation of the cumulative cost of delirium over 30 ICU days and then costs separated into those attributable to increased resource utilization among survivors and those that were avoided on the account of delirium's association with early mortality in the ICU.
RESULTS - The patient-level 30-day cumulative cost of ICU delirium attributable to increased resource utilization was $17,838 (95% confidence interval, $11,132-$23,497). A combination of professional, dialysis, and bed costs accounted for the largest percentage of the incremental costs associated with ICU delirium. The 30-day cumulative incremental costs of ICU delirium that were avoided due to delirium-associated early mortality was $4654 (95% confidence interval, $2056-7869).
CONCLUSIONS - Delirium is associated with substantial costs after accounting for time-varying illness severity and could be 20% higher (∼$22,500) if not for its association with early ICU mortality.
OBJECTIVES - The Society of Critical Care Medicine recommends routine delirium monitoring, based on data in critically ill patients without primary neurologic injury. We sought to answer whether there are valid and reliable tools to monitor delirium in neurocritically ill patients and whether delirium is associated with relevant clinical outcomes (e.g., survival, length of stay, functional independence, cognition) in this population.
DATA SOURCES - We systematically reviewed Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and PubMed.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION - Inclusion criteria allowed any study design investigating delirium monitoring in neurocritically ill patients (e.g., neurotrauma, ischemic, and/or hemorrhagic stroke) of any age. We extracted data relevant to delirium tool sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, interrater reliability, and associated clinical outcomes.
DATA SYNTHESIS - Among seven prospective cohort studies and a total of 1,173 patients, delirium was assessed in neurocritically patients using validated delirium tools after considering primary neurologic diagnoses and associated complications, finding a pooled prevalence rate of 12-43%. When able to compare against a common reference standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, the test characteristics showed a sensitivity of 62-76%, specificity of 74-98%, positive predictive value of 63-91%, negative predictive value of 70-94%, and reliability kappa of 0.64-0.94. Among four studies reporting multivariable analyses, delirium in neurocritically patients was associated with increased hospital length of stay (n = 3) and ICU length of stay (n = 1), as well as worse functional independence (n = 1) and cognition (n = 2), but not survival.
CONCLUSIONS - These data from studies of neurocritically ill patients demonstrate that patients with primary neurologic diagnoses can meet diagnostic criteria for delirium and that delirious features may predict relevant untoward clinical outcomes. There is a need for ongoing investigations regarding delirium in these complicated neurocritically ill patients.
OBJECTIVES - To describe the frequency of co-occurring newly acquired cognitive impairment, disability in activities of daily livings, and depression among survivors of a critical illness and to evaluate predictors of being free of post-intensive care syndrome problems.
DESIGN - Prospective cohort study.
SETTING - Medical and surgical ICUs from five U.S. centers.
PATIENTS - Patients with respiratory failure or shock, excluding those with preexisting cognitive impairment or disability in activities of daily livings.
INTERVENTIONS - None.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - At 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge, we assessed patients for cognitive impairment, disability, and depression. We categorized patients into eight groups reflecting combinations of cognitive, disability, and mental health problems. Using multivariable logistic regression, we modeled the association between age, education, frailty, durations of mechanical ventilation, delirium, and severe sepsis with the odds of being post-intensive care syndrome free. We analyzed 406 patients with a median age of 61 years and an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II of 23. At 3 and 12 months, one or more post-intensive care syndrome problems were present in 64% and 56%, respectively. Nevertheless, co-occurring post-intensive care syndrome problems (i.e., in two or more domains) were present in 25% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Post-intensive care syndrome problems in all three domains were present in only 6% at 3 months and 4% at 12 months. More years of education was associated with greater odds of being post-intensive care syndrome free (p < 0.001 at 3 and 12 mo). More severe frailty was associated with lower odds of being post-intensive care syndrome free (p = 0.005 at 3 mo and p = 0.048 at 12 mo).
CONCLUSIONS - In this multicenter cohort study, one or more post-intensive care syndrome problems were present in the majority of survivors, but co-occurring problems were present in only one out of four. Education was protective from post-intensive care syndrome problems and frailty predictive of the development of post-intensive care syndrome problems. Future studies are needed to understand better the heterogeneous subtypes of post-intensive care syndrome and to identify modifiable risk factors.
PURPOSE - Neurologic and endothelial injury biomarkers are associated with prolonged delirium during critical illness and may reflect injury pathways that lead to poor long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that blood-brain barrier (BBB), neuronal, and endothelial injury biomarkers measured during critical illness are associated with cognitive impairment and disability after discharge.
METHODS - We enrolled adults with respiratory failure and/or shock and measured plasma concentrations of BBB (S100B), neuronal (UCHL1, BDNF), and endothelial (E-selectin, PAI-1) injury markers within 72 h of ICU admission. At 3 and 12 months post-discharge, we assessed participants' global cognition, executive function, and activities of daily living (ADL). We used multivariable regression to determine whether biomarkers were associated with outcomes after adjusting for relevant demographic and acute illness covariates.
RESULTS - Our study included 419 survivors of critical illness with median age 59 years and APACHE II score 25. Higher S100B was associated with worse global cognition at 3 and 12 months (P = 0.008; P = 0.01). UCHL1 was nonlinearly associated with global cognition at 3 months (P = 0.02). Higher E-selectin was associated with worse global cognition (P = 0.006 at 3 months; P = 0.06 at 12 months). BDNF and PAI-1 were not associated with global cognition. No biomarkers were associated with executive function. Higher S100B (P = 0.05) and E-selectin (P = 0.02) were associated with increased disability in ADLs at 3 months.
CONCLUSIONS - S100B, a marker of BBB and/or astrocyte injury, and E-selectin, an adhesion molecule and marker of endothelial injury, are associated with long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness, findings that may reflect mechanisms of critical illness brain injury.
BACKGROUND - Delirium during critical illness results from numerous insults, which might be interconnected and yet individually contribute to long-term cognitive impairment. We sought to describe the prevalence and duration of clinical phenotypes of delirium (ie, phenotypes defined by clinical risk factors) and to understand associations between these clinical phenotypes and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment.
METHODS - In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, we included adult (≥18 years) medical or surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure, shock, or both as part of two parallel studies: the Bringing to Light the Risk Factors and Incidence of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in ICU Survivors (BRAIN-ICU) study, and the Delirium and Dementia in Veterans Surviving ICU Care (MIND-ICU) study. We assessed patients at least once a day for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and identified a priori-defined, non-mutually exclusive phenotypes of delirium per the presence of hypoxia, sepsis, sedative exposure, or metabolic (eg, renal or hepatic) dysfunction. We considered delirium in the absence of hypoxia, sepsis, sedation, and metabolic dysfunction to be unclassified. 3 and 12 months after discharge, we assessed cognition with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). We used multiple linear regression to separately analyse associations between the duration of each phenotype of delirium and RBANS global cognition scores at 3-month and 12-month follow-up, adjusting for potential confounders.
FINDINGS - Between March 14, 2007, and May 27, 2010, 1048 participants were enrolled, eight of whom could not be analysed. Of 1040 participants, 708 survived to 3 months of follow-up and 628 to 12 months. Delirium was common, affecting 740 (71%) of 1040 participants at some point during the study and occurring on 4187 (31%) of all 13 434 participant-days. A single delirium phenotype was present on only 1355 (32%) of all 4187 participant-delirium days, whereas two or more phenotypes were present during 2832 (68%) delirium days. Sedative-associated delirium was most common (present during 2634 [63%] delirium days), and a longer duration of sedative-associated delirium predicted a worse RBANS global cognition score 12 months later, after adjusting for covariates (difference in score comparing 3 days vs 0 days: -4·03, 95% CI -7·80 to -0·26). Similarly, longer durations of hypoxic delirium (-3·76, 95% CI -7·16 to -0·37), septic delirium (-3·67, -7·13 to -0·22), and unclassified delirium (-4·70, -7·16 to -2·25) also predicted worse cognitive function at 12 months, whereas duration of metabolic delirium did not (1·14, -0·12 to 3·01).
INTERPRETATION - Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider sedative-associated, hypoxic, and septic delirium, which often co-occur, as distinct indicators of acute brain injury and seek to identify all potential risk factors that may impact on long-term cognitive impairment, especially those that are iatrogenic and potentially modifiable such as sedation.
FUNDING - National Institutes of Health and the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - Acute kidney injury frequently complicates critical illness and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Frailty is common in critical illness survivors, but little is known about the impact of acute kidney injury. We examined the association of acute kidney injury and frailty within a year of hospital discharge in survivors of critical illness.
DESIGN - Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study.
SETTING - Medical/surgical ICU of a U.S. tertiary care medical center.
PATIENTS - Three hundred seventeen participants with respiratory failure and/or shock.
INTERVENTIONS - None.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - Acute kidney injury was determined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes stages. Clinical frailty status was determined using the Clinical Frailty Scale at 3 and 12 months following discharge. Covariates included mean ICU Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score as well as baseline comorbidity (i.e., Charlson Comorbidity Index), kidney function, and Clinical Frailty Scale score. Of 317 patients, 243 (77%) had acute kidney injury and one in four patients with acute kidney injury was frail at baseline. In adjusted models, acute kidney injury stages 1, 2, and 3 were associated with higher frailty scores at 3 months (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.14-3.24; odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.31-4.42; and odds ratio, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.20-8.82, respectively). At 12 months, a similar association of acute kidney injury stages 1, 2, and 3 and higher Clinical Frailty Scale score was noted (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.11-3.14; odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.94-3.48; and odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.34-5.66, respectively). In supplemental and sensitivity analyses, analogous patterns of association were observed.
CONCLUSIONS - Acute kidney injury in survivors of critical illness predicted worse frailty status 3 and 12 months postdischarge. These findings have important implications on clinical decision making among acute kidney injury survivors and underscore the need to understand the drivers of frailty to improve patient-centered outcomes.
BACKGROUND - The purpose of this study is to determine if antioxidant supplementation influences the incidence of atrial arrhythmias in trauma intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - In this retrospective pre-post study, critically ill injured patients aged ≥18 years, admitted to a single-center trauma ICU for ≥48 hours were eligible for inclusion. The control group consists of patients admitted from January 2000 to September 2005, before routine antioxidant supplementation in our ICU. The antioxidant group consists of patients admitted from October 2005 to June 2011 who received an antioxidant protocol for ≥48 hours. The primary outcome is the incidence of atrial arrhythmias in the first 2 weeks of hospitalization or before discharge.
RESULTS - Of the 4699 patients, 1622 patients were in the antioxidant group and 2414 patients were in the control group. Adjusted for age, sex, year, injury severity, past medical history, and medication administration, the unadjusted incidence of atrial arrhythmias was 3.02% in the antioxidant group versus 3.31% in the control group, with no adjusted difference in atrial arrhythmias among those exposed to antioxidants (odds ratio: 1.31 [95% confidence interval: 0.46, 3.75], P = 0.62). Although there was no change in overall mortality, the expected adjusted survival of patients in those without antioxidant therapy was lower (odds ratio: 0.65 [95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.97], P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS - ICU antioxidant supplementation did not decrease the incidence of atrial arrhythmias, nor alter the time from admission to development of arrhythmia. A longer expected survival time was observed in the antioxidant group compared with the control group but without a change in overall mortality between groups.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Delirium is one of the most common behavioral manifestations of acute brain dysfunction in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is a strong predictor of worse outcome. Routine monitoring for delirium is recommended for all ICU patients using validated tools. In delirious patients, a search for all reversible precipitants is the first line of action and pharmacologic treatment should be considered when all causes have been ruled out, and it is not contraindicated. Long-term morbidity has significant consequences for survivors of critical illness and for their caregivers. ICU patients may develop posttraumatic stress disorder related to their critical illness experience.
Published by Elsevier Inc.